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Chapter 9
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which of the following was an outcome of the division of labor in early American shoe factories?

a.

Shoe production increased.

b.

Shoe production slowed.

c.

Shoe prices doubled.

d.

The supply of shoes dwindled.

2. Which of the following was an outcome of the rural outwork system of manufacturing in the 1820s and 1830s?



a.

Workers’ wages decreased.

b.

Workers’ autonomy increased.

c.

Employers lost control over their workplaces.

d.

Women were shut out of the manufacturing process.

3. Which of the following describes the new industrial system that developed in early nineteenth-century America?



a.

It brought workers together under one roof in a factory.

b.

The new system quickly replaced the rural outwork system.

c.

It eliminated any possibility that unions could organize to defend workers’ interests.

d.

The system was bitterly opposed by the many critics of industrial pollution.

4. Around the 1830s, what new form of manufacturing emerged in America?



a.

The rural outwork system

b.

Water-driven textile mills

c.

The first use of interchangeable parts

d.

The fabrication of metal products

5. By the 1830s, coal and metal manufacturers increasingly used which of the following to run machinery?



a.

Water wheels

b.

Windmills

c.

Steam engines

d.

Hand power

6. Who was the English immigrant who secretly brought the design of the most advanced British machinery for spinning cotton to America in 1789?



a.

Francis Cabot Lowell

b.

Samuel Slater

c.

Paul Moody

d.

Eli Whitney

7. In the first half of the nineteenth century, American manufacturers’ main advantage over the British mills was that they had access to which of the following?



a.

Cheaper shipping

b.

Lower interest rates

c.

More natural resources

d.

A ready supply of cheap labor

8. In the early 1800s, British textile manufacturers had which of the following advantages over their American competitors?



a.

Inexpensive energy provided by rivers and streams

b.

Government subsidies to support manufacturing

c.

A domestic supply of raw cotton

d.

A large pool of cheap labor

9. How did the federal government aid the growth of American industry in the first half of the nineteenth century?



a.

By giving tax breaks to large businesses

b.

By building canals

c.

By passing protective tariffs

d.

By prohibiting labor unions

10. Which of the following statements characterizes the emergence of the textile industry in the United States?



a.

British textile manufacturers readily sold patents for machinery and other technology to American textile mill owners.

b.

American textile mills were unable to compete with the British mills because America lacked the necessary natural resources.

c.

American men apprenticed in England to learn textile industrial technology and return as master textile mechanics.

d.

Using British textile machinery as their model, American textile producers built their own textile mills in New England and ultimately improved on British technology.

11. Which of the following statements describes the American Waltham plan, which was later known as the Lowell system?



a.

The plan created the world’s first comprehensive textile factory.

b.

Its creators recruited farm girls and women to work in factories.

c.

Waltham factory owners received one of 1,000 patents offered for new inventions.

d.

Despite their efforts, the Waltham factory owners could not compete with their English rivals.

12. Which of these describes the experiences of the young women who worked in the New England textile mills in the 1820s and 1830s?



a.

Free from family supervision, these women experimented with drinking and dating.

b.

They were able to save their wages for later use or to help out their families.

c.

Mill girls lived regimented lives with scarcely any personal freedom or independence.

d.

They often ended up as prostitutes because of the demoralization and irregularity of mill work.

13. How did Thomas Jefferson respond to the development of American manufacturing by the 1820s?



a.

Jefferson took a theoretical interest in industrial machinery but was indifferent to its practical application.

b.

He continued to warn against the danger of encouraging industrialization at the expense of wholesome rural life.

c.

He praised industrialization and expressed pride in American progress in manufacturing.

d.

Jefferson enthusiastically supported industrialization from the time of his presidency until his death.

14. Which American principle played a critical role in advancing technology in the early days of the American Industrial Revolution?



a.

American ingenuity

b.

Separation of church and state

c.

Republican motherhood

d.

Democracy

15. The most critical contribution American mechanics made to the Industrial Revolution was the development of which of the following?



a.

Machine tools

b.

The steam engine

c.

Cotton-spinning machines

d.

The flying shuttle loom

16. Which of the following was an outcome of the American Industrial Revolution in the early nineteenth century?



a.

American businesses soon dominated in many European markets.

b.

Increasing numbers of white Americans became self-employed.

c.

Labor unions became the government-sanctioned voice for the working class.

d.

Skilled craftsmen found their talents in great demand.

17. Which of the following was one of the ways that wageworkers strove to resist their bosses’ efforts to control their nonwork lives in the early to mid-nineteenth century?



a.

With their wives, they organized protests against bosses’ rules.

b.

They built a robust workers’ culture that preserved their autonomy outside work.

c.

Workers came to work late, left early, and dragged out their lunch and coffee breaks.

d.

They defined themselves as artisans who deserved the same treatment as their employers.

18. How did the spread of industrialization in the United States during the 1820s and 1830s affect skilled artisans?



a.

As machines changed the nature of their work, shoemakers, hatters, printers, furniture makers, and weavers faced declining income, job insecurity, and loss of status.

b.

They tried, but usually failed, to avoid the regimentation of factory work by moving to small towns or by setting up small, specialized shops that catered to a limited market.

c.

Employers and the courts blocked all their efforts to form craft unions in order to seek higher wages and better working conditions.

d.

The wave of strikes that broke out in 1836 were put down by armed federal troops on orders from President Jackson.

19. The concept that the price of a product should reflect the work required to make it is known as



a.

socialism.

b.

capitalism.

c.

the outwork system.

d.

the labor theory of value.

20. Who replaced the Lowell Mill workers when they refused in the 1830s to work until conditions improved?



a.

Women workers

b.

Irish immigrants

c.

German immigrants

d.

Free blacks

21. Which of these factors was the critical stimulus for the growth of domestic American markets in the first half of the nineteenth century?



a.

An increase in the number of large factories

b.

Better transportation networks

c.

The national bank’s loan policy

d.

The national government’s economic subsidies

22. The transformation that occurred as American factories and farms turned out more goods, and merchants and legislators created faster and cheaper ways to get those products to consumers, was known as which of the following?



a.

The Market Revolution

b.

The Consumer Revolution

c.

The Technological Revolution

d.

The Economic Revolution

23. Why did Congress approve funds for the construction of the National Road in 1806?



a.

To link midwestern settlers to the seaboard states

b.

To connect the manufacturing cities in the South

c.

To connect midwestern settlers’ communities with each other

d.

To provide a route for settlement of territory on the West coast

24. For which of the following reasons did New York’s state government fund the building of the Erie Canal in 1817?



a.

The state was required to provide publicly funded jobs to the state’s unemployed workers.

b.

New Yorkers sought to link the Hudson River with the Great Lakes.

c.

New York City needed to increase its supply of fresh drinking water.

d.

The governor wanted to display the states’ wealth to the rest of the world.

25. How did the appearance of canals and steamboats in the United States affect the flow of goods and information during the 1830s?



a.

By 1840, farmers could to ship ten times as much flour as they could in 1835.

b.

The canals and steamboats cut in half most travel and communication time.

c.

Newspapers, mail, and business communications traveled five times faster than a decade earlier.

d.

Canals and steamboats had little effect on the nation’s economic development.

26. The construction of the Erie Canal, the first great engineering project in American history, was successful for which of the following reasons?



a.

The federal government provided financial backing for the project.

b.

It followed the same mountain passes as the National Road.

c.

The canal charged only minor fees for its toll bridges, making its use profitable.

d.

It increased the speed of shipping and travel while greatly lowering its cost.

27. The construction of the Erie Canal had which of the following negative consequences?



a.

It hurt the prosperity of central and western New York because travelers could easily bypass those areas.

b.

The cost of travel on the canal was so high that in many cases the trip was unprofitable.

c.

The construction of the canal and its heavy use altered the ecology of the entire region.

d.

Although it was a great engineering project, the income generated by the canal never paid for its construction.

28. In the 1824 U.S. Supreme Court case Gibbons v. Ogden, the Marshall Court’s decision



a.

reaffirmed the concept of state control over interstate commerce.

b.

reaffirmed the concept of county or city control over interstate commerce.

c.

permitted local or state monopolies if they benefited the common good.

d.

overturned New York law that granted a monopoly on steamboat travel into New York City.

29. Which of the following replaced canals as the primary form of transportation in the United States in the nineteenth century?



a.

An improved network of national roads

b.

Railroads

c.

Steamboats

d.

The Pony Express

30. Which of these inventions spurred the growth of agriculture in the Midwest in the 1840s?



a.

The cotton gin

b.

The steel plow

c.

Corn feeding for livestock

d.

The steamboat

31. Which of the following factors explained the rapid growth of western cities such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and New Orleans?



a.

Their role in transportation networks

b.

Their location on the fall line

c.

Proximity to abundant coal supplies

d.

Proximity to major American banks

32. Which inventor is properly matched with the item he invented?



a.

Cyrus McCormick—the Clermont

b.

Samuel Colt—interchangeable parts

c.

Eli Whitney—the reaper

d.

John Deere—the steel plow

33. Through which of the following sources did the U.S. Treasury raise most of its revenue during the first half of the 1800s?



a.

Personal income taxes

b.

Tariffs on imported goods

c.

Corporate taxes

d.

Excise taxes

34. Which of these did elite Americans embrace after the Industrial Revolution in order to set themselves apart from other groups of Americans?



a.

Conspicuous displays of their wealth through clothing and housing

b.

The duty to enforce moral and mental discipline in American communities

c.

Philanthropic causes

d.

Unitarianism

35. Which of the following Puritan ideas became a middle-class conviction with a secular twist during industrialization in the early 1800s?



a.

Predestination

b.

The Protestant work ethic

c.

Covenant thinking

d.

Creation of a society based on faith and ideals

36. Which of the following was the message of Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography, published in full in 1818?



a.

His personal belief that men from the lower classes could not raise themselves from poverty

b.

The suggestion that an industrious man could become wealthy

c.

His belief that only the display of wealth through clothing and housing mattered

d.

The lesson that men’s hard work was a waste of effort and accomplished nothing

37. Between 1820 and 1840, the economic conditions for casual day laborers in American cities changed in which of the following ways?



a.

Conditions improved because they were in high demand and gained greater geographical mobility.

b.

Their economic conditions held steady, neither improving nor worsening.

c.

Casual day laborers bore the brunt of unemployment during business depressions.

d.

They improved slightly but only because of high levels of middle-class charity.

38. By the 1830s, most laborers in the urban Northeast lived in which type of residences?



a.

Barracks provided by factory owners

b.

Private slum shanties

c.

Church-sponsored charity houses

d.

Crowded boardinghouses and tiny apartments

39. How did middle-class reformers attempt to overcome disorder and lawlessness among urban wage earners in early nineteenth-century America?



a.

By supporting political reforms that were designed to help disadvantaged families survive adversity

b.

By forming regional and national organizations to institutionalize charity and combat crime systematically

c.

By establishing missions to bring their messages of moral purity and self-discipline to the poor

d.

By ignoring social problems and concentrated on improving the behavior of their children and household servants

40. To which of the following causes did Isabella Graham and Joanna Bethune contribute in the early nineteenth century?



a.

Assisting widows and orphans

b.

Temperance

c.

Moral reform

d.

Woman’s rights

41. Charles Grandison Finney found success as a young revivalist preacher in the 1820s by emphasizing which of the following issues in his sermons?



a.

Workers’ need for higher wages

b.

Poor children’s need for better schools

c.

The importance of personal conversion

d.

Religious justifications for slavery

42. Which concept promoted by the Second Great Awakening reinforced its push for societal reform?



a.

Free moral agency

b.

The importance of group prayer meetings

c.

Nativism

d.

Evangelism

43. Which of the following statements describes workers’ approach to alcohol consumption in the 1820s?



a.

Many workers used alcohol as an escape from the routine of work but also drank in their workplaces.

b.

Most workers adhered to the traditional schedule of 11 A.M. and 4 P.M. “refreshers” but otherwise avoided drinking on the job.

c.

Most laborers did their heavy drinking alone at home because the authorities in many cities succeeded in closing down saloons.

d.

Most laboring men were required to abstain from alcohol when they joined craft unions.

44. Through which of the following movements did evangelical reformers succeed in effecting substantial legal and cultural transformations in early nineteenth-century America?



a.

Prison reform

b.

Prostitution

c.

Immigration reform

d.

Temperance

45. Which of the following describes German immigrants who settled in the United States during the 1840s and 1850s?



a.

Fewer Germans immigrated to the United States than did Irish and British migrants.

b.

Nearly all Germans were poor and settled in cities because they could not afford more travel.

c.

Germans were the second largest immigrant group and many settled in the midwestern states.

d.

The Germans led urban riots against the Irish and black populations of cities.

46. Which of the following characterizes patterns of immigration into the United States during the 1840s and 1850s?



a.

Most immigrants settled in the South to take advantage of jobs in industry and agriculture.

b.

Most of the Irish who arrived in the United States were poverty-stricken peasants.

c.

The largest group of immigrants arriving came from eastern and southern Europe.

d.

The poorest immigrants arriving in the United States came from Wales and Scotland.

47. What killed thousands of poor immigrants in St. Louis and New York City in the summer of 1849?



a.

Malnutrition

b.

Anti-immigrant riots

c.

Cholera

d.

Fire

48. During the 1840s and 1850s, Roman Catholic churches in the United States were known for



a.

providing community services and a sense of group identity for most Irish and many German immigrants.

b.

loosening many of their ties to the Church in Rome in hopes of gaining more American converts.

c.

emphasizing their spiritual functions while neglecting secular matters such as politics and economics.

d.

closing their doors to immigrants in order to protect themselves against nativist violence and bad publicity.

49. Roman Catholic immigration into the United States in the 1840s had which of the following effects?



a.

The influx of thousands of large Catholic families burdened public schools.

b.

Protestants’ rejection of their new Catholic coworkers undercut trade unionism.

c.

Known for their sober ways, Irish and German immigrants fully supported the temperance movement.

d.

Catholics’ moral values and model behavior altered Protestants’ negative stereotypes.

50. Nativist fears were directed mostly at which of the following groups in early and mid-nineteenth-century America?



a.

Women

b.

Irish immigrants

c.

Native Americans

d.

Free blacks

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