Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. During the 19th and 20th centuries, a number of textile mills were constructed in the upstate of South Carolina



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Name_________________ Date__________
Standard 5: PASS Review
Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. During the 19th and 20th centuries, a number of textile mills were constructed in the upstate of South Carolina. Which specific characteristic of the land made this location desirable for the textile industry?


a.

Cities like Greenville and Spartanburg had easy access to major ports, which made it easy to ship items overseas.


b.

Most of South Carolina's cotton was grown in the upstate, so it made sense to build textile mills there.


c.

The land was flat, which made building textile mills easy.


d.

There were plenty of fast-flowing rivers and streams in the area to power the textile mills.

____ 2. According to the 2000 census, seven of the top ten most populated cities in South Carolina are located east of Columbia (the center of the state). Five of them (Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, and Hilton Head Island) are located less than ten miles from the Atlantic Ocean.


Based on these statistics, South Carolina's most urban areas are located in which geographical region?


a.

The Blue Ridge Mountains


b.

The Upstate


c.

The Piedmont Plateau


d.

The Coastal Plains

____ 3. In the early 18th century, the city of Charleston became one of the leading port cities in the country. It remains a major port city today.


Which of the following geographic features of Charleston makes it such an effective port city?


a.

Charleston is close to the Atlantic Ocean, so goods can arrive to the port from anywhere in the world.


b.

It rarely snows in Charleston, so the docks can stay open all year long.


c.

Charleston is located in the center of the state, making it a logical place for shipping goods across the state and nation.


d.

Charleston is one of the industrial centers of the nation, so it is important that the goods produced in the city can be shipped to other areas of the world.

____ 4. Based on South Carolina's location compared to other states within the United States, which of the following statements is true?




a.

In recent years, South Carolina has been a leader in monitoring its borders to limit illegal immigration from Mexico.


b.

Along with other states in the Midwest, South Carolina is known for its rich farmland (mainly used to grow corn) and highly industrialized centers.


c.

After the Civil War, South Carolina was associated with the "Old South," and today it is often connected with the "Deep South."


d.

South Carolina's population increased dramatically in the early 1800s when people began to settle the Western Frontier.

____ 5. By the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution was having an impact all over the world. However, it began in the early 1700s when new factories were constructed and major innovations were made in this country:




a.

China

b.

United States

c.

Russia

d.

England

____ 6. The 1840s brought the first signs that South Carolina was switching from an agricultural state to an industrial one. Industry first began to thrive in South Carolina in which of the following fields?




a.

Steel

b.

Chemicals

c.

Textiles

d.

Firearms

____ 7. During the 19th century, many Americans believed in the concept of Manifest Destiny. Which of the following gives the best description for this idea?




a.

The American people can live side by side with the Native Americans without either group having to move from its homeland or change its way of life.

b.

The American people have disturbed the natural order of things by moving West, and should try to settle only on lands East of the Mississippi River.

c.

The American people should travel to other continents and try to spread their "American Values" across the world.

d.

The American people have the right (and the duty) to occupy the entire American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

____ 8. Which of the following statements is true about the population changes in areas West of the Mississippi River between 1820 and 1860.




a.

The population drastically increased because there was plenty of wide-open land where Americans could settle and start a new life.

b.

The population drastically decreased because gold was discovered along the Atlantic coast, and thousands of Americans headed east to make a fortune.

c.

The population drastically increased because the West developed into the industrial center of the country.

d.

The population drastically decreased because violent Native American attacks chased away new settlers.

____ 9. During the 1840s, thousands of Americans packed up their belongings and headed West. Of course, traveling 3,000 miles across the country was not an easy task.


How did most Americans make the trip during that decade?


a.

They traveled on large ships down the Atlantic Ocean, across the Panama Canal, and up the Pacific Ocean to California.

b.

They traveled by boat or ferry along the Missouri River and then down the Colorado River.

c.

They traveled in caravans of covered-wagons along wagon trails.

d.

They traveled on the newly constructed Transcontinental Railroad.

____ 10. In 1853, a political party named the American Party formed to protest the large number of immigrants coming to the United States. This party was so secret about their organization that the public referred to it as the:




a.

Covert Operation

b.

Secret Society

c.

Hush-Hush Club

d.

Know-Nothing Party

____ 11. In 1876, Wade Hampton III became governor of South Carolina. His supporters referred to themselves as "Redeemers" because:




a.

they claimed that they had "redeemed" the state from the limitations of agriculture, and were going to turn South Carolina into a powerful industrial center.

b.

claimed that they had "redeemed" the state from the poverty and violence that existed during the early 1800s.

c.

they claimed that they had "redeemed" the African American population in South Carolina, which would still be slaves if they had not fought in the Civil War.

d.

they claimed that they had "redeemed" the state from the fraud and dishonesty of the Republican Party during Reconstruction.

____ 12. What was the purpose of the new set of "Black Codes", or Jim Crow Laws, that existed in South Carolina during the late 19th century?




a.

To help small farmers purchase new equipment.

b.

To promote the construction of textile mills around the state.

c.

To restrict the rights of African Americans.

d.

To protect religious freedom.

____ 13. During the second half of the 19th century, the United States underwent an economic transformation. The value of manufactured goods produced in America increased over four times. This change was a byproduct of the:




a.

Progressive Movement

b.

Industrial Revolution

c.

Scientific Revolution

d.

Enlightenment

____ 14. In 1870, a person living in Charleston (on the coast) wanted to send a message to a person living in Greenville (in the Upstate). Which method was the fastest way to send information at the time?




a.

The Internet

b.

Telegraph

c.

Pony Express

d.

Telephone

____ 15. To encourage farmers to settle in the West, Congress passed the Homestead Act of 1862. What did the Act do to persuade farmers to relocate to the Western part of the country?




a.

It gave settlers new land at no cost if they lived on it for five years and used it for a productive purpose.

b.

It legalized slavery in the West, but only in territories that did not participate in the Civil War.

c.

It allowed farmers to charge a "toll" to any traveler who needed to cross his land while traveling across the country.

d.

It raised taxes on land in the East, making it virtually impossible for farmers to remain there and still make a profit.

____ 16. Which of the following is true about the population of Native Americans in the decades that followed the Civil War?




a.

The Native American population increased rapidly because the federal government allowed them to claim the unsettled lands in the West.

b.

The Native American population continued to decline, and those that remained were forced to live on reservations.

c.

The Native American population declined as a whole, but the population of Natives living East of the Mississippi River grew rapidly.

d.

The Native American population steadily increased because the white settlers no longer viewed the Natives as a threat.

____ 17. As Big Business began to thrive in America during the late 18th century, employees often tried to maintain power by joining together in a "Union." One of the most powerful weapons of the Union was the "strike."


During a strike, employees:


a.

increase working hours to prove their value to the company.

b.

stop working until management agrees to certain demands.

c.

sabotage equipment to hinder a company's production.

d.

turns over all of their pay checks to reporters so that they will support their cause in the newspapers.

____ 18. There was a rebirth of Confederate pride in South Carolina during the early 1880s. Civil War veterans were honored as heroes, and many citizens began referring to the Civil War as the:




a.

"War to End all Wars"

b.

"Great War"

c.

"Lost Cause"

d.

"The War for the Union"

____ 19. Which of the following statements is true about changes in the immigrant population of American during the late 1800s?




a.

Immigrant population decreased rapidly as American citizens protested the rise of crime brought in by new immigrants.

b.

Immigrant population increased rapidly, especially in the rural areas where immigrants bought large tracts of land to use for farming.

c.

Immigrant population decreased rapidly as the economic conditions in Europe improved faster than they did in America.

d.

Immigrant population increased rapidly, especially in the large cities where factories offered plenty of employment.

____ 20. Formed in 1869, the Knights of Labor was one of the first successful labor unions in the United States. Which of the following describes the main purpose of labor unions?




a.

To provide companies with new technology and more effective working strategies.

b.

To keep employees from abusing the privileges provided by the management of a company.

c.

To improve conditions for workers.

d.

To help companies hire the right workers for the job.

____ 21. During the 1880s, "poll taxes" and "literacy tests" were added to the voting procedure in South Carolina for which of the following reasons?




a.

To encourage people to take an active interest in the political campaign before voting.

b.

To insure that the educated people who tallied the votes were chosen and paid correctly.

c.

To keep corrupt individuals from tampering with the vote.

d.

To make it difficult for poor African Americans to vote.

____ 22. Which of the following describes South Carolina Governor Wade Hampton's policies towards African Americans during the late 1870s?




a.

Wade Hampton worked to give African Americans full equality, both politically and socially.

b.

Wade Hampton did not completely favor equality for African Americans, but his policies were less violent and hurtful than most other Conservatives.

c.

Wade Hampton was one of the most racist governors in South Carolina's history, and he did everything he could to take political power away from African Americans

d.

Wade Hampton did not want African Americans serving in public office, but he did believe that all Black Codes (and / or "Jim Crow Laws") should be eliminated.

____ 23. Prior to the 20th century, the people of South Carolina did not have automobiles, and few roads existed in the rural areas. Of course, people still needed to shop for food and clothing.


Which of the following describes where poor farmers would have most likely shopped?


a.

over the internet

b.

at a country store

c.

in a large department store

d.

most items were bought from door to door salesmen

____ 24. Which of the following is NOT an explanation for the major population shifts in South Carolina during the late 19th and early 20th centuries?




a.

African Americans left the state to escape continued racial tensions.

b.

Prospectors traveled to South Carolina after hearing rumors of gold being discovered in the Blue Ridge Mountains.

c.

Small farmers moved from rural areas to growing towns to find work in the textile mills.

d.

Many northerners came south to build winter homes in the milder climate of South Carolina.

____ 25. During the late 19th century, many South Carolinians moved from one part of the state to another. Which of the following would be a likely scenario for this move?




a.

A man moves from the city into a rural community so that his children can receive a better education in the public schools.

b.

A man is struggling on the farm, so he moves his family near a textile mill to find work in a factory.

c.

A man moves his family to a large house near the city because he has made a fortune on his small farm.

d.

A man moves his family out into the rural areas because he is tired of life in the big city.

____ 26. A number of textile mills were built in South Carolina during the late 1800s. Which of the following is NOT a reason why this development took place?




a.

South Carolina could not rely solely on agriculture to maintain its economy--it needed industry, as well.

b.

Advances in the textile industry made building mills a profitable investment.

c.

South Carolina had a large workforce willing to move away from the farms and work in the mills.

d.

South Carolina had a long tradition of building factories and supporting industrial growth.

____ 27. A sharecropper is a farm worker who does not receive any money for his work. Instead, he is paid with a share of the crops that he helped grow. Why did many African Americans accept this kind of an arrangement during the late 1800s?




a.

People agreed to be sharecroppers in order to avoid having to work in the factories.

b.

Sharecroppers were treated better than paid employees.

c.

There were so few paying jobs for African Americans that they were willing to accept any kind of work they could find.

d.

Crops (such as cotton and tobacco) were more valuable than money.

____ 28. A number of natural disasters struck Charleston in the late 19th century. Which of the following best explains why the "earthquake of 1886" and the "hurricane of 1893" were so damaging to the city and the surrounding areas?




a.

The city had never experienced an earthquake or a hurricane before.

b.

The natural disasters caused a great deal of damage in an area that was still trying to recover from the Civil War and Reconstruction.

c.

The natural disasters reduced the cost of real estate in the area, and the value never recovered.

d.

The city relied heavily on tourism at the time, and the natural disasters kept people from traveling there.

____ 29. Which of the following statements is most likely true about a man who worked in a textile mill during the late 1800s?




a.

He worked only a few hours each day because the textile mills only operated in the early morning.

b.

He lived in an extremely rural area, sometimes more than a mile away from his nearest neighbor.

c.

He lived in a mill town that was near the textile factory, and the local church, school, and store had ties to the mill.

d.

He worked outside on most days, except when it was rainy or very cold.

____ 30. Team sports like baseball and basketball became popular in America during the late 19th century. How were these games usually played in South Carolina during this time?




a.

Mill towns created their own teams, and then competed against teams from neighboring mills.

b.

Team sports were rarely played in urban areas because it was too crowded, but they were very common on the farms in rural areas.

c.

Team sports like baseball and basketball were not played at all because they were forbidden by the church.

d.

Professional teams played in the major cities (like Charleston and Columbia) in front of huge crowds.

____ 31. In 1880, a person traveling from Charleston, South Carolina, to another major city in the South would most likely use which of the following types of transportation?




a.

railroad train

b.

airplane

c.

passenger bus

d.

automobile

____ 32. During the late 1800s, the average public school in rural South Carolina would probably be best described by which of the following?




a.

nothing--there was no public education in South Carolina during the late 1800s

b.

a small rural farm house (most of the time, teachers were brought into the home to teach the children)

c.

a large office building with electricity, running water, and the best technology of the time

d.

a one or two room building with no electricity

____ 33. Many of the business leaders of the late 1800s believed in the theory of Social Darwinism. Which of the following describes the basic idea of this theory?




a.

It is impossible to adjust to the changes in society, and success can only be attributed to "luck."

b.

The only way for people to succeed is for everyone to cooperate with one another.

c.

The only way to succeed is to be immoral and dishonest, and the "good" people always suffer.

d.

The most talented and capable people will change with the times and prosper, while those who don't adjust will fall behind.

____ 34. Unlike Social Darwinists, who believed in "survival of the fittest," Reform Darwinists believed that:




a.

Real progress is made through cooperation, not competition.

b.

The most economically successful people in society are also the most honest and caring.

c.

Competition brings out the best in people, and will ultimately benefit everyone.

d.

The poorer members of society are usually the laziest and least intelligent.

____ 35. Prior to the Civil War, South Carolina was primarily an agricultural state. However, during the late 19th centuries a few industries began to thrive, such as:




a.

textiles, phosphate mining, wood products

b.

oil refining, phosphate mining, automobiles

c.

oil refining, steel mills, wood products

d.

steel mills, automobiles, textiles

____ 36. The population in America's "Big Cities" soared during the 1880s and 1890s, and this common sight also became common in places like New York and Chicago:




a.

"skyscrapers" (this includes any buildings over 5 stories high)

b.

subway system (a method of underground public transportation)

c.

gasoline-powered automobiles (most people living in the city owned their own car)

d.

airports (travel by airplane became popular, but only very large cities had airports)

____ 37. In the midst of the Populist Movement in South Carolina, "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman easily won the 1890 election for governor. Who were his main supporters?




a.

Textile workers

b.

The Charleston elite

c.

African Americans

d.

Poor, white farmers

____ 38. In 1866, farmers across America formed the Patrons of Husbandry, or the "Grange." What was the purpose of this organization?




a.

To help children in rural areas receive an education that focused on more than just farming and agriculture.

b.

To help farmers make the transition from an agricultural lifestyle to an industrial lifestyle.

c.

To represent farmers as a group and make their voices heard in government.

d.

To bring back the institution of slavery.

____ 39. The key goals of the People's Party, founded in 1892, were to create more money (to help cash flow) and regulate the railroads. The party promised to look out for the needs of farmers and laborers, and became widely known as the:




a.

Imperialist Party

b.

Democratic Party

c.

Populist Party

d.

Progressive Party

____ 40. In 1896, the controversial Supreme Court case known as Plessy v. Ferguson set the country back several decades because it upheld the laws of:




a.

Slavery

b.

Segregation

c.

Yellow Journalism

d.

Prohibition

____ 41. Prior to the Spanish-American War, the major newspapers in the United States often printed outrageous headlines and stories just to sell more papers. This type of reporting is known as:




a.

Creative License

b.

Writer's Block

c.

Yellow Journalism

d.

Censorship

____ 42. During the Spanish-American War, the phrase, "Remember the Maine," became a familiar battle cry. What event did this slogan refer to?




a.

A surprise attack on the state of Maine by Spanish soldiers

b.

The first shots fired during the war, which came from the battleship Maine.

c.

The sinking of the battleship Maine in Cuba

d.

The first regiment to fight in the Spanish-American War, which were previously stationed in the state of Maine.

____ 43. The laws of segregation defined South Carolina during the first half of the 20th century. Which of the following is an example of segregation?




a.

black children learning to speak English even if their native language is Gullah

b.

black and white children attending different schools

c.

families being allowed to send children to any school within the county limits

d.

companies being forced to hire black employees even if they are not qualified for the job

____ 44. Upon his death on April 12, 1888, Thomas Green Clemson donated a huge portion of his land to the state of South Carolina. He wanted the state to build a college (which became Clemson University) that was dedicated to the field of:




a.

agriculture

b.

journalism

c.

textiles

d.

civil rights

____ 45. As Benjamin Tillman campaigned for governor in 1890, he often hosted outdoor public debates where candidates delivered their speeches on tree stumps. These rallies became known as:




a.

televised debates

b.

primary elections

c.

stump meetings

d.

inaugural addresses

____ 46. During the late 1800s, it was not uncommon for a mob to violently attack an African American (or an entire African American family), often resulting in the death of the victim. These racially motivated attacks were known as:




a.

anarchism

b.

racial rebellions

c.

race baiting

d.

lynchings

____ 47. Which of the following describes Benjamin Tillman's views on race during the 1890 election for governor of South Carolina?




a.

Tillman believed that blacks and whites were equal, and that they should be treated equally under the law.

b.

Tillman did not believe that blacks and whites were equal, but he did want to end the laws of segregation.

c.

Tillman did not believe that blacks were equal to whites, and the law should not treat them that way.

d.

Tillman believed that blacks and whites were equal, but he felt that segregation was what the African American community wanted because it limitied violence.

____ 48. The Spanish-American War was fought because nations in Europe and the United States were trying to expand their political control over other countries in the world. This trend, which existed throughout the 19th century, is known as:




a.

nationalism

b.

globalism

c.

sectionalism

d.

imperialism

____ 49. In the late 1885, Benjamin Tillman gained instant popularity after giving a speech in Bennettsville, South Carolina. Over the next decade, Tillman became one of the most influential men in the state by supporting issues such as:




a.

a stronger state militia, more funding for the Citadel, and the recruitment of African Americans into the military.

b.

the end of segregation, more education for African Americans, and equal employment opportunities for all races.

c.

the construction of an agricultural college, annual meetings for farmers, and new laws that helped farmers get out of debt.

d.

the construction of an industrial college, new textile mills, and laws that helped recruit new industries to the state.

____ 50. In the 1890s, the South Carolina legislature created the Dispensary for which of the following purposes?




a.

To end the violence of racial segregation

b.

To provide debt relief to farmers

c.

To encourage northern industries to move into the state

d.

To control the sale of alcoholic beverages

____ 51. South Carolina is a "two-party state", where both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party have strong representation. From the late-1800s until after World War II, however, the majority of powerful politicians in South Carolina were part of the:




a.

Dixiecrat Party

b.

Republican Party

c.

Communist Party

d.

Democratic Party

____ 52. Much of the land in South Carolina's Up Country was worn out during the 19th and early 20th centuries due to:




a.

heavy tobacco production.

b.

destructive storms.

c.

forest fires.

d.

heavy cotton production.

____ 53. Between the years 1845 and 1854, the largest group of immigrants arriving in America came from:




a.

Mexico

b.

Ireland

c.

China

d.

Germany

____ 54. 1n 1849, thousands of people flocked to California in search of:




a.

silk.

b.

oil.

c.

diamonds.

d.

gold.

____ 55. After his supporters spent several months launching a "Red Shirt" campaign, this man was elected as South Carolina governor in the controversial 1876 election.




a.

Ben Tillman

b.

Rutherford B. Hayes

c.

Daniel Chamberlain

d.

Wade Hampton III

____ 56. Passed by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1882, the Eight-Box Law was written in order to reduce the:




a.

African-American vote.

b.

women's vote.

c.

poor white vote.

d.

immigrant vote.

____ 57. John D. Rockefeller made a fortune in the late 1800s by working with which of the following products?




a.

railroads

b.

oil

c.

telephones

d.

steam engines

____ 58. Which of the following is a main reason why the United States allowed a new wave of immigrants to enter the country during the late 19th century?




a.

The country's population was in a sharp decline.

b.

Large industries in the North needed labor.

c.

The federal government needed more tax revenue.

d.

Agriculture in the South needed labor.

____ 59. Although they had limited success, South Carolina leaders of the late 1800s attempted to replace the loss of slave labor by attracting:




a.

scalawags.

b.

Native Americans.

c.

immigrants.

d.

carpetbaggers.

____ 60. During the late 18th and early 19th century, approximately 80% of the cotton textile mills in South Carolina were built in the:




a.

Lowcountry

b.

Sandhills Region along the Fall Line

c.

Piedmont and Upstate

d.

Inner and Outer Coastal Plains

____ 61. During the late 1800s, the majority of South Carolina's workers still made their living by:




a.

working on farms.

b.

working for the railroads.

c.

working in the fertilizer industry.

d.

working in textile mills.

____ 62. Under the tenant farming system started in the late 19th century, the major contribution that the tenant farmer gave was his:




a.

crop seed.

b.

land.

c.

labor.

d.

equipment.

____ 63. The events of 1910 and 1911 from which few South Carolina rice farmers ever recovered were major:




a.

hurricanes.

b.

wild fires.

c.

tornadoes.

d.

insect infestations.

____ 64. By 1900, 62% of all farmers in South Carolina were:




a.

using tractors instead of mules to plow fields.

b.

tenant farmers.

c.

large plantation owners.

d.

growing tobacco as a cash crop.

____ 65. Oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller said that "the growth of large business is merely survival of the fittest." Which of the following is consistent with Rockefeller's opinion?




a.

Progressivism

b.

Reform Darwinism

c.

Populism

d.

Social Darwinism

____ 66. Second only to North Carolina, 99.5% of South Carolina's population in 1880 was which of the following?




a.

African American

b.

Native born

c.

Foreign born

d.

Immigrants

____ 67. In 1890, the average farm in South Carolina was 143 acres in size. This meant that:




a.

there was less cotton being grown.

b.

the old plantation system was still thriving.

c.

there was less land to cultivate.

d.

the old plantation system no longer dominated agriculture.

____ 68. In the 1890s, Benjamin Tillman supported the Shell Manifesto, which called for an end of:




a.

Democratic rule in South Carolina.

b.

Populist rule in South Carolina.

c.

Conservative rule in South Carolina.

d.

Progressive rule in South Carolina.

____ 69. Jim Crow Laws regulated the way that the white population interacted with the African American community. They were designed to:




a.

equalize the races.

b.

ignore racial differences.

c.

separate the races.

d.

unite the races.

____ 70. Which of the following features of the South Carolina Constitution of 1895 had the most impact on the majority of people in South Carolina?




a.

It restricted the freedom of African Americans.

b.

It created a stronger Executive Branch of government.

c.

It supported industrial workers over agricultural workers.

d.

It equalized the three branches of state government.

____ 71. Started in April 1898, the Spanish-American War lasted for:




a.

4 years.

b.

4 months.

c.

4 weeks.

d.

4 days.

____ 72. The People's Party--or the Populist Party--appealed mainly to which of the following groups?




a.

African Americans

b.

The Rich

c.

Farmers

d.

Textile workers

____ 73. For over a decade after the end of Reconstruction, the Conservative Party was in control of South Carolina's government. Which of the following men gained a following that overthrew the rule of the Conservatives?




a.

Benjamin Ryan Tillman

b.

Richard Manning

c.

James F. Byrnes

d.

Wade Hampton

____ 74. In 1886, Charleston, South Carolina, was struck by which of the following disasters?




a.

Flood

b.

Earthquake

c.

Hurricane

d.

Epidemic

____ 75. Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901 because which of the following events occurred?




a.

President McKinley resigned.

b.

President McKinley was removed from office in a "recall election."

c.

President McKinley was impeached.

d.

President McKinley was assassinated.

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