MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) The papal bull Unam Sanctam declared that:
A) only strong monarchies could fulfill the Christian gospel.
B) the Holy Roman Emperor could establish national churches in his realm.
C) only men could be priests.
D) temporal authority was "subject" to the spiritual power of the Church.
E) a new crusade was necessary in order to unify European spiritually.
2) The Black Death:
A) was preceded by a gradual decline in population.
B) is thought by most scholars to be a form of smallpox.
C) was preceded by years of famine that weakened the populace.
D) followed the trade routes into Europe from England.
E) devastated primarily the rural population of Europe.
3) The use of this medieval weapon proved to give the English the tactical advantage in the 100 years war:
C) primitive firearms.
4) All of the following are true of the Hundred Years' War EXCEPT:
A) It was a struggle for national identity.
B) It was launched when England's Edward III claimed the French throne.
C) It ended with a decisive English victory.
D) It changed the political systems of both France and England.
E) It was caused by long-standing rivalries and animosities between England and France.
5) Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague?
C) urban elites
E) noble landowners
6) In the mid-fourteenth century, France had:
A) twice the population of England, but was much poorer.
B) about the same population of England, but was much poorer.
C) split from the Roman Catholic Church.
D) three times the population of England and was much richer.
E) half the population of England.
7) What two groups were the traditional "containers" or "limiters"of monarchy?
A) the laity and landed nobility
B) the peasantry and laity
C) the church and urban elites
D) landed nobility and the church
E) the church and the laity
8) The primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years' War was:
A) internal disunity.
B) that they were a "modern" state fighting a feudal society.
C) poor military strategy.
D) superior English financial resources.
E) deficient numbers in the military.
9) John Wycliffe:
A) was charged with the task of trying Lollards for heresy.
B) crafted works that initially served the anticlerical policies of the French government.
C) was a Cambridge theologian and philosopher.
D) believed that rank and office was the true basis of religious authority.
E) was a major intellectual spokesman for the rights of royalty against the popes.
10) Among the social and economic consequences of the bubonic plague was a/an:
A) shrunken labor supply.
B) increase in urban population.
C) decline in the price of luxury and manufactured goods.
D) rise in value of the estates of the nobility.
E) increased labor supply
11) The Great Schism was :
A) A period of time where Europe had two different Popes
B) A major earthquake that destroyed urban centers
C) The papacys move to Avingon, France
D) A result of the Councilar movement
E) Pope Boniface VIII's plan to seperate the Bible into the Old and New Testataments
12) The Black Death found its way into Europe via:
A) North Africa.
B) Asian trade routes.
C) Greenland and Iceland.
13) The Black Death refers to:
A) the famine that occurred from 1315 to 1317.
B) a heretical sect of gnostic Christians.
C) the collapse of the European economy in the 14th century.
D) a virulent plague that struck 14th century Europe.
E) a disease transmitted through African slaves.
14) Which of the following statements most aptly applies to the bull Unum Sanctum?
A) the state before the church
B) the church over the state
C) The church and state are one.
D) the people over the church
E) The church and state are separate and equal entities.
15) Boniface VIII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of monarchial authority with:
A) Charles V
B) Henry V
C) Edward I
D) Philip the Fair
E) Richard I
16) The first humanists were:
A) farmers and blacksmiths.
B) politicians and their secretaries.
C) orators and poets.
D) historians and musicians.
17) With the growing cost of warfare in the 15th and 16th centuries, monarchs needed new national sources of income and created them by taxing all of the following EXCEPT:
B) the nobility.
C) the feudal lords.
D) basic food and clothing.
E) the peasants.
18) Which of the following is most accurate?
A) Medieval and Renaissance Europe were both feudal societies that focused on an urban economy and organized commerce.
B) Medieval Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Renaissance Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization.
C) The church played little or no role in Renaissance Europe.
D) Renaissance Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Medieval Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization.
E) Renaissance Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Medieval Europe was characterized by an urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism.
19) Humanism prepared the way for educational and religious reforms in all of the following countries EXCEPT:
A) France. B) Germany. C) England. D) Russia. E) Spain.
20) By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled:
A) present-day California.
B) present-day Florida.
C) central Mexico and Guatemala.
D) eastern Peru.
21) Ludovico of Milan's fatal mistake was that he:
A) sold the city of Milan to the French without proper authority.
B) disregarded the threat posed by Milan and supported by Florence, and denied French aid or assistance.
C) appealed to the French for help and invited them to reenter Italy and revive their dynastic claim to Naples.
D) claimed Naples for himself, as king, and disregarded French dynastic claims to rule.
E) spurned all attempts by the French to forge an alliance with Milan.
22) Over the second half of the 15th century, this nation delivered 150,000 slaves to Europe:
A) England. B) Spain. C) Italy. D) Portugal. E) France.
23) Defender of Peace, written by Marsilius of Padua, depicted the pope as:
A) a subordinate member of society, over which the emperor ruled.
B) the Anti-Christ.
C) a Christ-like figure who was elected to save the world from its wickedness.
D) the king of kings.
E) the supreme ruler.
24) Cosimo de' Medici brought stability to this city after his rise to power in 1434.
A) Naples B) Milan C) Rome D) Florence E) Venice
25) Who protested the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon?
A) Portugal and Italy
B) France and Portugal
C) Catalan and Navarre
D) England and France
E) Spain and Italy
26) A new alliance between monarchs and this group helped break the bonds of feudal society.
D) merchants and townspeople
27) Which of the following is NOT true of Machiavelli:
A) He did not believe that the Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means.
B) He held republican ideals.
C) He wanted to drive out all foreign armies from Italy.
D) He was a humanist.
E) He scolded the Italian people for the self-destruction their own internal feuding had caused.
28) He was known as the "father of humanism":
A) Giovanni Boccaccio.
B) Dante Alighieri.
C) Francesco Petrarch.
D) Cosimo de' Medici.
E) Guarino da Verona.
29) His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa.
C) Leonardo da Vinci
30) All of the following were great masters of the High Renaissance EXCEPT:
A) Michelangelo Buonarroti.
D) Vincent Van Gogh.
E) Leonardo da Vinci.
31) All of the following characterized northern humanists EXCEPT:
A) They were more willing to write for lay audiences than their Italian counterparts.
B) They were hostile to classical culture.
C) They tended to come from more diverse social backgrounds than their Italian counterparts.
D) They took advantage of the power of the printing press.
E) They were more devoted to religious reforms than their Italian counterparts.
32) What is NOT a feature of Northern Renaissance Painting?
A) Adhered to classical idealism
B) Sometimes featured domestic interiors
C) Featured more common and middle class people
D) attention to detail
E) Interest in landscapes
33) All of the following are true of Renaissance art EXCEPT:
A) Art often blended classical and Christian influences.
B) Art emphatically embraced the natural world and human emotions.
C) Art tended to be abstract and formulaic.
D) Artwork reflected symmetry and proportion reflected a belief in the harmony of the universe.
E) Works were given rational, even mathematical order.
34) Which of the following was the most important intellectual revival made during the Italian Renaissance:
A) Apostolic theology.
B) Roman law.
C) Spartan military strategies.
D) Far East studies.
E) Greek studies.
35) Ferdinand and Isabella were able to do all of the following EXCEPT:
A) conquer southern France.
B) venture abroad militarily.
C) secure their borders.
D) Christianize the whole of Spain.
E) subdue their realms.
36) Which of the following describes a major difference between nothern humanists and Italian humanists?
A) Italian humanists focused on human intellect and achievements, whereas northner humanists concentrated on nature and emotion
B) Italian humanists focused on national consciousness, whearas nothern humanists rejected politics
C) Italian humanists viewed human nature as corrupt and weak, wheras nothern humanists viewed human nature as generally good
D) Both concentrated on spiritual concens, but nothern humanists also focused on secular matters
E) Both looked to classical sources, but nothern humanists also emphasized Christian sources
37) All of the following were factors in the spread of literacy during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries EXCEPT
A) the invention of printing
B) the Protestant Reformation
C) the rise of state burecracies
D) an increase in compulsory state education
E) a decline in the use of Latin
38) Which of the following best describes the Christian humanism of Erasmus?
A) A complete break with Roman Catholic Theology
B) A defense of individual interpretation of the Bible
C) The application of Renaissance scholorship to questions of ecclesiastical and moral reform
D) A return to the Scholasitic thologogy of Thomas Aquinas
E) A pleas for a return to monasticism as the highest Chirstian calling.
39) "A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline; for it is the only science that deals with the ruler's problems...[Sucess in war] not only maintains those born to princedoms but often causes men of private origin to rise to that rank...The first cause of losing power is the neglect of this art; the cause of winning power lies in its mastery."
In writing the passage above, Machiavelli drew on his obeservations of
A) feudal warfare in medieval Europe
B) warfare among the Italian city-states
C) sixteenth-century religious wars
D) warfare among the European colonial powers
E) warfare during the Crusades
40) All of the following were common subjects of Italian Renaissance works of Art EXCEPT:
A) nude figures
C) figures from mythology
D) peasant life
E) religeous scenes