Multiple choice. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question



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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)



The freed African Americans represented what fraction of the total southern population?

1)


_______

A)



One-fourth.

B)



One-tenth.

C)



One-half.

D)



One-third.

E)



One-fifth.


2)



The Liberal Republicans in 1872 advocated

2)


_______

A)



civil service reform.

B)



an end to Reconstruction.

C)



political rule by the educated and well-to-do.

D)



free trade and limited government.

E)



all of the above.


3)



The Union and Central Pacific railroads meet at Promontory Point in Utah Territory in

3)


_______

A)



1866.

B)


1869.

C)


1872.

D)


1877.

E)


1875.


4)



The conclusion of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction was that

4)


_______

A)



it was successfully completed.

B)



it had deconstructed.

C)



the military governments had subverted it.

D)



black codes were needed to ensure equality.

E)



old Confederates were back in power.


5)



The first big businesses in America were the

5)


_______

A)



railroad companies.

B)



mining companies.

C)



coal mining companies.

D)



oil companies.

E)



steel mills.


6)



The main goal that African Americans sought after the Civil War was

6)


_______

A)



education.

B)



political power.

C)



a high wage job.

D)



legislative influence.

E)



economic autonomy.


7)



Which one of the following is not a difference developed by 1881 on the Barrow Plantation?

7)


_______

A)



Black sharecropper families lived on individual plots.

B)



Most blacks stayed near the former white master's home.

C)



Families were distributed individually throughout the plantation area.

D)



The church remained a central party of the black community.

E)



Blacks had constructed their own school and church.


8)



Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction was called the Ten Percent Plan. This number referred to the percentage of

8)


_______

A)



Republican party members in each reconstructed state.

B)



southerners who would be allowed as Representatives.

C)



blacks who would be allowed to vote.

D)



southerners swearing loyalty to the Constitution.

E)



lands redistributed to blacks on a homestead basis.


9)



Which one of the following did not occur in 1865?

9)


_______

A)



Ku Klux Klan founded.

B)



Freedman's Bureau established.

C)



Thirteenth Amendment ratified.

D)



Black codes begin to be enacted.

E)



Andrew Johnson begins presidential Reconstruction.


10)



At the beginning of Reconstruction, the South was divided into five

10)


______

A)



appeals courts districts.

B)



military districts.

C)



federal governmental divisions.

D)



railroad divisions.

E)



civil rights areas.


11)



Which one of the following was not a state in which sharecropping became most pervasive?

11)


______

A)



Alabama.

B)



Texas.

C)



South Carolina.

D)



North Carolina.

E)



Georgia.


12)



If you were a loyalist during the war and a small farmer, you were most likely to be in a group derisively called

12)


______

A)



Tramps.

B)



Clay eaters

C)



Redemptioners.

D)



Scalawags.

E)



Carpetbaggers.


13)



Republicans found this effective in the 1866 congressional elections

13)


______

A)



Provoking fear of "big" government.

B)



Provoking fear of hoards of disaffected ex-slaves.

C)



"Waving the bloody shirt."

D)



Siding with white southerners.

E)



Promoting reconstruction as restoration.


14)



By 1880 nearly three-quarters of black southerners were

14)


______

A)



house servants.

B)



sharecroppers.

C)



artisans.

D)



wage laborers.

E)



literate.


15)



Which one of the following is not one of the three groups that made up the fledgling Republican coalition in the postwar South?

15)


______

A)



Pre-war Whigs.

B)



White northerners.

C)



Carpetbaggers.

D)



African Americans.

E)



Radical Democrats.


16)



The Republicans depended heavily on this to promote the "gospel of prosperity" in the South

16)


______

A)



Churches.

B)



Railroads.

C)



Troops.

D)



Schools.

E)



Evangelists.


17)



The Slaughterhouse cases, U.S. v. Reese, U.S. v. Cruikshank, and the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 all had the effect of

17)


______

A)



restricting the protections of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, respectively.

B)



extending legal protection for African Americans.

C)



limiting the ability of the Democratic Party to reestablish itself in the South.

D)



enhancing southern access to public education.

E)



ending the power of the Radical Republicans completely.


18)



One of the most lasting African American institutions and the first to be fully controlled by them was the

18)


______

A)



Freedmen's Bureau.

B)



school.

C)



state legislatures.

D)



Church.

E)



Black Caucus.


19)



Which one of the following happened in 1870?

19)


______

A)



President Johnson is impeached by the House.

B)



Federal troops are withdrawn from the South.

C)



Suffragists split into moderate and radical groups.

D)



The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified.

E)



The "Tweed Ring" is exposed.


20)



Johnson saw Reconstruction as the province of the

20)


______

A)



Congress.

B)



military.

C)



individual states.

D)



Federal executive.

E)



Supreme Court.


21)



In general, freed African Americans in the late 1860s were

21)


______

A)



inching towards the Democratic Party.

B)



more interested in jobs than in politics.

C)



prevented from being too active by dominant Republicans.

D)



generally apathetic about political activity.

E)



highly involved in political activity.


22)



Rutherford B. Hayes' election to the presidency in 1876 meant the

22)


______

A)



beginning of active federal involvement in regulating the economy.

B)



Democrats were seriously weakened as a national party.

C)



extension of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, respectively.

D)



nullification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and the Civil Rights Act.

E)



continuation of federal military occupation of the South.


23)



The "black codes" were

23)


______

A)



federal, military enforced rules limiting white violence.

B)



early state-by-state attempts to promote civil rights.

C)



local constitutions drawn up by freedmen to protect themselves.

D)



the plan to integrate freedmen into society.

E)



southern laws designed to restrict the freedom of black laborers.


24)



Tougaloo, Hampton, and Fisk are indicative of

24)


______

A)



missionaries who went South to help in "wayside schools."

B)



black teaching colleges after the Civil War.

C)



places where lynchings took place.

D)



towns founded by freed African Americans in the West.

E)



freed blacks being elected to state legislatures.


25)



In 1877, the same year that federal troops were withdrawn from the South, they were used in the North to

25)


______

A)



drive any remaining eastern Indians to western reservations.

B)



restore control after a race riot in New York City.

C)



break a violent national railroad strike.

D)



control a march by the so-called " tramps."

E)



repress Ku Klux Klan sympathizers.


26)



An electoral crisis developed in the Election of 1876 as a result of

26)


______

A)



the assassination of the Democratic nominee.

B)



a discrepancy between the popular and electoral votes.

C)



disputed electoral returns from several states.

D)



widespread voter fraud.

E)



answers b, c, and d above.


27)



In the southern state constitutional conventions called under the First Reconstruction Act, the largest number of delegates were

27)


______

A)



Carpetbaggers.

B)



newly freed African Americans.

C)



Republicans.

D)



northern whites.

E)



antebellum free African Americans.


28)



Sharecropping tended to be most common in

28)


______

A)



the Carolinas.

B)



the Cotton Belt.

C)



the Upper South.

D)



Louisiana and Arkansas.

E)



Texas.


29)



1866 is to the first Civil Rights Act as this is to the second one

29)


______

A)



1870.

B)


1957.

C)


1875.

D)


1964.

E)


1872.


30)



The incident between John Orrick and Alex Webb in Greensboro, Alabama, illustrates this problem in southern communities

30)


______

A)



The power of the Ku Klux Klan.

B)



Violent encounters between blacks and whites.

C)



Large plantation owners cheating freedmen out of wages.

D)



Class warfare.

E)



Large influx of carpetbaggers.


31)



The premise behind Thaddeus Stevens' view of Reconstruction was that the South should be

31)


______

A)



controlled by corporate farms that would replace the old plantation system.

B)



held hostage and underdeveloped as long as possible.

C)



returned to the rule of the planter elite.

D)



industrialized.

E)



populated with black and white yeoman.


32)



Johnson, like Lincoln, held the view that Reconstruction

32)


______

A)



prohibited any real conciliation of North and South.

B)



was a presidential function.

C)



should punish the South for secession.

D)



should make it impossible for secession from ever happening again.

E)



needed to be a complete socio-economic transformation.


33)



The Radical Republican intention with the Tenure of Office Act was to limit the powers of

33)


______

A)



President Johnson.

B)



the Supreme Court.

C)



Lincoln's admirers.

D)



Congress.

E)



the planter Democrats.


34)



In the Election of 1876, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina

34)


______

A)



refused to vote on any presidential candidate.

B)



would not turn over electoral votes until troops were withdrawn.

C)



illegally replaced Republican electors with Democrats.

D)



had electoral votes that were in dispute.

E)



supported a third presidential candidate and deadlocked the election.


35)



Fearful that their 1866 Civil Rights Act might be declared unconstitutional, the Radical Republicans

35)


______

A)



worked to gain full black male suffrage.

B)



tried to impeach President Johnson.

C)



gained passage of the Fifteenth Amendment.

D)



gained passage of the Fourteenth Amendment.

E)



passed a series of black codes in each state.


36)



The basic cause of the economic depression in 1873 was

36)


______

A)



the collapse of the stock market.

B)



over-expansion of commercial interests.

C)



an excessively high protective tariff.

D)



rising farm prices.

E)



global inflation.


37)



By 1880 nearly three-quarters of black southerners became

37)


______

A)



sharecroppers.

B)



Democrats.

C)



field hands.

D)



factory workers.

E)



"Redeemers."


38)



Throughout his political career, Andrew Johnson had championed

38)


______

A)



Native Americans.

B)



yeoman farmers.

C)



Whig-Republican principals.

D)



African Americans.

E)



the planter elite.


39)



Which one of the following is the result of the other four?

39)


______

A)



President Johnson impeached.

B)



Grant breaks with Johnson.

C)



Reconstruction Acts passed.

D)



Tenure of Office Act passed.

E)



Civil Rights Act passed.


40)



In the aftermath of emancipation, many African-American women

40)


______

A)



worked in the fields more than before.

B)



experienced changes in gender roles.

C)



got jobs in northern factories.

D)



rarely played the roles white women did.

E)



continued working for white planters as domestic servants.


41)



One of the results of emancipation that struck observers in the immediate post-Civil War era was the freed slaves'

41)


______

A)



lack of interest in leaving their homes.

B)



tendency to avoid cities.

C)



moving about.

D)



desire to work in industry.

E)



continued deferential behavior toward whites.


42)



Crédit Mobilier was an example of

42)


______

A)



a state banking system in the West.

B)



the rise of credit extended to Southern businesses to get them back on their feet.

C)



a large transcontinental railroad system.

D)



government largesse to mining companies.

E)



corruption in railroad promotion.


43)



The first southern state to be readmitted, with Democrats returned to power was

43)


______

A)



Arkansas.

B)



Tennessee.

C)



Texas.

D)



Georgia.

E)



Florida.


44)



Sherman's Special Field Order 15 was intended to

44)


______

A)



set up a guerrilla force.

B)



deal with deserters.

C)



destroy the wealth of the white civilian population.

D)



revolutionize southern society.

E)



deal with the freed refugees following him.


45)



Lincoln's Reconstruction program was based on

45)


______

A)



achieving a fundamental transformation of southern society.

B)



bringing the seceding states back quickly and generously.

C)



confiscating all southern wealth for the federal government.

D)



destroying the South's capacity to ever wage war again.

E)



punishing the South as much as possible.


46)



Which one of the following is the result of the other four?

46)


______

A)



Electoral Commission elects Hayes president.

B)



Twenty electoral votes are disputed from three states.

C)



Election between Tilden and Hayes disputed.

D)



Federal troops withdrawn from the South.

E)



Compromise of 1877.


47)



One result of the Reconstruction era for women was

47)


______

A)



the weakening of ideas about reforms for women.

B)



that the fragmentation of state governments divided radicals.

C)



the temporary retrenchment of the suffrage movement.

D)



the establishment of an independent women's suffrage movement.

E)



that the vote for freed blacks made it easier to argue for women's suffrage.


48)



After the Civil War, "King Cotton"

48)


______

A)



was less powerful as the South industrialized.

B)



became an even more common crop than before.

C)



became a less popular crop.

D)



lost out to diversified commercial farming.

E)



lost importance as production significantly declined.


49)



The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871

49)


______

A)



enforced the Civil Rights Act but was almost totally ineffective.

B)



put an end to the Klan activity.

C)



made violent infringement of civil rights a federal crime.

D)



set up a police force within the Freedman's Bureau.

E)



made it a crime to belong to the Klan.


50)



In order to build a new political coalition of northern Democrats, southern Unionists and Conservative Republicans, President Johnson used this term rather than "reconstruction"

50)


______

A)



Renewal.

B)



Republican Construction.

C)



Reconciliation.

D)



Realignment.

E)



Restoration.


1)



D

2)



E

3)



B

4)



E

5)



A

6)



E

7)



B

8)



D

9)



A

10)



B

11)



D

12)



D

13)



C

14)



B

15)



E

16)



B

17)



A

18)



D

19)



D

20)



D

21)



E

22)



D

23)



E

24)



B

25)



C

26)



E

27)



C

28)



B

29)



C

30)



B

31)



E

32)



B

33)



A

34)



D

35)



D

36)



B

37)



A

38)



B

39)



A

40)



B

41)



C

42)



E

43)



B

44)



E

45)



B

46)



D

47)



D

48)



B

49)



C

50)



E

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