Ms. Ross Jessie Young Socials 11 April 7/2015



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Ms. Ross Jessie Young

Socials 11 April 7/2015



Essay

From 1919 to 1936 Canada gradually developed political, social, and economical autonomy from Great Britain. Politically, Canada gained autonomy through events such as the Chanak Crisis and the Balfour Report. These events demonstrate Canada’s growing independence away from Britain. Socially, Canada gained autonomy through events like Hockey Night in Canada and the CBC Company. With events like those, they were creating a Canadian identity. Economically Canada gained autonomy through investment in Canada and Branch Plants. As Canada became distant from Britain they became more reliant on the U.S. Canada slowly developed through independence and creating a Canadian identity, however Canada became reliant on the U.S.

Politically, Canada gained autonomy through many events, such as Chanak Crisis and the Belfour repot. The events are a key example of Canada’s growing independence away from Britain. The first actual event was the Paris peace Conference in 1919. That was where the Canadian Prime minister Robert Borden fought successfully for Canada to be independently recognized. That was where the world recognized the contributions of the Canadians in the war and viewed Canada in a different way, finally as an independent nation even though Canada was still a little part of Britain and Canada was not yet in full control. In 1920 Robert Borden also fought successfully to have Canada gain independent membership at the League of Nations. This is where Canada was still trying to actually be independent, yet it just wasn’t there yet and Canada was still part of Britain. Then a big event in 1922 occurred called the Chanak Crisis. That was where Canada was asked by British government to send troops to help defend and important water way with access to Europe, this is where finally Canadian prime minister Mackenzie King stated that the Canadian parliament would decide whether to send troops or not and Britain could not just assume that Canada would automatically come. This is where Canada finally became independent because Canada did not go to help Britain and that was the first time Canada did not just automatically go and Canada stood up for themselves making Canada in full control. Another event was the Halibut Treaty which was when Canada signed a fishing treaty with the U.S. This was the first treaty signed by Canada without a British official which also showed Canada really was independent and in full control. In 1926 there was a Belfour report which recognized that Canada was independent and equal in status to Britain, so then Britain made a law and Canada wasn’t quite independent again making it even again with Britain and Canada .Also in 1926 there was a king-Byng Crisis which was solely in Canada because a British governor general had more power than the elected officials chosen to represent the people of Canada, so the Canadian Prime minister Mackenzie King successfully fought an election over that issue and he won and no governor general has acted against the wishes of an elected prime minister making Canada in charge and in full control. In 1931, the statue of Westminster recognized the Belfour report which officially granted autonomy to Britain dominions and now Canada was able to make their own foreign policy and began to establish Canadian embassy around the world which was part of Britain and Canada. This all shows Canada and Britain going back and forward between Canada being in full control and not. It also showed Canada becoming independent from Britain and helping Canada’s autonomy.

Socially, Canada gained autonomy by creating a Canadian identity. Ways of creating it were hockey night in Canada and the CBC Company. The first social event was the group of seven in the 1920’s and 1930’s. The seven Canadian artists revolutionized the Canadian art scene by creating a distinctively Canadian form of art. They used vivid colors and broad brush strokes and they interpreted Canada as they saw it. They were influenced by the U.S at the start making it not solely Canadian. Also in the 1920’s and the 1930’ were the Canadian art scene. During the interwar period, new modes of entertainment such as movies were available to Canadians. Canadian actors, writers, directors, producers, and technicians brought a new form of entertainment to the masses. Canadian’s in the movie industry had to compete with bigger productions coming out of America and lots moved to the U.S. for employment, simply because Canada wasn’t quite good enough in that area and Canada always had to compete with America even with magazines, novels and poems. One thing that was solely Canada’s was Hockey Night in Canada. It helped create Canadian identity by starting with a radio broadcast in 1931 at the maple leafs gardens with play by play announcer Foster Hewitt, then moved to television in 1952 becoming a Canadian tradition making it all Canada’s and Canada was in full control. In 1936 the federal government created public radio with the Canadian radio broadcasting commission which turned into the Canadian broadcasting corporation. The CBC ran Canadian based music and entertainment, in French and English. American programs were more sophisticated then Canada’s and many local radio shows were bought by American companies. America influenced Canada in many ways and buying a lot of Canada’s company’s shows that it isn’t just solely Canadian. Even though Canada may have created a lot, most of it was influenced by America and Canada had to compete a lot, which all had part in creating Canadian identity which helped Canada’s autonomy.



Economically, Canada gained autonomy through other countries investments to Canada such as Britain and USA. Therefor Canada became mostly reliant to the USA. In the 1920’s before WWI Canada traded primarily with Britain except for after the war Britain was in great debt and USA emerged as the world’s economic leader. During the 1920’s U.S investment in Canada increased. In 1920 British investment in Canada was $2500 million to United States $2000 million but by 1926 British investment levels $2200 million, to the United States $3400 million. At the same time American companies also invested in an increasing number of Canadian resource companies. These were then exported out of Canada to the U.S and almost 75 percent of the newsprint produced in Canada was exported to the U.S which showed how reliant Canada was on America and that America was in the most control due to how much product they are getting from Canada and how much money they are investing in them. In 1921 during WWI Canada became “dry” and the sale consumption of alcohol became illegal. Women argued that alcohol consumption led to social ills such as poverty, abuse, gambling, and divorce. People were able to find their way around the law making it a “wet” society. It continued for the U.S for 12 more years so Canadian supplied illegal alcohol to the Canadians to make a few extra bucks and authorities didn’t even get involved. Canada wasmostly in control of alcohol and not the U.S yet it is solely Canadian because it was Canadians making money from USA. In 1920’s Canada began a trade reliance with the U.S. American companies invested in Canada’s resources then exported them unprocessed across the border. The U.S investors established branch plants and put them in Canada so now America does not have to pay taxes for everything because U.S companies are operating in Canada so all profits are returned to the U.S. Branch plants are solely for America because Canada doesn’t get anything out of it and U.S just gets all the money when products re being built in Canada but American companies own them. This all shows how much USA is taking over and that America is in control of everything and that Canada is reliant on them. Canada needs America to invest in Canada to get some profit.

In the interwar period Canada slowly developed political, social, and economical autonomy. Politically, Canada were involved in events such as Chanak Crisis and the Belfour report which helped Canada’s autonomy and demonstrated Canada’s independence. Socially, Canada had events that created a Canadian identity such as Hockey Night in Canada and CBC which also helped Canada’s autonomy. Economically, events like the investments in Canada and the branch plants helped Canadians autonomy, even though Canada became reliant on the U.S because of the investments. In the interwar, independence and creating a Canadian identity helped Canada slowly develop but Canada became reliant on the USA. So is USA also reliant on Canada? And what if there was no Canada to invest in and no people to influence?


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