Mrs. Olbrys ss8 "The New West"



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Mrs. Olbrys

SS8 “The New West”



The New West

Name:________________ Mod:_______


Date of Exam:_______________________
The Indian Peoples of the Great Plains


Many different __________________ lived on the Great Plains

  • Plains Indians had rich and varied _______________.

  • They were skilled __________.

  • Well organized ____________ and _______________ societies.

  • Each had their own _______________.

  • They used sign language to talk to nations that did not speak the same language.

  • They used _____________ as their main source of food and they also hunted.

The Importance of Buffalo

After Acquiring ___________from the explorers and other Native Americans the Plain Indians were able to follow herds of ______________ in search for food.



Uses of Buffalo

  1. F___________ (women would dry the meat on racks and it was called _____________.)

  2. Cl___________(women __________ buffalo hides to make clothing)

  3. Sh___________(women also used their hides to make teepee covers)


Men and Women have Specific Roles

Women

  • Oversaw life in the ____________.

  • ________________ food and prepared meals.

  • ___________, raised, and took down ____________.

  • _________________ for the family

  • Responsible for _________________________.

  • Artistic ability determined their ______________ in society.


Men

  • _____________ and __________ the women, children, and elders

  • Pass skills onto the ____________.

  • Supervise ___________ life and religious ceremonies

  • _______________ leaders

  • Waged _________ to extend territory, gain horses or other riches, or seek revenge.

Designing a Magazine Cover Activity Directions:

You have just been hired by the Transcontinental Railroad to go out and explore the West and what is out there. Then you are to report back and tell America what you found. Design a Magazine Cover about what life in the plains is like. You must include a title to your magazine and then the title of five articles which we can expect to read in the magazine. Also you must include a picture. Make it attractive and catchy because you want people to want to read this magazine.



Mining



Why travel West?

  • The west was an unknown land why would you want to endanger your self and your family to move west? _______________________________
    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  • In 1849 people began to move west because of the ________________.

  • When that ended people still wanted a way to ____________________


Comstock Lode

  • _____________________ joined two partners in owning a mine where they discovered gold.

  • Lode -

  • However, they kept complaining about Blue material that was with the gold clogging the sifting machines.

  • They soon discovered the blue material was ____________.

  • Comstock stumbled onto one of the richest mines ever.


EVERBODY DREAMS OF STRIKING IT RICH IN THE WEST


LETS BRAINSTORM

What do you think are some of the hardships people looking for gold faced?_____

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Boomtown to Ghost Town

__________ and _____________ attracted thousands to the west


The makings of a boomtown

  • First _____________________ are discovered.

  • A __________ would begin with a miner and a __________.

  • Then people would come to supply the miner with items.

  • Merchants would set up stores

  • Soon wood frame houses, hotels, restaurants and stores replaced _____

Men

  • ______________________

Women

  • Found ways to make a _________________

  • They ran ______________, ________________, _______________ and they charged _____________ prices.

What is a boomtown?______________________________________________

  • How long did they last? _________________

  • Once there was no more _______________________

  • Miners moved away which meant there was no more ________________.

  • Businesses ___________________.

= GHOST TOWN

Problems with Mining

  1. Mines and towns _________________ clear water.

  2. They Forced ______________________________________

  3. _________________ miners were treated unequally

  4. FEW MINERS ACTUALLY GOT RICH
    -they needed ____________________ to get deep enough to reach the gold and silver ($$$)
    -Companies took over mining

  5. There was no __________________ or laws
    -People would be _____________ or killed for their gold.
    -Vigilantes-

Talk with the person next to you and WRITE your answers to following questions below

  1. What is one reason why people traveled West? _______________________

  2. What did they do once they were in the West? _______________________
    __________________________________________________________

  3. What is a boomtown? _________________________________________

  4. What is a Ghost town?_________________________________________

  5. What were some of the dangers of going West? _____________________
    __________________________________________________________

  6. DO you think it was worth going west? Explain your answer


Railroads

How do you think a big train coming through the West appeared to the Native Americans?_________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________
What did the Railroad mean for people who lived in the West or who were miners?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Transcontinental Railroad

The TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD is




  • The _____________________________ built a rail line westward from Omaha Nebraska

  • The _____________________________ built a rail line starting in Sacramento California and traveling East

  • The Two RAILROADS MET at ______________________ Utah in May 1869


The Government helps in the building of Railroads

Why do you think the Federal Government would help in the construction of Railroads? _____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

Subsidy -


  • Congress gave the railroad companies twenty sections of land for each mile

  • What is the problem with this? ______________________________


Who worked on the Railroads?

  • Labor was scarce because of the _________ and the work was ______.

  • Therefore they hired _______________

  • They accepted ________________

  • Came from ________ , ___________, ___________.

  • They also hired African Americans



The First Transcontinental Rail Road

1. What was the first reason people moved West?


2. Before the Railroad how did people move West?

3. Who was Judah? What did he do?

4. Who was Grimville Dodge? What did he do?

5. What was the big four? What did they do?

6. What did the Government do to help people building the railroad?

7. Why was it hard to get people to work on the railroad?

8 Who did they hire for labor? Why?

9. What were some of the difficulties that they faced building the railroads?



IN CONCLUSION

10. What was the first Transcontinental Railroad? What was its impact?


The Cattle Kingdom

______________ were the wild cattle that roamed freely across the grassy plains in the west .



  • After the Civil War the demand for beef increased.

  • Longhorns were perfect because they could travel far with little water and required no extra feeding in the winter

_______________ were when Texas Ranchers rounded up herds of longhorns and drove them hundreds of miles North to railroad lines in Kansas and Missouri.



  • A cattle drive was _________, ___________, _________ and ______________.

  • It was so tiring they would bring several _________ to keep them fresh

______________ were men who tended to cattle and drove herds to markets.



  • Rode along side herds in good and bad weather

  • 1/3 was either ______________ or _________________.

  • Cowhands learned most of what they knew about riding, roping, and branding from the Spanish

  • _________________ were skilled riders who herded cattle on ranches in Mexico, California, and the Southwest.

  • They faced many dangers like __________, ___________, and _____________.

  • They also faced attacks from _______________ and even had to make sure that the cattle did not _________ when crossing a fast river.

  • They often worked for someone and earned approximately ______a day

______________ were towns that had sprung up along the rail line where cattle were held in great pens until they could be loaded into railroad cars and shipped to markets in the east.

_____________ was where cattle were allowed to roam and eat grass and peoples cattle were determined by branding.

The End of the Cattle Kingdom


  • Farmers began moving out there and fencing in their fields and more continued to come. Making the open range disappear.

  • Also diseases killed herds, harsh weather and limited grass killed off many of the Longhorns


Evaluating Written Sources
How to evaluate an written sources

  1. Identify who is writing.

  2. Identify the context.
    When was it written? How was it written? What was its purpose?

  3. Analyze the point of view. What was the message? How does the writer feel?

  4. Evaluate the validity How true is this account? Why do you think so?



B. The following was written by Teddy Blue Abbot, a famous cowboy in the 1880s.

“The cattle drifted down on all the rivers… On the Missouri we lost I don’t know how many that way. They would walk out on the ice and the ones behind would push the front ones in. The cow punchers worked like slaves to move them back in the hills, but as all the outfits cut their forces down every winter, they were shorthanded. No one knows how they worked themselves. They saved thousands of cattle. Think of riding all day in a blinding snow storm, the temperature fifty and sixty below zero, and no dinner.”


1.
2.
3.

4.
Read the two written sources and answer the questions below.




A. In his novel The Big Sky, the newspaperman and author A.B. Guthrie, Jr (1901-1991) wrote the following description of life I the west:

“This was the way to live...A body got so’s he felt everything was kin to him, the earth and sky and buffalo and beaver and the yellow moon at night. It was better than being walled in by a house, better than breathing in spoiled air and feeling like a caged varmit.”

1.
2.
3.
4.


Directions: In the past few classes a vivid picture has been painted for you of the West and what it was like and how it has changed up to the Cattle Kingdom. Your job is to create a mural below showing the changes in the west up to the Cattle drive. Take your time and be creative.

Native Americans in Retreat



How the Changing West affected the Native Americans

Directions: Lets Brainstorm… How do you think the railroad, the discovery of gold and the cattle kingdom affected Native Americans in the West? Talk with the person next to you and explain what you come up with______________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Lets read a Passage from a famous Lakota Chief SITTING BULL and Geronimo on page 84 about their feelings about Americans and their Westward movement

  1. How does they feel about Americans?_______________________________
    ___________________________________________________________

  2. How have Americans treated Native Americans? ______________________

______________________________________________________________

Promises Made and Broken (The History of Native Americans and Americans)
Fort Laramie Treaty (1851)

  • ________________ met with Indian Nations near Fort Laramie Wyoming.

  • THE PROMISE: “If you keep to the land we assign you we will give you __________, ______________, ______________, and other goods.”

  • They agreed

Fort Laramie Treaty BROKE

  • In 1858 ______________ was discovered in Colorado and miners rushed in.

  • The Government told the ______________________ to get out.

  • Some Native Americans resisted and they were ________________.


THE GOVERNMENT URGES THEM TO “FOLLOW AMERIAN WAYS”

  • 1867 they Native Americans sign a new Treaty

  • They agreed to live on Indian Territory because they knew they had no choice and it was easier than fighting

  • RESERVATIONS

End of Buffalo (page 82 chart analysis)

1. What happened to the Buffalo?____________________________

2. How did the loss of Buffalo effect the Native Americans? ________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Read pages 82-85 and answer the following questions

3. Were the Indians safe once they had moved to reservations? ____________

____________________________________________________________

Custer’s Last Stand and the Victory at Little Big Horn

4. What was found in the Black Hills Region on the Lakota reservation?________

5. What happened when Miners rushed in? ______________________________

______________________________________________________________

6. Who was General George A Custer? What did he do? And What happened?___

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. What happened at Little Big Horn? ________________________________

______________________________________________________________

8. What are two other examples of Native Americans fighting back in the West?_

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Indian Way of Life Changes

Ghost Dance-______________________________________

What happened to the Ghost Dance? _______________________________

______________________________________________________________

What happened at WOUNDED KNEE? ___________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Reformers

How did reformers try to help Native Americans? _____________________

______________________________________________________________

Were the reformers successful? __________________________________

_____________________________________________________________
WHAT DO YOU THINK? How does the treatment of Native Americans make you feel? Do you want to change your mural now?

FARMING IN THE WEST



HOMESTEAD ACT (1862)

___________ Acres of land to anyone who paid a small fee and promised to farm the land for _________ years.



PEOPLE MOVING WEST

Problems with the Homestead Act

  • People rush out west for their free land

  • However, many people did not have the _____________ to buy what they needed to start a farm or even to get out west.

  • People had to take ________________ .

Exodusters

- Were a group of _________________ who moved west and called themselves exodusters after Exodus which is a book in the bible that tells about the Jews escaping from slavery.



Land Rush in Oklahoma

-Land was going fast and on April 22 1889 people lined up to get the last land in Oklahoma after the Native Americans had been kicked off their land.



HARD LIFE ON THE PLAINS

  • There was NOT VERY MANY ___________________

  • People needed shelter so they built their Shelter out of SOD which was hard and thick soil which was held together by grass roots


SODBUSTERS plains farmers who had to cut through the SOD to get to the soil below. Sometimes the SOD was so hard that it could break a plow that was not made out of steel.
THE CLIMATE

  • It was VERY __________________ and hot in the Summer

  • Crops would ______________ and die

  • Threat of _____________

  • In the Winter there was no trees or hills to block the _____________ or snow

  • Snow drifts would bury ________________ alive


MORE CROPS = LESS MONEY

  • Despite harsh weather the West began to produce a lot of goods like wheat and corn --- However, the more they produced and sent East the less money they were paid for it.


FARMERS SAY WAIT A MINUTE

The GRANGE

In 1867 Farmers get together and form the _____________ whose goal was to boost farmers national profit and reduce the rates railroads were charging.


Farmers Alliance

Very similar to the National Grange and they let women join the fight for farmers as well


The Populists

A group of farmers who for their own political party and demand the government help the farmers by __________________ and regulating the _____________.

- Fought for an increase in the supply of money

-But the government feared _____________ which is an increase in prices due to an increase in the money supply.


ACTIVITY

1. Analyze a picture of a Sod House and A plains Farm Family

2. Brainstorm Inventions

3. Write a paragraph answering the following below: Suppose you could travel back in time to 1880 and visit a sodbuster family. You are able to take one modern invention with you to help make life easier for the farmer. What would you take and why?



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