|Mr. Judd Civil War Review Name_____________
The deadliest, most divisive war ever fought in the Western Hemisphere, the American Civil War (1861-1865) tore the country in half, often pitting brother against brother. The North fought the South in an all-out war with clear objectives: the restoration of the Union or the establishment of an independent South. Nothing short of total victory was acceptable to either side. Though the Union Army eventually won the four- year ordeal, the losses on both sides were staggering: 600,000 dead, most of them mere boys. The Civil War: The South Secedes and War Begins examines the causes of the war and covers the first battles fought. Long before the first Southern state seceded, the United States had evolved into two separate cultures inching further and further apart: the rural, slave-based economy of the South vs. the
industrialized North with its increasingly vocal abolitionist movement. The conflict came to a head over westward expansion and whether new states and territories would permit slavery or not. Lincoln’s
election as president in 1860 sent shockwaves through the South and several states seceded from the Union. Though the immediate cause of the war was the North’s refusal to recognize the secession of the Southern states, the underlying causes had been smoldering for decades.
The words below are from The Civil War: The South Secedes and War Begins. Read the words and their
definitions. Then write a sentence using each word on a separate piece of paper.
1. abolish: to get rid of or do away with
2. abolitionist: a person who wanted to do away with slavery
3. civil war: a war between groups or regions within the same country
4. compromise: an agreement, with each side giving up some of its demands
5. confederacy: a union of states; an alliance; a league
6. conflict: a disagreement; a clashing of interests
7. culture: all that a human society produces, including its arts and crafts, beliefs, and ways of doing
8. divisive: tending to divide or tear apart
9. freedom: liberty; not being a slave; able to make your own decisions
10. independence: freedom from rule by another, especially another country
11. plantation: a very large farm specializing in one main crop, usually cotton
12. secede: to withdraw from or drop out of a union
13. states’ rights: the idea that each state should govern itself, free of outside interference
14. tariff: an amount of money that a government charges on imported or exported goods; a duty
15. union: a combination of states with a single overall government
Circle the letter for the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
1. The American Civil War was fought by ____________________.
A. the North and the South
B. the East and the West
C. England and America
D. Lincoln and Washington
2. The death toll during the Civil War was ______________________.
A. not very high
B. about 600,000 people
C. 5 million people
D. low compared to most wars
3. The North fought to preserve __________________________.
A. the Confederacy
B. the Union
D. the family unit
4. Abolitionists in the North were opposed to______________________.
A. exporting cotton
B. westward expansion
5. Plantations were large farms found chiefly______________________.
A. in the South
B. in the North
C. in the East
D. near the ocean
6. Plantations couldn’t be run without________________________.
A. imported cotton
C. slave labor
D. the Constitution
7. Southerners thought Congress should protect __________________________.
A. their borders
B. their right to own slaves
C. cotton mills
D. Abraham Lincoln
8. The black population in the South was about ________________________.
A. 10 percent
B. 40 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 80 percent
9. The Kansas-Nebraska Act gave these new territories the right to decide ________.
A. for or against slavery
B. their own borders
C. their capital city
D. their state bird
10. The Civil War began soon after ______________________.
A. several states seceded
B. the Battle of Bull Run
C. cotton growers
D. Jefferson Davis
Write these events on the timeline to show when they happened.
Lincoln elected president
Battle of Bull Run
More states secede
Confederate States of America formed
South Carolina secedes
Confederates fire on Fort Sumter
MAPPING EXERCISE - AMERICA IN 1861
This is how the United States looked in 1861, just as the Civil War was about to begin. The dark line
shows the division between the states that fought for the Union (North) and those that fought for the
Confederacy (South). With a pencil, shade the slave states in light gray and the territories in darker gray.
Leave the free states white. Use the list of states and territories below. Don’t forget to complete the key.
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia. (West Virginia was admitted to the Union in 1863.)
California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin.
Colorado, Dakota, Indian, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington territories.
Four slave states fought in the Union. What were they?
DIFFERENCES LEAD TO CONFLICT
By 1861, the North and South had grown apart, each with its own identity and culture. Attempts at compromise over the slavery issue had failed. Let’s consider some of the important differences between North and South. Make a few brief notes under each heading.
Economy _____________________ ________________________
Rural or urban _____________________ ________________________
Population growth _____________________ ________________________
Climate _____________________ ________________________
Attitude toward slavery _____________________ _______________________
Opinion of high tariffs
on imported goods _____________________ ________________________
Opinion of the other
Region _____________________ ________________________
Other differences _____________________ ________________________
The Civil War did not just appear “overnight.” Decades of tension and misunderstanding, in the early part of the 1800s, led up to it. The movement of pioneers westward only inflamed the situation by raising the question of which new states would be free and which would allow slavery. Number the following events in the order they occurred, using the small line at the beginning of each statement.
________The Confederate army seizes Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, one of the few remaining federal posts in the South.
________The first major battle of the Civil War is fought at Bull Run Creek.
________South Carolina becomes the first state to make good on its threat to secede.
________The Kansas-Nebraska Act permits these new territories to choose whether they will be free or slave; land rushes and fighting result.
________Lincoln elected president of the Unites States for the first time; the South is outraged.
________Several Southern states get together to form the Confederate States of America.
________The Missouri Compromise allowed Missouri to be a slave state and Maine to be admitted as a free state.
MY WAY OF LIFE
Every person on earth has a way of life that is important to him or her, no matter where he or she lives. What is your way of life? This worksheet will help you organize your thoughts. Look at the list below and write a few words in each space to describe your way of life.
The part of the country where I live
The climate where I live
The people that I live with
My house or apartment
Activities/sports I enjoy
Comforts I enjoy
Things that are important to me
Things I don’t like about my way of life
CIVIL WAR WORKSHEET
Work cooperatively in small groups to find the answers to the questions below. Write at least one complete sentence to answer each question.
How did the Civil War tear apart some families?
Why were some soldiers upset to learn they had to attend training before going to fight the war?
How did high tariffs on imported goods affect the Southern economy?
What did Southern planters think when abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison called for an end to slavery?
At the time of the Civil War, black slaves made up about 40 percent of the Southern population. In dollars, what were they worth to the Southern economy?
What was the first state to secede from the Union?
What did the Southern states call their new “country” and who was its president?
Why was Lincoln’s inauguration in 1861 more like a funeral than a victory celebration?
When and where were the first shots fired in the Civil War?
How did Lincoln respond to the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter?
Write the vocabulary word beside its definition.
1. freedom from rule by another country _________________ divisive
2. to withdraw or drop out of a union ____________________ union
3. person who wants to do away with slavery ___________________ independence
4. a combination of states with a single government _______ _____ secede
5. fighting between regions of one country __________________ abolitionist
6. tending to divide or tear apart ________________________ compromise
7. duty charged on imported goods ____________________ plantation
8. to do away with something _________________________ confederacy
9. the idea that states should govern themselves _______________ abolish
10. a disagreement; clashing of interests ______________________ states’ rights
11. a union of states; a league _______________________ tariff
12. liberty; making your own decisions ___________________ culture
13. all that a human society produces; arts, laws, beliefs ____________ conflict
14. a large farm specializing in one crop ________________________ freedom
15. an agreement between two sides, each giving up something_______ civil war
Circle the answer that best completes each blank.
Sometimes called the War Between the States, the Civil War was fought along geographic lines: Northern states versus the Southern. The main issue was ______ (tobacco, slavery). The ____ (North,South) needed slaves to run its large farms called ______ (fields, plantations). By contrast, life was very different in the ______ (North, South), which was an industrialized region growing rapidly. In short, the North and the South had different ______ (cultures, crops), different economies and a different way of life. Slowly, the two regions were growing further and further apart.
In the North,______ (abolitionists, growers) demanded an end to slavery. This made Southerners feel threatened. But what really brought the issue of slavery to a head was ______ (poor timing, westward expansion). Would the new states and territories be slave states or ______ (free, voting) states? The passage of the ______ (Emancipation Proclamation, Bill of Rights) in 1854 gave the citizens of the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska the right to decide by ______ (fighting, voting) whether of not to allow slavery.
Settlers on both sides of the issue rushed west to try to establish their way of life on the frontier. Kansas came to be known as ______ (“Bleeding”, “Cyclone”) Kansas because these two sides fought each other to gain control. The result was much ______ (goodwill, hatred) and bitterness. The South demanded that slavery be extended into all new territories or it would ______ (secede, vote) from the Union to protect their interests.
Abraham Lincoln ______ (supported, opposed) slavery and supported high ______ (wages, tariffs) on imported goods to protect Northern industries. Lincoln was elected president in 1860 and, in the months that followed, several Southern states made good on their threat to leave the ______ (Union, Confederacy). They formed the Confederate States of America, elected ______ (Jefferson Davis, “Stonewall” Jackson) as their president, and later established ______ (Austin, Richmond) as their capital city.
Lincoln, however, was determined to save the Union and bring the Southern states back. The first major battle of the Civil War took place in Virginia at a creek called ______ (Bull Run, Gettysburg). Lincoln had expected to win the war within a few months, but after the first battle, he realized that it would take much longer.
The Civil War actually lasted about four years. The death toll was staggering: 600,000 people lost their lives. Many of those who died were mere boys. Some historians say that if the North and South had realized how dreadful the war was going to be, they would have tried harder to reach some sort of ______ (new tariff, compromise).