Mr. Jones Tradition & Encounters Notes Chapter 22 – Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections



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Mr. Jones Tradition & Encounters Notes

Chapter 22 – Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections
Motives of Exploration

  • Combination of many motives brought on the Age of Exploration

  • Most Important were: ____________________________

    • Spread of religion and ideas (God)

    • Increase trade routes (Gold)

    • Quest for resources including land for crops – ultimately expand influence (Glory)


Portuguese Exploration

  • Originally for fishing

  • Acquisition of land to plant sugarcane (newly discovered Azores, Medeiras Islands)


The Lure of Trade

  • Maritime routes to Asia

    • Spices, silk, porcelain

  • Silk Roads more dangerous since spread of bubonic plague

  • Prices, profits increase

  • Indian pepper, Chinese ginger increasingly essential to diet of European wealthy classes

  • African gold, ivory, slaves


Missionary Efforts

  • Franciscan, Dominican missionaries to India, central Asia and China

  • Violent efforts with crusades, _________________________


The Technology of Exploration

  • Without advanced nautical technology and navigational skills, it would be impossible to explore
    the seas

    • Chinese __________________ introduced in 12th century

    • Square sails replaced by ________________________________

      • Work better with cross winds

    • Navigational instruments (magnetic compasses (China) and astrolabes (Muslim) )




    • As they began sailing westward into the Atlantic, they began to compile knowledge of winds, currents

    • In both the Atlantic and Pacific, strong winds create huge “__________________” north and south of
      the equator

  • Portuguese mariners used a strategy called, the ____________________

    • “Return through the sea”

    • A method to get from the Canary Islands back to Portugal


Portuguese Breakthroughs

  • Prince Henry of Portugal (1394-1460)

    • Promoted exploration of west African coast

    • Established fortified trading posts

  • 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope, enters Indian Ocean basin

    • Storms and restless crew force return

  • __________________________ reaches India by this route, 1497


Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)

  • Believed Earth was smaller

    • Estimated Japan approximately 2,500 miles west of Canaries (actually 10,000 miles)

  • Portuguese kings do not fund proposed westward trip

  • Fernando and Isabel of Spain, Italian bankers underwrite voyage

    • Discovers Bahamas, Cuba


Hemisphere Links

  • Columbus tries three times, never reaches Asia

  • But by early 16th century, several powers follow

    • English, Spanish, French, Dutch

  • Realization of value of newly discovered Americas


Circumnavigation of the Globe

  • Vasco Nuñez de ____________________ finds Pacific Ocean while searching for gold in Panama, 1513

  • Ferdinand __________________ (1480-1521) not supported by Portuguese, sails in service of Spain

    • First to circumnavigate the globe

    • Sails through Strait of Magellan at southern tip of South America

    • Crew assailed by scurvy, only 18 of 250 sailors return to Spain from journey

    • Magellan killed in local political dispute in Philippines


Exploration of the Pacific

  • Spanish build Philippines-Mexico trade route

  • English, Russians look for northwest passage to Asia

    • Most of route clogged by ice in Arctic circle

      • Norwegian Roald Amundsen completes route only in 20th century

  • ________________________ (England) explores west coast of North America

  • Vitus Bering (Russia) sails through Bering Strait

  • ________________________ (England) explores southern Pacific


Mr. Jones Tradition & Encounters Notes

Chapter 22 – Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections
Establishment of Trading-Post Empires

  • ______________________ first to set up trading posts

    • Fifty by mid-sixteenth century

    • Not to conquer territories, rather to control trade routes

    • Begin aggressive policies to maintain their control

  • ___________________________________ major naval commander

    • Attempted to control Indian Ocean trade

    • Forced foreign merchant ships to purchase “safe-conduct” passes

    • Architect of aggressive trade policy; violators would have hands amputated

  • Yet Arab traders continue to operate

  • Portugal just not rich enough, big enough, or populated enough to control it for long

  • Their crews often had Spanish, English, Dutch sailors on them

  • Portuguese control declines by end of 16th century


English and Dutch Trading Posts

  • Rival, parallel trading networks

  • __________________ concentrate on Indian trade

  • __________________ in Cape Town, Colombo, and the spice trade in Indonesia


The Trading Companies

  • Two advantages of Dutch and English over Portuguese

1) Had faster, more powerful ships which gave them an economic and military advantage

2) Conducted trade through ___________________________ (several investors pool their resources


to buy ships and trade) limits risks

  • Developed two powerful joint-stock companies

    • English East India Company, established 1600

    • Dutch United East India Company (VOC), established 1602

  • Privately owned ships, government support

  • Empowered with right to engage in trade, build posts, even make war

  • Exceptionally profitable !

  • Their technology, military power, and desire to make money make them powerful !

  • Both companies establish a ____________________________________


European Conquests in Southern Asia

  • Spanish conquer Philippines, name them after King Philip II

  • ______________________ becomes major port city

    • Influx of Chinese traders, highly resented by Spanish, Filipinos

    • Frequent massacres from 17th - 19th centuries

    • Significant missionary activity by Spanish


Russian Expansion in Asia

  • Russians take over Mongol Khanates, 16th century

    • Astrakhan becomes major trading city

    • Caucasus absorbed in eighteenth century

    • Siberian expansions in sixteenth to seventeenth century

  • Trade with indigenous Siberian peoples

    • Little success with missionary efforts

    • Some local rebellions



Russian Occupation of Siberia

  • __________________, __________________________ exiled to Siberia

  • Disgruntled peasants migrate east

  • Trading posts develop

  • Russian population expands dramatically

    • In 1763: 420,000 Russians in Siberia, outnumber indigenous peoples 2:1


The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

  • Commercial rivalries between empires at sea

  • Global conflict erupts - escalates into the Seven Years War

  • Multiple theatres in Europe, India, Caribbean, North America

    • North America: merges with ___________________________________, 1754-1763

  • British emerge victorious, establish primacy in India, Canada


The Columbian Exchange

  • Interaction between Europeans and those of the Pacific and New World would lead to what is referred to as, _______________________________________

  • ________________________:

    • Plants and crops

    • Animals

    • Human populations

    • Disease pathogens

  • Links between previously independent biological zones

  • Permanently alters human geography, natural environment


Epidemic Diseases and Population Decline

  • Smallpox

    • Also measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, influenza

  • No prior exposure to these diseases in western hemisphere or Oceania

    • Spanish had developed a resistance

    • Aztecs had no inherited, acquired immunities

  • 1519 _______________________________________

    • Population declines 90% within 100 years (17 million to 1.3 million)


Food Crops and Animals

  • Good things came from the Columbian Exchange also

    • Columbian exchange also increases overall food supply

    • Introduction of European animals to Americas

      • Horses, cattle, pigs, chickens, etc.

    • Introduction of American foods to Europe, Asia, Africa

      • Maize, potatoes, beans, etc.

  • Surge in world population !

  • Helped Europe recover population decimated by the bubonic plague

    • 1500-1600 – population increased 25%

    • after 1700 – increased faster than ever before – almost 50%


Migration

  • Exchange also moved humans – voluntary or forced.

  • Enslaved Africans

    • To South America, North America, Caribbean

  • European pioneers


Origins of Global Trade

  • Trading post empires also let countries be shippers of goods

  • Transoceanic trade in Atlantic Ocean basin

    • Manufactured goods from Europe

    • Raw goods from Americas

  • The _______________________________

    • 1565-1815, Spanish galleons dominate Pacific Ocean trade

    • Chinese luxury goods for American raw materials, especially silver


Environmental Effects of Global Trade

  • ____________________ animals hunted to extinction or near-extinction

    • Also whales, codfish, other animals with industrial uses

  • Relentless human exploitation of the natural environment


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