Mr. Huffman’s U. S./Global Studies au4C14S4 (The Holocaust) pgs. 451-454

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Mr. Huffman’s U.S./Global Studies AU4C14S4 (The Holocaust) pgs. 451-454

  1. Germans & other Epns calling themselves “Aryans” had promoted anti-Semitism (hatred of Semitic peoples) since the mid- 1800s

  2. After Nazis came to power, anti-Semitism became official- Germans told to avoid Jewish businesses

    1. Nuremberg Laws cancelled Jewish citizenship, forbade interracial marriage.

    2. By 1937, Germans told to “Aryanize” their businesses- Jews had to register their businesses & assets, & German businesses were told to fire Jews

    3. Jewish doctors not allowed to practice on non-Jews

    4. All Jews had to have red “J” stamped on ID papers, along with new middle names (“Israel” and “Sarah”)

    5. Gestapo & SS worked to create concentration camps for pol’l prisoners

      1. Camps eventually held Jews, homeless, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, mentally & physically handicapped, & Gypsies

    6. On night of 9-10 Nov 1938, Ks of Jewish businesses, homes, synagogues, etc. damaged or destroyed during Kristallnacht, & Ks of Jews arrested

    7. Many Jews (130K+) fled Germany during these early Nazi years, creating refugee problem- Evian Conference held in France, but most nations unwilling to raise immigration quotas- Only Dominican Republic helped

  3. When Germans invaded Poland, some 2M Jews came under German control

    1. Most placed into ghettos under guard, where food & sanitation were lacking

    2. German “mobile killing units” called Einsatzgruppen sent to Poland, where they murdered influential Poles (upper class, nobles, priests, etc.) & Jews

      1. Later, these units also killed com’ts & Jews in the occupied USSR

  4. In January, 1942, Nazis held the Wannsee Conference outside Berlin, where they announced the “final solution” to the “Jewish question”: genocide

    1. Six death camps were set up in Poland to exterminate Jews & undesirables

    2. They used Zyklon B gas in large “showers” to kill large numbers at once

    3. Victims were crammed on trains and shipped to camps, where they were sorted into those who could work & those who would be exterminated

    4. Workers were used to dispose of victims in large ovens (crematoria) & otherwise worked to death making weapons, etc. for Germans

    5. Living conditions were deplorable, & workers periodically culled of sick

    6. At Auschwitz, up to 1.5M people exterminated, 90% of them Jews

  5. Some Jews resisted being sent to death camps- Warsaw ghetto revolt in 1943 held out for 27 days against the German army with only light weapons

    1. Others revolted in camps with less success (Treblinka), & some escaped

  6. In the US, Holocaust went largely unnoticed for years- even the US Jewish community could not rouse the gov’t, & immigration quotas remained low

    1. Finally, in Jan. 1944, Roosevelt over-ruled the State Dept. and created the War Refugee Board (WRB) to help those threatened by Nazis

    2. WRB helped fund other agencies in several countries who were aiding Jews, & helped over 200K people escape persecution

    3. Few Jews were allowed into the US, however, & FDR wouldn’t change that

  7. As the Allies advanced toward Germany, death camps were abandoned, & subsequently liberated by Allied armies, who publicized their discoveries

  8. In Nov 1945, the Allies held the Nuremberg Trials, prosecuting 24 Nazis for “crimes against humanity”. At these trials, 12 Nazis sentenced to death, and precedent of personal responsibility for actions was set- soldiers would not be held innocent because they were simply “obeying orders”

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