Mr. Diony Martinez ap human Geography



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Mr. Diony Martinez

AP Human Geography

Felix Varela Senior
The One about American Enclaves
Chongalicious


  • Puerto Ricans have spread throughout the US… mainly to NYC.

    • Why is their immigration and life the easiest of nearly all migrants?

    • Government sponsored programs intended to _________ them.

- Explains the concentration of Ricans and Cubans in New Jersey, Chicago and Los Angeles.


  • As the Big Apple is for the Puerto Ricans…

- Miami-Dade is the magnet for Cuban migration.

- Between 1959-1980, a large flow of Cubans invaded America.

- 67% of all Cubans live in Florida.


  • Concentrations of different migrants differ by country of origin.

- Example: Dominicans in New York, Nicaraguans in Miami, Japanese in California, etc…

- Los Angeles is home to 35% of all Central American immigrants.



  • The __________________ Act of 1965 greatly increased incoming figures.

- Following the Act, the US-Asian population grew from 1.5 to 14 million.

- That was in 2004. Projected to be 25 million by 2020.

- Regardless, Asians do not migrate as much as Hispanics.

**A special case is __________________ Americans; whose homeland was an American territory until the end of World War II.



  • By 2000, 28% of all foreign-born US immigrants were Asian.

- They are a much more concentrated population than most.


  • Traditionally, immigrants settled at the closest point of entry from their homeland… or the nearest enclave.

- _________, Miami, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, _____________, New York and Los Angeles metropolitans account for 57% of all foreign born Americans.

  • Ethnic clusters offer support and guidance for newcomers.

  • These ethnic hubs cannot last forever as immigrants will spread out in order to improve their socioeconomic status (Little Italy).




  • The French presence is strong and very obvious in Canada.

  • Province of Quebec institutes a unique set of legal principles, culture, systems and tongues (to this day).

- When compared to the rest of Canada.

  • Canadiens of Quebec, for example, are the charter group who are responsible for the large French population today.

- Would institute their language, religion and traditions.

  • _________ is their heartland; while the bilingual Montreal is the provinces largest metropolitan area.

  • Enacted laws to guarantee the strength of their language and culture.

      • Ideally, would love to separate themselves politically from Canadian rule.

Social Distance



  • Immigrant neighborhoods are a measurement of the social distance separating them from the charter group.

  • Today and historically, segregation has occurred and normally around ethnic/racial lines and not socioeconomic.

- In the US today, the average white neighborhood is 83% white.

- Black neighborhoods are 54% Black while Hispanics are 42%.



  • Gauged via the index of ___________________________ (0-100).

Separate but Equal



  • Foreign migrants don’t always plan to make their new home their _________ home.

- Some don’t care about acculturation into the host society. They just want to work. Money is the motive.

- In Germany, por ejemplo, just because a child is born in Germany, doesn’t mean the “guest alien” will receive citizenship.



- Either temporarily or permanently. Like Little Hialeah. Como.

  • In some countries, very little social or cultural contract between white & ethnic minorities exists.

- “ They live parallel lives”…Most often at different socioeconomic levels.


  • Spatial _________ is growing in developing countries.

  • In India for example, rapid urbanization has clustered a multitude of ethnicities.

- Are divided by defined colonies based on caste origins of newcomers.

- Tend to live in worse conditions (slums).

- Some slums are so big, they prove to be more populated than the city itself.

India - Slums

Slum Dogs


  • Two sets of controls alter rates of discrimination and subsequent assimilation.

  • _________ controls refers to a perceived threat by the majority culture from the minority party.

- Those threatened try to “block” the minority by confinement and resisting “invasion”.

- Tend to find only the most distasteful/least paying jobs.

  • If confrontation or other methods doesn’t work and the minority group continues to move in, the tipping point is reached.

- A rapid exodus of the majority group can be expected. Called __________ point.

Mr. Diony Martinez

AP Human Geography

Felix Varela Senior

The One about the Great Divide


  • _________is an important human geography spatial concept.

- Like a downtown… where historically it provided the cheapest homes and proximity to job opportunities.

  • With the urbanization of America, poor CBD residents without private transportation were forced to remain.

*** Unique circumstance in America, for in most countries the poorest live in slum areas on the outskirts of the CBD.



  • Internal Controls provide minorities with four principal functions from within.

(1) _________provides security from other social groups.

- Grouping together ethnicities into defined ‘turfs’.

(2) _________, for it serves as a “halfway house” for newcomers to the alien society.

- Shelter, friendship, job opportunities, etc…

(3) _________, where the group preserves and promotes the cultural heritage, language and religion.

- Represents a disinclination to totally absorb into the charter group.

(4) _________/_________is a peaceful search for legitimate political representation voted on by concentration of minorities.
Ethnic Concentration


  • Ethnic communities are rarely permanent… especially in such concentrations.

- Little Italy? Less than 50% Italian.

- People go up in socioeconomic class, move out, etc…



  • In addition, in-migration divides community even more…

- Become more __________________.

- Queens was the traditional home of Western European migrants. Today?

- Over 110 different nations live there.




  • Colonies are an urban ethnic area serving as a point of entry and temporary acculturation zone.

  • Enclave – small area occupied by a distinctive minority culture.

  • __________________– Forced or voluntary segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic or religious minority.

  • Migration in the last third of the 20th century has affected the ethnic makeup of the US.

- And the internal migration of native-born Americans.

- Sparked by a more flexible 1965 immigration law.

- Lead to influx of younger Asian and Hispanic immigrants.



  • Would lead to black and white native-borns fleeing specific areas or regions.

- By 1995, one native-born American left California for each foreign-born arrival.

- NY, Chicago, LA, Houston and Boston lost 9 natives for every 10 new immigrants.

*The native-borns moved away from coasts and southern border.


  • As a population, they have now further ___________ themselves.




  • Immigrants bring with them established ideas, concepts, practices…

- Newcomers bring their artifacts, sociofacts and mentifacts and preserve the most important ones.
This can affect and even influence the host culture…

Depending on:

1) _________of arriving group.

2) Social distance from group.

3) Disparity between new and old environment.

4) Importance towards economics, politics or religion by migrant.

5) The restraints that force personal or social adjustments in new place.

** For example, Hasidic Jews or Middle Eastern traditional veils.

** They can alter certain traits without abandoning their culture altogether, such as polygamy in the Mormons.



  • Cultural _________refers to a groups desire to relink themselves with their traditional roots following their acculturation into a group:

  • A great example lies in African-Americans attempt to discover their African roots…

- Dashikis

- Kwanzaa

- Change of last names.



  • The __________________ group normally exercises its options to allot land, distribute it, sell it, etc…

- In the US land was appropriated and thus town centers were developed.

- A nucleated village system resulted.


Building Codes

  • Cultural geographers can see differences in groups by simply surveying the ethnic landscape of an area.

- The style of home, its unique design, original function, how it has changed in its new environment, etc…

  • Numerous problems in colonial America would result from land division.

- Its not uniformly flat, dry and useful.

- Alternative methods included the __________________ long-lot system with equal access to water.



** Throughout the world, different reasons, (normally practical) reasons for construction of different style homes.


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