Morgan Klinedinst Prompt



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Morgan Klinedinst

Prompt: Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the Third Estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution, and analyze the extent to which ONE of these groups was able to address its grievances in the period 1789 to 1799

*Review: 1st estate (clergy), 2nd estate (nobility), 3rd estate (everyone else, mostly upper middle class- bourgeoisie)



Category: Grievances of the peasants, urban poor, and women

Factual information list:

  • Peasants: Taxes, federal obligations, agricultural problems/high prices of bread, protection form nobility, politics

  • Urban Poor: high grain prices, unemployment

  • Women: price of bread and civil rights

  • Financial crisis from lack of income based on the taxation system and overspending

  • Poor harvest made times hard and peasants were subject to all taxes, which led to strong resentment as the nobles were exempt from many taxes, and the clergy from all taxes

  • Peasants launched a widespread attack on noble; “The Great Fear”

  • The cost of bread led to the women’s march on Versailles

Topic Sentence: The lower classes among the Third Estate, such as the peasants and urban poor, were most concerned with the effect of France’s financial crisis upon them.

Category: (grievance of the bourgeoisie) eliminating noble and clerical privilege over Third Estate and gaining civil rights

Factual information list:

  • Bourgeoisie were always choose as representatives because it consisted of well-educated lawyers, scientist, bankers, financiers, industrialist, and landowners

  • Many influenced by “enlightened” ideas of distrust of monarchy, religion, and tradition

  • At estates general intended to gain reform from Louis XVI, mostly based on the grievances listed in “What is the Third Estate”

  • Third estate receive representatives from Louis XVI, but in equal numbers to the other estates even though the Third Estate is the largest

  • the 1st and 2nd estate could always outvote the 3rd

  • Louis XVI refusal to recognize them angered them greatly

  • 3rd estate was at a breaking point

Topic Sentence: The most important grievance among the bourgeoisie was the unfair political and economic advantage that the nobles and clergy had over the Third Estate.

Category: bourgeoisie was most successful

Factual information list:

  • Found out their chamber for representatives had been locked

  • Went to local tennis court, took tennis court oath vowing not to back down until a new constitution was form

  • Louis XVI granted that the estates general combine into one body called the National Assembly

  • Resulting in more political power for 3rd estate, a new constitution, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: universal male suffrage, levied taxes among classes

  • This would eventually lead into the next government; Legislative Assembly defining passive and active citizens, limited monarchy, religious toleration

  • The Jacobins would then take over with the Reign of Terror with dictatorship by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • Directory is last form of government

Topic Sentence: Among the all the groups the bourgeoisies was most successful in imitating change and producing reform for the Third Estate.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme): On the eve of the French revolution the Third Estate had many grievances to be addressed by the monarch. The Third Estate consisted of the bourgeoisie, peasants, urban poor, and women. Among the most apparent problems at this time was the political structure of France, as the French monarchy opposed the ideas of popular sovereignty, a major grievance for the Third Estate. The peasants, urban poor, and women were most affected by France’s poor economic state. The bourgeoisie was more concerned with politics and proper representation. However, it is the bourgeoisie that is most successful in addressing its grievances throughout this period.

Prompt: Analyze the factors that prevented the development of a unified German state in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Category: Reformation breaks apart the kingdom religiously



Factual information list:

  • Martin Luther attacks Catholic Church for simony (sale of church offices), pluralism (official holding more than one office at a time), sale of indulgences, absenteeism (official not participating but receiving money), nepotism (favoring family)

  • Luther write his 95 thesis

  • Creation of New Religion – Princes take chance to become more independent

  • Religious wars between Catholic and Lutheran Princes

  • HRE (very powerful at this time) ruled by Charles V was distracted by Turkish threat in Hungary, unable to stop Lutheranism

  • Wars ended with the Peace of Augsburg- written by Philip Melanchthon, Princes can choose religion of their territory, rejected by Catholic Princes, known as tradition statement of Luther

  • Overall results: lasting division between German states beyond just political differences preventing a unified Germany

Topic Sentence: The Reformation played a key role in preventing German unification because in created a strong religious division throughout Germany.

Category: 30 years’ war

Factual information list:

  • Originates with Protestants v. Catholics in the HRE

  • War begins with Calvinist trying to be recognized by HRE

  • More internal wars eventually reaching major foreign powers, war becomes more about the rivalry between France and the Hapsburgs

  • Becomes more about politics than religion

  • However, War caused death of civilians through long episodes of famine and disease and ruined land, therefor agriculture

  • Destroyed economy- wide spread bankruptcy of large European powers fighting in the war resulted from 17th century military financing (didn’t put a lot of focus on funding for the war, but used mercenaries which require payment)

  • German states had to worry about recovery not unification

Topic Sentence: Between the years 1618 and 1648 the Thirty Years’ War took place, a battle between Protestant and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, destroying Germany’s lands and economy, shifting Germany’s focus towards recovery rather than unification.

Category: Lack of leadership in the German States

Factual information list:

  • Emperor was elected to thrown, meaning weak leaders and elections had no strong power

  • Emperor has little to no power over German affairs, only in theory was he strong figurehead

  • There were some powerful elector states, they disagreed too much

  • No single state held influence over any other state

  • No single state had any centralized authority

  • Unification is not possible without one strong political power over all German states (hint Prussia or Austria)

Topic Sentence: Germany lacked any significant leadership of the German states and without leadership unification is an impossible task.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme): During the Middle Ages the Holy Roman Empire was still one of the most powerful kingdoms. Three very significant factors prevented the unification of Germany in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. First the Reformation took place, which created a deep and splitting religious division throughout Germany. Then Germany suffered the Thirty Years’ War, which destroyed landing, leaving a lasting political and economic effect, and last a significant lack in leadership. These three factors prevented German unification.

Prompt: Britain and France were engaged in a geographical and economic rivalry during the eighteenth century. Identify the factors that contributed to this rivalry and assess the results for both countries over the period 1689 to 1789.

Category: British Expansion

Factual information list:

  • Navigation Acts: colonist can only ship on British ships, giving Britain a monopoly over trade (form of economic warfare)

  • France allies with Spain, putting British colonies at risk

  • Peace of Utrecht ends the War of Spanish Succession, Britain gains Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson bay, Britain get control over West African Slave Trade (Asiento)

  • Seven Years War: begins in North America, fueled by the dispute between Britain and France/Spain, Britain has many victories throughout the war and ends with the Treaty of Paris: France loses possessions, Louisiana goes to Spain, Florida to Britain, and France loses most of India

Topic Sentence: British expansion is strong and already had a monopoly over trade, winning many victories against France.

Category: French Expansion

Factual information list:

  • Advantage in rich resources and a population of 3 to 4 times that of Britain

  • Allies with Spain (leading military power at this time) and upsets the balance of power

  • War of Spanish Succession begins and results in France loses its hegemony (imperial dominance) over Europe and peace negotiations begin between France and Britain, making balance of power a matter of international order

  • War of Austrian Succession: beginning of power struggle between Britain and France in India, no significant territorial gains were made, and the conflicts continued into the Seven Years War

Topic Sentence: French expansion is tied to Spain giving it an advantage and clear military strength.

Category: internal and domestic states (late 1700s)

Factual information list:

  • Britain is secure with victories in India

  • Britain- successful colonial expansion, good economy, stable with parliamentary government

  • France- deflation in areas of colonial expansion, loss of support for government, almost bankrupt from Louis XIV, no strong military

  • Failed domestic policy lead to French Revolution which does not provide significant reform

  • Difference in states cause tension

Topic Sentence: The outcome for Britain and France are very different as, Britain flourishes and France flounders.

  • Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme): From the beginning Britain and France were natural enemies as both had abundant resources and ties to the Atlantic and America. Both powers were obsessed with not letting the other country have a clear advantage, therefore creating a struggle to keep the balance of power. Bothe countries had a fear of being “caught short.” Both Britain’s and France’s expansion were interlocked in there struggles with many wars including the Seven Years War, War of Spanish Succession, and War on Austrian Succession. Although in the end, Britain fairs better with successful colonial expansion and a stable internal state, while France experience a decline and great domestic instability.


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