Mordechai anielewicz creative arts competition



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SUGGESTED RESOURCES

for

TEACHERS and STUDENTS

For Grades 7 – 12
Compiled by Josey G. Fisher,

Holocaust Education Consultant

Recommended for teachers and students participating in the

MORDECHAI ANIELEWICZ CREATIVE ARTS COMPETITION

I. Topic: JEWISH LIFE IN PRE-WAR EUROPE
A. Websites:

1. Baral Family Holocaust Memorial Website: From a Vanished World - http://baral.com/


2. Centropa: Connecting the World to the Lands of Jewish Heritage - http://www.centropa.org/default.asp - Click on "Witness to a Jewish Century."
3. Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center - "And I Still See Their Faces: http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/ - Click on "Virtual Exhibits."
B. Readings:

Teacher


1. Life is with People: The Culture of the Shtetl by Mark Zborowski and Elizabeth Herzog. New York: Schocken Books, 1962. A rich source on Eastern European culture, based upon first- hand observation.
2. There Once Was a World: A 900-Year Chronicle of the Shtetl of Eishyshok by Yaffa Eliach. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1998. Survivor and historian Yaffa Eliach tells the life of her home in a Lithuanian shtetl through history, testimonies and photographs. Her collection of 1,500 photographs of Eishyshok lines the Tower of Life at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Student

1. The Best of Sholom Aleichem edited by Irving Howe and Ruth R. Wisse. Washington, D.C.: New Republic Books, 1979 (or any of the famous humorist and author Sholom Aleichem’s [1859-1916] stories).


*2. Devil in Vienna by Doris Orgel. New York: Puffin, 1988. Historical novel set in Vienna during months leading up to the Nazi annexation of Austria in March of 1938. Based on the author’s experience, a 13-year-old girl recounts the difficulties of maintaining a friendship with the daughter of a Nazi.
*3. Friedrich by Hans Peter Richter. New York: Puffin, 1987. This modern classic, based on the experiences of the author, relates the tragic story of a Jewish boy during the 1930’s, told through the perspective of his friend.
*4. Frost in the Night by Edith Baer. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980. Eloquent autobiography of a Jewish girl in the 1932 Germany and the disturbing changes she witnesses in the last year of the Weimar Republic.
*5. The Last Album: Eyes from the Ashes of Auschwitz-Birkenau by Ann Weiss. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2001. Family photographs recently discovered in Auschwitz archives that had been taken from Jewish prisoners upon arrival in the camp. Weiss has traced many of the people and places in the pictures and includes these stories.
*6. The Shrinking Circle: Memories of Nazi Berlin 1933-1939 by Marion Freyer Wolff. New York: URJ Press, 1989. A richly detailed account of a young girl’s experience in pre-war Berlin, supplemented by historical context and teacher’s guide written by Zena Sulkes.
*7. Ten Thousand Children: True Stories Told by Children Who Escaped the Holocaust on the Kindertransport by Anne L. Fox and Eva Abraham-Podietz. Springfield, NJ: Behrman House Publishing, 1998. Accounts of 21 survivors who were among the 10,000 children rescued by Great Britain between December 1938 and September 1939.
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

C. Media: (Video)



*1. Camera of My Family. Catherine Hanf Noren left Nazi Germany with her Jewish parents after her birth in 1938. As an adult she traces her roots through old family photographs and determines the fate of family members unable to leave Germany. Color and black and white; 20 minutes.
*2. Image Before My Eyes. This film about Jewish Poland in the 1930s depicts life as it was in the largest, most important center of Jewish culture and creativity in the world. Black and white; 1 hour, 30 minutes.

*3. Echoes That Remain: Story of the Jews of the Shtetl. Life in a pre-World War II Eastern European shtetl is recreated through photos and original footage. Narrated by Martin Landau. Black and white; 1 hour.


  1. Jews of Poland: The Five Cities. Travelogue of five major Polish cities filmed on the eve of the war. Recounts Jewish life in Krakow, Bialystok, Lvov, Vilna, and Warsaw in the 1930s. Black and white; 50 minutes.


*5. Outcast: Jewish Persecution in Nazi Germany 1933-1938. Overview of Jewish teen experience in Germany during 1930s, interweaving film clips, photographs, maps and brief personal stories to provide effective introduction to Holocaust study. Color and black and white; 40 minutes.

II. Topic: THE WORLD AT WAR
A. Websites

1. Holocaust Remembrance Project Teacher Resource Guide (including historical readings, documents, personal accounts and poetry as well as focus and reflection questions for students); http://holocaust.hklaw.com/ - Click on "Resources" to log in.


2. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    a. Holocaust Encyclopedia: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/

    b. Mapping the Holocaust: Historical Atlas of the Holocaust:

        http://ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/maps

B. Readings:

Teacher


1. The Oryx Holocaust Sourcebook by William R. Fernekes. Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 2000.

Comprehensive listing of recommended Holocaust resources, including print, music, film, CD-Rom and internet, as well as resource centers, memorial sites and museums.


2. Witness to the Holocaust: An Illustrated Documentary History of the Holocaust in the Words of Its Victims, Perpetrators and Bystanders edited by Michael Berenbaum. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
3. The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum by Michael Berenbaum. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Student

1. After the Darkness: Reflections on the Holocaust by Elie Wiesel. New York: Schocken Books, 2002. Eloquent summary of history of the Holocaust, illustrated by personal accounts of major events and full-page photographs.


* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

*2. Hitler Youth: Growing Up in Hitler’s Shadow by Susan Campbell Bartoletti. New York: Scholastic Nonfiction, 2005. Award-winning book featuring twelve first-person accounts of German children growing up as members of the Hitler Youth. Includes broad range of experience from devotion to disillusionment, with epilogue describing their lives as adults.
*3. The Holocaust: The World and the Jews 1933 – 1945 by Seymour Rossel. New Jersey: Behrman House, Inc., 1992. Classroom text supplemented by photographs and first-person accounts, as well as discussion points. Teacher’s guide available.
4. How Was It Humanly Possible? A Study of Perpetrators and Bystanders during the Holocaust by Irena Steinfeldt. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2002. Seven comprehensive teaching units provide case studies of the Final Solution from standpoints of participants, onlookers and victims, using eye-witness accounts, photographs, artwork and literature. Includes classroom text, teacher’s guide and CD-Rom of additional classroom materials.
*5. No Way Out: Letters and Lessons of the Holocaust by Susan Prinz Shear. CA: Silicon Valley Seminars, Inc. 1999. Unique five-lesson unit based on author’s personal collection of family letters documenting their struggle to leave Nazi Germany, supplemented by official papers, photographs, historical context and reproducible chronology of laws and events. Additional volume No Way Out: Readers Theatre re-assembles letters into classroom-ready script.
*6. The Other Victims: First-Person Stories of Non-Jews Persecuted by the Nazis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Eleven personal narratives of Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the disabled, African-Germans, homosexuals, and others targeted for persecution by the Nazis.
*7. A Promise to Remember: The Holocaust in the Words and Voices of its Survivors by Michael Berenbaum. Boston: Bulfinch Press, AOL Time Warner Book Group, 2003. Inclusive classroom reference with audio CD of oral testimony, photos and removable reproductions of documents.
*8. Smoke and Ashes: The Story of the Holocaust by Barbara Rogasky. New York: Holiday House, revised, 2002. Revised and expanded edition of comprehensive classroom text.

*9. Tell Them We Remember: The Story of the Holocaust by Susan D. Bachrach. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1994. First-person accounts and photographs illuminate clearly-written historical summary.
C. Media: (Video)

1. Conspiracy. Well-crafted docudrama re-creates, in real time, the January 20, 1942 secret conference at the Wannsee Villa outside Berlin which outlined logistics for the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Kenneth Branagh stars as SS Chief of Reich Security Reinhard Heydrich and Stanley Tucci portrays Adolf Eichmann. Color; 1 hour, 35 minutes.


2. Genocide (Story of Man’s Inhumanity to Man). Historical overview through documentary film and photographs. Produced by the Simon Wiesenthal Center and narrated by Orson Welles and Elizabeth Taylor. Color; 1 hour, 30 minutes.
*3. Heil Hitler! Confessions of a Hitler Youth. Alfons Heck, former Hitler Youth member, recounts compelling story of his fanatical support of Nazism. Extensive documentary footage. Color and black and white; 30 minutes.
4. Hitler (The Whole Story). Three-part series on Adolf Hitler, including “The Early Years”, “Rise of the Reich” and “The War Years.” Color; 50 minutes for each segment.
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

5. World at War (Vol. 20): Genocide. Archival footage and historical narration by Sir Lawrence Olivier is supplemented by early interviews with survivors, perpetrators and bystanders. Black and white; 50 minutes.



III. Topic: LIFE AND RESISTANCE IN THE GHETTO

A. Websites:

1. Ghetto Fighters' House - Archive (including documents and photographs): http://www.gfh.org.il
2. Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center - "Dignity and Defiance: The Confrontation of Life and Death in the Warsaw Ghetto": http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/ - Click on "Virtual Exhibits".
3. A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust: Sitemap (includes "Timeline: Ghettos," "Galleries: Archival Ghetto and Camp Photographs"): http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/sitemap/sitemap.htm
4. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

a. Holocaust Learning Center: http://ushmm.org/wlc/en/  - Click on "Ghettos"

b. Online Exhibition: "The Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto" (see below): http://www.ushmm.org/kovno
5. Yad Vashem

a. "'I completely forgot that I was hungry': Youth Groups in the Lodz Ghetto": http://www1.yadvashem.org/exhibitions/lodz/1_home.html

b. Photographs from the Warsaw Ghetto:

http://www1.yadvashem.org/exhibitions/warsaw_ghetto/home_warsaw.html
B. Kovno:

Readings:

Teacher/Student

Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto edited by Dennis B. Klein. United States Holocaust Museum, 1997. Extensive range of primary source material collected and hidden by ghetto leadership to document ghetto life. Companion volume to USHMM exhibit, now available online (see above).
Media: (Video)

Kovno Ghetto: A Buried History. Documentary of ghetto life including an interview with and

photographs by Zvi Kadushin who secretly recorded the broad range of ghetto experience. Color; 1 hour, 40 minutes.

Media: (Music)

*Hidden History: Songs of the Kovno Ghetto. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1997. The CD, which complements the video Kovno Ghetto: A Buried History, includes seventeen songs written and sung in the Ghetto.
C. Lodz:

Readings:

Teacher

Lodz Ghetto: Inside a Community Under Siege compiled and edited by Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides. New York: Viking Penguin, 1989. Rich collection of personal writings of ghetto inhabitants, supplemented by excerpts from the secret community archives and photographs. Sourcebook for film (see below).
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

Student


1. Diary of Dawid Sierakowiak: Five Notebooks from the Lodz Ghetto edited by Alan Adelson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Powerful and detailed record kept by a Polish teenager who died of starvation and illness in the Lodz Ghetto.
*2. My Secret Camera: Life in the Lodz Ghetto, photographs by Mendel Grossman, text by Frank Dabba Smith. New York: Gulliver Books, Harcourt, Inc., 2000. Photographs of ghetto inhabitant Mendel Grossman who secretly documented ghetto life. Although formatted for younger readers, the content and biographical notes are appropriate for middle school and above.
Media: (Video)

Lodz Ghetto. Based upon the book Lodz Ghetto: Inside a Community Under Siege (see above). Color and black and white; 1 hour, 40 minutes or classroom version in four parts (each 30 minutes or less).
D. Terezin:

Readings:

Student

*1. Draw What You See: A Child’s Drawings from Theresienstadt/Terezin by Helga Weissova. Gottingen: Wallstein Verlag, 1998. One of the few children to survive deportation from Terezin to Auschwitz, the author followed her father’s advice to document daily life in Terezin.
*2. Fireflies in the Dark: The Story of Friedl Dicker-Brandeis and the Children of Terezin by Susan Goldman Rubin. New York: Holiday House, 2000. Story and drawings of the children of Terezin guided by artist/educator who perished with them in Auschwitz. Although formatted for the middle school reader, the content is for high school and above.
*3. I Never Saw Another Butterfly: Children’s Drawings and Poems from Terezin Concentration Camp 1943 – 1944 edited by Hana Volakova. New York: Schocken Books, 1993. Collection of drawings and poems of children of Terezin, significant for both their artistic merit and value in documenting their camp experience. Historical context is presented in the introduction by Chaim Potok.
*4. We Are Children Just The Same: Vedem, the Secret Magazine by the Boys of Terezin by Marie Rut Krizkova, et al. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1995. The secret weekly magazine created by teenage boys in Terezin was saved by one of the surviving boys. Suppressed in Czechoslovakia for fifty years, these powerful writings and drawings take the reader inside children’s ghetto life.
E. Warsaw:

Readings:

Teacher

1. The King of Children: A Portrait of Janusz Korczak by Betty Jean Lifton. New York: Schocken Books, 1989. Biography of physician/educator who headed a Warsaw Ghetto orphanage, using his unique educational philosophy of self-government and creative response to help his children through these perilous years and through their deportation to Treblinka.


2. Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto: The Journal of Emmanuel Ringelblum. New York: Schocken Books, 1958. First-hand account of life in the Warsaw Ghetto from 1940 – 1942 told by the late historian and head of Oneg Shabbat, the secret group organized to document the ghetto. Buried in milk cans, the records were unearthed from the rubble of the destroyed ghetto after the war.
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

3. The Jews of Warsaw 1939 – 1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt by Israel Gutman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. Comprehensive account of the Jews of Warsaw by survivor, resistance fighter and scholar.

4. 50 Years Ago: Revolt Amid the Darkness. Washington, DC: US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1993 Days of Remembrance. Comprehensive anthology of readings of the events of 1943 including “Fighting Back: Warsaw.” Excerpts include German documents, letters and memoirs of resistance fighters and news reports.
5. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom. New York: Stein and Day, 1982. Secret journal of the chairman of the Jewish Council of the Warsaw Ghetto from 1939 – 1942.
Student

1. Mila 18 by Leon Uris. New York: Vintage Books, reissued 1983. Classic historical novel of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising which had its headquarters at this address and where resistance leader Mordechai Anielewicz perished.


*2. On Both Sides of the Wall by Vladka Meed. New York: Holocaust Library with US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1993, introduction by Elie Wiesel. Noted memoir of one of the young women who maintained contact between the Warsaw Ghetto and the Aryan side of the city. As a member of the Jewish Combat Organization, she smuggled weapons and ammunition to the resistance fighters.
*3. The Island on Bird Street by Uri Orlev. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984. After his mother disappears and the German Army takes his father, a young Jewish boy is forced to make his own way in the Warsaw Ghetto. Alex takes refuge in an abandoned building to wait out the winter and hopes for his father’s return.
4. The Wall by John Hersey. New York: Vintage Books, reissued 1988. Classic historical novel of the Warsaw Ghetto and the evolution of the uprising against the Nazis.
5. The Warsaw Ghetto in Photographs edited by Ulrich Keller. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984. Two hundred-six photographs taken by German photographers document the Warsaw Ghetto in 1941. An extensive introduction by Keller, an art historian, provides both historical background and critical evaluation of the photographs themselves.
Media: (Slides/CD ROM)

Everyday Life in the Warsaw Ghetto: 1941. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1993. Twenty-six slides of photographs taken by a German soldier on his birthday leave in 1941. Comprehensive teacher’s guide includes historical overview by Yisrael Gutman. Available as a video – A Day in the Warsaw Ghetto – Birthday Trip in Hell, with diary excerpts corresponding to photographs.
Media: (Transparencies)

*Uprising: The Warsaw Ghetto Revolt (component of Holocaust: The Way We Saw It). Four lesson plans, including twelve transparencies and teacher’s guide, present historical context, ghetto life, deportation and revolt.
Media: (Video)

1. Korczak. Powerful dramatization of the true story of Janusz Korczak, renowned Jewish-Polish pediatrician and educator, who protected 200 Jewish orphans in the Warsaw Ghetto and remained with them through their deportation to the Treblinka death camp. Black and white; 2 hours. Polish with English subtitles.


* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

2. Tzvi Nussbaum: A Boy from Warsaw. Dramatic life story of the little boy – hands raised and under arrest – immortalized in the 1943 photograph. Color; 50 minutes.


3. Uprising. Award-winning TV dramatization of the Warsaw Ghetto revolt and the resistance fighters who defied the Nazis for almost five weeks in the first armed underground confrontation of the war. Cast includes Hank Azaria, Leelee Sobieski, David Schwimmer, Donald Sutherland and Jon Voight. CAUTION: violence, graphic depictions of atrocities. Color; 3 hours.
4. The Warsaw Ghetto. BBC documentary uses historic film footage made by the Nazis to show the creation of the ghetto, early Nazi propaganda, daily life and the uprising. Narrated by ghetto survivor Alexander Bernfes. CAUTION: graphic images. Black and white; 50 minutes.
5. Warsaw Ghetto: Holocaust and Resistance. Overview of the Warsaw Ghetto experience from pre-war Jewish life in Warsaw through the revolt and destruction of the ghetto. Narrated by Theodore Bikel and introduced by Warsaw Ghetto fighter Vladka Meed. Videocassette created from original filmstrip and audiotape narration. Black and white; 20 minutes.
6. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Archival photographs, film footage and first-person testimony document the story of the revolt. Color; 25 minutes.
IV. Topic: LIFE AND RESISTANCE IN THE CONCENTRATION CAMP

  1. Websites:

1. The Auschwitz Album (photographs of Hungarian Jewish transport 1944)

http://www1.yadvashem.org/exhibitions/album_auschwitz/home_auschwitz_album.html
2. Holocaust Remembrance Project Teacher Resource Guide: "Death Camp Uprising"

http://holocaust.hklaw.com/   - Click on "Resources" to log in. See Unit 3, Lesson 6.
3. The Last Expression: Art and Auschwitz (Exhibition of Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, Northwestern University): http://lastexpression.northwestern.edu
4. A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust: Sitemap (includes “Timeline: Camps”, “Music: Camp/Ghetto”, “Visual Arts: Camp/Ghetto”, “Galleries of Holocaust Images”):

http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/sitemap/sitemap.htm
5. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia (includes “The Camp System”): http://ushmm.org/wlc/en/
B. Readings:

Teacher


1. Against All Hope: Resistance in the Nazi Concentration Camps 1938 – 1945 by Hermann Langbein. New York: Continuum Publishing Company, 2001.
2. Out of the Whirlwind: A Reader of Holocaust Literature edited by Albert H. Friedlander. New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
3. They Fought Back: The Story of the Jewish Resistance in Nazi Europe by Yuri Suhl. New York: Schocken Books, 1974. Anthology of thirty-three essays which documents Jewish resistance.
Student

1. Auschwitz: The Story of a Nazi Death Camp by Clive A. Lawton. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press, 2002. Brief introduction to the organization of the largest death camp.


* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

2. Fragments of Isabella: A Memoir of Auschwitz by Isabella Leitner. New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1983. Stirring account of survival in the midst of destruction. The author describes her struggle as a young girl to hold her family together after their mother is killed.


*3. I am Rosemarie by Marietta Moskin. New York: Dell Publishing, 1987. Based on the author’s life story, this novel traces the experience of a Dutch Jewish girl and her family, deported first to Westerbork transit camp and eventually to Bergen-Belsen.
*4. I Promised I Would Tell by Sonia Schreiber Weitz. Brookline , MA: Facing History and Ourselves, 1994. Sonia Weitz, poet and survivor of the Holocaust, has created a vivid tapestry of her years in Poland - first her childhood in Krakow and then the years she spent in concentration camps. Through diary entries and poetry, Weitz has produced a book that speaks directly to students today.
5. Night by Elie Wiesel. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006. Profound memoir of the author’s boyhood experience, from the ghettoization of his hometown of Sighet, Hungary, through his deportation, experience in Auschwitz and death march. Contains a new preface by the author.
6. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity by Primo Levi. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995 edition. The classic memoir of the young Italian chemist who spent ten months in Auschwitz details the camp experience as well as its ethical dimensions. New edition includes conversation between Levi and Philip Roth.
*7. Surviving Hitler: A Boy in the Nazi Death Camps by Andrea Warren. New York: Harper Collins, 2001. This moving account of concentration camp survivor Jack Mandelbaum traces his experiences from age twelve to eighteen, supported by other prisoners and his hope for the future.
C. Media: (Video)

1. Auschwitz: If You Cried, You Died. Two survivors chronicle their journey back to Auschwitz and recount their experience there as teenagers. Interwoven with current pictures of the camp is explicit footage of the Nazi era. Color and black and white; 30 minutes.


2. Camp of Hope and Despair: Westerbork Concentration Camp, 1939 – 1945. Unique film record of the Dutch transit camp from which approximately 100,000 prisoners were deported to Auschwitz and Sobibor. Original footage, interspersed with survivor testimony, documents how prisoners continued with their lives – through education, self-help and religious observance – despite impending deportation. Color and black and white; 1 hour.

3. Escape from Sobibor. Dramatization of the largest prisoner escape from a Nazi death camp stars Alan Arkin, Rutger Hauer and Joanna Pakula. Color; 2 hours.


4. Kitty: Return to Auschwitz. Kitty Hart, a survivor who spent her teen years in Auschwitz, returns to the camp with her son to describe her experience. Color; 1 hour, 20 minutes.
5. Triumph of Memory. Non-Jewish resistance fighters sent to Nazi concentration camps recount their experience in Mauthausen, Buchenwald and Auschwitz-Birkenau. Color; 30 minutes.
V. Topic: CULTURAL RESISTANCE: ART, MUSIC, POETRY AND EDUCATION

A. Websites:

1. Ghetto Fighters’ House

“Learning About the Holocaust through Art” (includes artwork, artists, methodology):



http://art.holocaust-education.net/

* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

2. A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust (“Art” including visual arts, literature, and music):



http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/art.htm

3. Yad Vashem – On-line Exhibitions (including “Art Museum Collection”, “Felix Nussbaum”, “Private Tolkatchev at the Gates of Hell): http://yadvashem.org.il


4. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Online Exhibition "Music of the

Holocaust" http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/music/


B. Readings:

Teacher


1. The King of Children: A Portrait of Janusz Korczak by Betty Jean Lifton. New York: Schocken Books, 1989. Biography of physician/educator who headed a Warsaw Ghetto orphanage, using his unique educational philosophy of self-government and creative response to help his children through these perilous years and through their deportation to Treblinka.
2. The Living Witness: Art in the Concentration Camps and Ghettos by Mary S. Costanza. New York: The Free Press, 1982. Documentation and illustrations of the artists of the Holocaust, both adults and children, most of whom did not survive. Researched by post-war artist who devoted much of her own work to Holocaust themes.
Student

*1. Behind the Secret Window: A Memoir of a Hidden Childhood During World War II by Nelly S. Toll. New York: Dial Books, 1993. First-person account of an eight-year-old in hiding who used painting to express fantasy and hope in contrast to the fear and grief of her daily life. Illustrated with twenty-nine watercolor drawings.
*2. Fireflies in the Dark: The Story of Friedl Dicker-Brandeis and the Children of Terezin by Susan Goldman Rubin. New York: Holiday House, 2000. Story and drawings of the children of Terezin guided by artist/educator who perished with them in Auschwitz. Although formatted for middle school reader, the content is for high school and above.
*3. I Never Saw Another Butterfly: Children’s Drawings and Poems From Terezin Concentration Camp 1943 – 1944 edited by Hana Volavkova. New York: Schocken Books, 1993. Collection of drawings and poems of children of Terezin, significant for both their artistic merit and value in documenting their camp experience. Historical context is presented in the introduction by Chaim Potok.
*4. My Secret Camera: Life in the Lodz Ghetto photographs by Mendel Grossman, text by Frank Dabba Smith. New York: Gulliver Books, Harcourt, Inc., 2000. Photographs of ghetto inhabitant Mendel Grossman who secretly documented ghetto life. Although formatted for younger readers, the content and biographical notes are appropriate for middle school and above.
C. Media (Video):

*1. The Journey of Butterfly. Film based on I Never Saw Another Butterfly (see above), including drawings of the children of Terezin and their poetry set to the music by Cantor Emeritus Charles Davidson of Congregation Adath Jeshurun of Elkins Park. Color; 1 hour.
2. Kovno Ghetto: A Buried History. Documentary of ghetto life including an interview with and photographs by Zvi Kadushin who secretly recorded the broad range of ghetto experience. Color; 1 hour, 40 minutes.

* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.
3. Terezin Diary. Documentary of the experience of Terezin children, encouraged to draw, write and perform an opera to present a “model” ghetto in contrast to the devastating reality of ghetto conditions and deportation. Color; 1 hour, 30 minutes.

Media (Music):



*1. Hidden History: Songs of the Kovno Ghetto. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1997. CD which complements the video Kovno Ghetto: A Buried History, includes seventeen songs written and sung in the Ghetto.
*2. Rise Up and Fight: Songs of Jewish Partisans. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. CD, containing anthology of songs of Eastern European resistance fighters, features Theodore Bikel. Includes background and song texts in original language and English.
VI. Topic: THE EFFECT OF THE HOLOCAUST ON CHILDREN (See also “PERSONAL ACCOUNTS”)
A. Websites:

1. ADL "Children of the Holocaust Discussion Guide"



http://www.adl.org/main_Holocaust/default.htm
2. Museum of Tolerance "Children of the Holocaust"

http://www.museumoftolerance.com/site/pp.asp?c=arLPK7PILqF&b=249685

3. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum:

a. Holocaust Encyclopedia: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/ - Click on "Children" and see "Related Links"

b. Online Exhibition "Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust"  



http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/hiddenchildren/
B. Readings:

Teacher


1. Children With a Star: Jewish Youth in Nazi Europe by Deborah Dwork. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991. Social history of the daily lives of Jewish children in Nazi-occupied Europe, supplemented by oral histories, diaries, memoirs, photos and primary documents.
2. The Lost Generation: Children in the Holocaust by Azriel Eisenberg. New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1982. First-hand accounts collected from diaries, memoirs and autobiographies of the persecution of children and adolescents as well as experiences with hiding, false papers, partisans and resistance.
Student

*1. Children in the Holocaust and World War II: Their Secret Diaries by Laurel Holliday. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1995. Excerpts of poignant diaries written during World War II and the Holocaust by young people between the ages of ten and eighteen. Courage, humor, pain, rage and fear – these diaries were an outlet for emotions and an invaluable record of the broad range of children’s experiences.
2. Kinderlager: An Oral History of Young Holocaust Survivors by Milton J. Nieuwsma. New York: Holiday House, 1998. First-person accounts of three women who were child survivors of Auschwitz-Birkenau in a special section called the Kinderlager. In their own words, they document their lives before the war, their arrival at the camp, liberation by the Soviet Army in 1945 and the lives they rebuilt after the war.

* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.
*3. We Are Children Just the Same: Vedem, the Secret Magazine of the Boys of Terezin by Maria Krizkova. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1995. The secret weekly magazine created by teenage boys in Terezin was saved by one of the surviving boys. Suppressed in Czechoslovakia for fifty years, these powerful writings and drawings take the reader inside children’s ghetto’s life.
C. Media: (Video)

*1. Children Remember the Holocaust. This documentary depicts the Holocaust from the point of view of the children who experienced Nazi persecution. Excerpts from diaries, memoirs, letters and oral histories provide narration for photographs and archival footage. CAUTION: The first 30 minutes only are recommended for grades 7 - 8, due to graphic images in the second half. Color; 1 hour.
2. One Survivor Remembers. Through a series of interviews, photographs and footage shot on location, survivor and author Gerda Weissmann Klein guides viewers through her teenage years during the Holocaust. Winner of the Academy Award for best short documentary. Her written memoir is titled All But My Life. New York: Hill and Wang, 1971. Color and black and white; 40 minutes.
*3. Tak.for.Alt – Survival of the Human Spirit: The Story of Judy Meisel. Holocaust survivor traces her excruciating journey from Lithuanian shtetl to Kovno ghetto to Stutthof concentration camp. Eventual refuge in Denmark leads to her lifelong commitment to social activism. Teacher’s guide. Color and black and whilte; 1 hour.
VII. Topic: PERSONAL ACCOUNTS (See also "The Effect of the Holocaust on Children")
A. Websites
1. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Online Exhibition "Holocaust Personal Histories" http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/phistories/
2. Yad Vashem

http://www1.yadvashem.org/remembrance/rememberance_day/rememberance_day2005/Torchlighters.html
B. Readings:

1. All But My Life by Gerda Weissmann Klein. New York: Hill and Wang, 1971. Eloquent memoir recounts author’s family life in pre-war Poland, wartime persecution and liberation. One Survivor Remembers, 1995 Academy Award for Best Short Documentary, combines her story with photographs and footage shot on location. Color and black and white; 40 minutes.



*2. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. New York: Doubleday, 1995. A newly-translated edition including thirty percent more of the original diary.
* 3. Between the Lines: Letters from the Holocaust by Anne L. Fox. New Jersey: ComteQ Publishing, 2005. Rare collection of original wartime correspondence between Jewish parents caught in Germany and their children in England. Painful insight into separation of families and desperate attempts to reunite.
4. The Cage by Ruth M. Sender. New York: Macmillan, 1986. Explicit description of author’s life in Poland, beginning just before the invasion and continuing through her experience in the Lodz Ghetto and Auschwitz. To Life , the sequel, continues her narrative from liberation to emigration to the U.S. in 1950.
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

5. Diary of Dawid Sierakowiak: Five Notebooks from the Lodz Ghetto edited by Alan Adelson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Powerful and detailed record kept by a Polish teenager who died of starvation and illness in the Lodz Ghetto.


6. Dry Tears: The Story of a Lost Childhood by Nechama Tec. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. Powerful account of the author’s family in wartime Poland and their survival in hiding in the “Aryan” side of the ghetto. Her description through the lens of her childhood memories is enhanced by her adult perspective.
*7. Hannah Senesh: Her Life and Diary by Hannah Senesh. New York: Schocken Books, 1973. Safe in Palestine during War World II, poet and resistance fighter Hannah Senesh volunteered for a mission to help rescue Jews in her native Hungary. She was captured by the Nazis, stood up to imprisonment and torture, and was executed at the age of twenty-three.
8. Night by Elie Wiesel. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006. Profound memoir of the author’s boyhood experience, from the ghettoization of his hometown of Sighet, Hungary, through his deportation, experience in Auschwitz and death march. Contains a new preface by the author.
9. Salvaged Pages: Young Writers Diaries of the Holocaust by Alexandra Zapruder. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002. Fifteen diary excerpts written by young people during the Holocaust are introduced with extensive biographical information. Ten segments are translated into English and published for the first time.
*10. Upon the Head of the Goat: A Childhood in Hungary, 1939-1944 by Aranka Siegal. London: Dent, 1982. From the standpoint of a nine-year-old girl, yet written for a more advanced reader, the author details the bewilderment of a Jewish child during the German occupation of her home town and the ordeal of trying to survive in the ghetto.
C. Media: (Video)

*1. Anne Frank in Maine. This sensitive documentary follows a junior high school class in Kennebunk, Maine, as it prepares to perform The Diary of Anne Frank. Color; 30 minutes.
2. To Bear Witness. 1981. Presents an extraordinary series of interviews with the survivors and liberators of the Nazi concentration camps. Color; 40 minutes.

VIII. Topic: ARE YOU YOUR BROTHER’S KEEPER?

A. Websites:

1. Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center

http://motlc.learningcenter.wiesenthal.org/  - Click on "Righteous Among the Nations”
2. Rescuers from the Holocaust: http://www.humboldt.edu/~rescuers/
3. A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust – Rescuers: http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/people/rescuer.html
B. Readings:

Teacher


Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage During the Holocaust by Gay Block and Malka Drucker with prologue by Cynthia Ozick. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 1992. Stories of forty-nine individuals who rescued Jews during the Holocaust in ten different countries. (Corresponding video: They Risked Their Lives: Rescuers of the Holocaust. Color; 55 minutes.)
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

Student


1. Alicia: My Story by Alicia Appleman-Jurman. New York: Bantam, 1988. Autobiography of a young Jewish girl who escaped from a firing squad and, at age 14, started an orphanage for other children whose families had been murdered. At 15, she began smuggling Jews to freedom in Palestine.

*2. Anne Frank Remembered: The Story of the Woman Who Helped to Hide the Frank Family by Miep Gies with Alison Leslie Gold. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1987. Powerful memoir of the daily struggle to save eight Jews in the terror of Nazi-occupied Amsterdam.
*3. Clara’s Story by Clara Isaacman with Joan Grossman. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1984. Gripping story of Clara Heller and her family, Romanian Jews living in Belgium, in constant danger of deportation from their places of hiding.
*4. Flying Against the Wind: The Story of a Young Woman Who Defied the Nazis by Ina R. Friedman. Brookline, MA: Lodgepole Press, 1995. Compelling story of Cato Bjontes van Beek, a non-Jewish German executed at the age of 22 for writing and circulating anti-Nazi flyers. Before her arrest, Cato has also aided Jews in hiding, smuggled Jews over the Alps, and helped starving French prisoners of war.
*5. Hannah Senesh: Her Life and Diary by Hannah Senesh. New York: Schocken Books, 1973. Safe in Palestine during World War II, poet and resistance fighter Hannah Senesh volunteered for a mission to rescue fellow Jews in her native Hungary. She was captured by the Nazis, withstood imprisonment and torture and was executed at the age of twenty-three.
*6. Rescue: The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust by Milton Meltzer. New York: Harper and Row, 1988. A range of accounts of both individual and communal rescue drawn from eyewitnesses, diaries, memoirs and letters.
7. Their Brothers’ Keepers by Philip Friedman. New York: Holocaust Library, 1978. Portraits of several Christian heroes and heroines who helped the oppressed escape Nazi terror.
*8. The Upstairs Room by Johanna Reiss. New York: HarperCollins, 1990. From a Dutch Jewish family, Reiss tells the story of the years she spent hiding with her sister in the farmhouse of a Dutch family who protected them. She relates her experiences after the war in a sequel, The Journey Back.
*9. Your Name is Renee: Ruth Kapp Hartz’s Story as a Hidden Child in Nazi-Occupied France by Stacey Cretzmeyer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999 edition. This beautifully written memoir is told through the eyes of a young German-Jewish child whose family has sought refuge in France. They are saved by brave French villagers and eventually young Ruth survives the war in a Catholic orphanage.
C. Media: (Video)

*1. Assignment Rescue: The Story of Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee. Documentary of heroic efforts of American magazine editor Varian Fry to rescue leading intellectuals and artists from the Nazis, despite U.S. State Department opposition. Black and white and color; 25 minutes. (Paperback book as well as study and resource guides available.)
*2. Courage to Care: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust. Profiles of ordinary civilians who followed their consciences, risking their lives to rescue Jews during the Holocaust. Color; 30 minutes. (Viewer’s guide available.)
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.
3. Daring to Resist: Three Women Face the Holocaust. Stories of three young Jewish women who fought back: one as part of the Dutch underground effort to hide Jews, another as part of the movement to smuggle Jews out of Europe to Palestine and one as a partisan. Color; 1 hour. (Comprehensive website at http://www.pbs.org/daringtoresist).
*4. Holocaust Hero: A Tree for Sugihara. Story of the Japanese diplomat who disobeyed direct orders of his government in order to rescue over 6,000 Lithuanian Jews. A tree planted at Yad Vashem honors Sugihara as one of the Righteous among the Nations. Color; 30 minutes.
*5. Nicholas Winton: The Power of Good. Emmy-Award winning documentary about the young Englishman who secretly evacuated 669 Czech children to Britain in advance of the Nazi invasion. Teacher’s guide including primary source documents. Color and black and white; 1 hour.
6. Raoul Wallenberg: Buried Alive. Canadian Academy Award Winner, 1984. Reconstructs the story of the young Swedish diplomat who saved the lives of over 100,000 Jews in Hungary before disappearing into Soviet prisons. He is included among the Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem. Color; 1 hour.
7. Schindler’s List, directed by Steven Spielberg, Academy Award winner, 1993. Staring Liam Neeson, Ben Kingsley and Ralph Fiennes. Dramatic version of the true story of Oskar Schindler, Nazi party member and war profiteer, who saved the lives of over 1,100 Jews during the Holocaust. He is included among the Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem. Adapted from Thomas Keneally’s book of the same name. Color and black and white; 3 hours, 20 minutes. (Study guides available as well as online manual, “Schindler’s List Teaching Guide”: http://www.tulane.edu/~so-inst/slindex.html ).
*8. Unlikely Heroes. Seven remarkable stories of individual Jewish resistance to Nazi persecution. Includes archival footage, interviews, and narration by Sir Ben Kingsley. Format permits viewing as separate films. Color; 2 hours.
IX. Topic: COMMUNITIES OF CONSCIENCE: RESCUE AND RESISTANCE
A. Websites.

1. Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation: http://www.jewishpartisans.org/


2. Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center: http://motlc.learningcenter.wiesenthal.org/  - Click on "Resistance and Rescue"
B. Readings:

Teacher


1. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed: The Story of the Village of Le Chambon and How Goodness Happened There by Philip P. Hallie. New York: Harper and Row, 1979. Story of a small Protestant village in south central France during World War II whose citizens shielded 5,000 Jews, many of whom were children.
2. “The Rescue of Danish Jews: A Fiftieth Anniversary Commemoration.” Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies, Vol. 7, No. 5. Anti-Defamation League’s Braun Center, 1993.

3. The Rescue of Danish Jewry by Leni Yahil. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1969. The in-depth study of Danish Jewry.


* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.

Student


*1. The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men who Defied the Nazis, Built a Village in the Forest and Saved 1,200 Jews by Peter Duffy. New York: Perennial (HarperCollins), 2004. Authentic narrative of the largest Jewish fighting and rescue force during

the war.
*2. Darkness over Denmark: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews by Ellen Levine. New York: Holiday House, 2000. Illustrated history of the rescue of the Danish Jews. Ordinary citizens, under the leadership of King Christian, defied the Gestapo and spirited an estimated 7,000 Jews to safety in Sweden.


3. The White Rose: Munich 1942-1943 by Inge Scholl. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, re-issued 1983. The extraordinary account of a small group of German university students who risked their lives to protest Nazi atrocities and were condemned and executed for "high treason." Powerfully documented by the younger sister of two of the group members, Hans and

Sophie Scholl.


C. Media: (Video)

1. The Assisi Underground. Dramatization of the true story of the Catholic Church and the people of Assisi who rescued several hundred Italian Jews following the Nazi occupation of Italy in 1943. Color; 2 hours.


2. Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport. Academy Award winning documentary, 2000. Powerful story of the 10,000 Jewish children rescued from Nazi Europe by Great Britain in 1938 – 1939, told through interviews with both the rescued and the rescuers. Color and black and white; 2 hours.
*3. It Was Nothing . . . It Was Everything: Reflections on the Rescue of Greek Jews During the Holocaust. Accounts of rescue range from an archbishop and police chief to local townspeople and farmers who countered round-up orders of the SS. Color and black and white; 30 minutes. (Viewer’s guide available.)
*4. Miracle at Midnight starring Sam Waterson and Mia Farrow. Dramatization of the rescue of the Danish Jews told through the true story of one rescuing family. Color; 1 hour, 30 minutes.
*5. Rescue in Scandinavia. Underground movements in Norway, Denmark and Finland resisted German deportation orders by transferring thousands of Jews to safety in Sweden. Color and black and white; 1 hour. (Viewer’s guide available.)
*6. Resistance: Untold Stories of Jewish Partisans. Eye-witness accounts of resistance fighters who ambushed German patrols, sabotaged factories and supply trains, and rescued fellow Jews in towns and forests of Poland, Lithuania, and Belorussia. Color and black and white; 30 minutes.
*7. Weapons of the Spirit. The story of Le Chambon told through the perspective of filmmaker Pierre Sauvage, one of the rescued children. He returns to the village to interview several of the surviving rescuers in an attempt to understand their uncommon courage. Color; 40 minutes. (Classroom version of 90 minute film. Study guide available.)

*8. Zegota: A Time to Remember. Little known story of Polish resistance group, Council for Aid to the Jews, which saved thousands, including 2,500 children from the death camps. Color; 50 minutes. (Viewer’s guide available.)
* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.


X. Topic: THE WORLD WATCHED IN SILENCE

A. Websites:

1. Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center: http://motlc.learningcenter.wiesenthal.org/  -  Click on "The World Response"
2. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Online Exhibition "Voyage of the St. Louis":

http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/stlouis/
B. Readings:

Teacher


1. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941 – 1945 by David S. Wyman. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.
2. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy by Arthur Morse. New York: Ace Paperback, 1968.
Student

Voyage of the Damned by Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan Witts. Chelsea, MI: Scarborough House, 1990. Day by day reconstruction of the voyage of the St. Louis in May 1939. The ship, carrying 937 Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, was turned back by Cuba and the United States to their fate in Europe.
C. Media: (Video)

1. America and the Holocaust: Deceit and Indifference. Comprehensive PBS documentary tracing the inaction of the US government regarding the millions of Jews targeted for death by the Nazis. The tragic story is told on two levels: the personal account of Kurt Klein, a Jewish refugee trying to save his parents and through the documented evidence of the US government’s official policy. Color and black and white; 1 hour, 30 minutes. Comprehensive website can be found at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/holocaust/tguide/index.html.


2. Now…After All These Years. Interviews with residents of a small town in Germany where the Jewish population was completely eliminated by 1939. Color; 1 hour.
3. Sea Tales: The Doomed Voyage of the St. Louis. Using original film footage, interviews with both survivors and historians, and dramatic narration, this video documents the story of the voyage of the St. Louis – a ship which was sent from 1939 Germany to Cuba carrying 937 Jews desperately trying to escape Nazi persecution. Color and black and white; 50 minutes.
4. Voyage of the Damned directed by Stuart Rosenberg, 1976. Documentary/drama about the St. Louis. Color; 3 hours.
XI. Topic: LIBERATION AND ITS AFTERMATH

A. Websites:

1. Museum of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center:

http://motlc.learningcenter.wiesenthal.org/   - Click on "After the War"
2. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Online Exhibition "Life Reborn - Jewish Displaced Persons 1945-1951: http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/dp/


* May be considered for 7th - 8th grades.
B. Readings:

Teacher


The Liberators: Eyewitness Accounts of the Liberation of Concentration Camps edited by Yaffa Eliach and Brana Gurewitsch. Center for Holocaust Studies, 1981. Oral history testimonies by American liberators describe their initial responses to the concentration camps in 1945. History is brought to life by the immediacy of these first-person accounts by infantryman, officers, a female war correspondent, medical corps members, and a black combat soldier, then nineteen-years-old. No longer silent, these ten witnesses provide irrefutable documentation of the camps. Many of the accompanying photographs were shot by the liberators themselves; others are official US Army documents.
Student

*1. After the Holocaust by Howard Greenfield. New York: Greenwillow Books, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers, 2001. Personal accounts of eight young survivors who detail their lives after liberation from concentration camps and from hiding, tracing their post-war journey through displaced persons camps, illicit border crossings and emigration.
2. In Evedena: Poems of the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps by Barbara Helfgott Hyett. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986. Part of a team that interviewed American liberators of concentration camps, Hyett translated their words into these poems. The selections are brief and the language is spare and stark, reflecting the difficulty these men had in articulating the horrors they witnessed.
C. Media: (Video)

*1. Exodus 1947. Original crew of the Hagganah ship Exodus narrates their perilous attempt to get Holocaust survivors to safety in pre-state Israel after the end of WWII. Color and black and white; 1 hour.
2. Holocaust: Liberation of Auschwitz. Encyclopedia Britannica. Filmed by Soviets, this film lingers on the faces of the inmates. Commentary describes the selection process, medical experiments, and daily life at Auschwitz. Soviet cameraman, Alexander Vorontsov, shares his impressions of the liberation. CAUTION: Highly graphic footage is included. Color and black and white; 20 minutes.
3. The Long Way Home. Archival footage and personal testimonies tell the powerful aftermath of the Holocaust for those who survived. Color and black and white; 2 hours.
4. Nuremberg . Historically correct adaptation of novel Nuremberg: Infamy on Trial by Joseph Persico, focuses on U.S. prosecutor Robert Jackson (played by Alec Baldwin) and Herman Goering (played by Brian Cox). Color; 3 hours.
5. Nuremberg: Tyranny on Trial. Absorbing documentary of unprecedented judicial proceedings after WWII, focusing on evidence, testimony, archival film, courtroom strategy and legal innovations. Color and black and white; 50 minutes.
6. Opening the Gates of Hell: American Liberators of the Nazi Concentration Camps. American liberators of the Nazi concentration camps share their memories of what they saw.

Interviews are effectively combined with historic photos and footage showing camps that were liberated by Americans: Buchenwald, Nordhausen, Dachau, Landsberg, and Mauthausen. CAUTION: Highly graphic footage is included. Color and black and white; 45 minutes.


* may be considered for 7th - 8th grades.
For general information from the Resource Center for Educators, US Holocaust Museum in Washington, D. C. contact: E-mail: education@ushmm.org Internet: http://www.ushmm.org/ Telephone (202) 488-2661
JGF/brk Rev. 5/07



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