Module Aims and Learning Objectives Strategic aims of the course



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Diplomatic Systems

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Politics and International Relations

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University of Leicester

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18 Feb 2010

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Module Aims and Learning Objectives

Strategic aims of the course

The general aims of this module are to examine (a) the conditions in which diplomacy is stimulated, (b) the nature of the different diplomatic systems that arise as a result of variations in these conditions, and (c) how the effectiveness of a diplomatic system is best judged. It then proceeds by looking first at diplomacy operation in various historical and contemporary case studies. Including the 'French system' of diplomacy, that is, the diplomatic system of Europe from the seventeenth century until the First World War, as well as a detailed examination of the Anglo-American system of Diplomacy. The module also considers the issues of Diplomatic immunity, protocol and the role played by the resident embassy, building towards an examination of Summitry in Diplomatic relations.

By the end of this module students should:


  • have understood and assimilated the main features of the most important diplomatic systems of the past,

  • have a strong grasp of the conditions in which diplomacy is most likely to flourish,

  • be able to think critically, analytically and conceptually about the subject matter; and

  • have developed their essay writing skills and their presentation skills via the distance learning format.

Key skills

By the end of this module students should:



  • have improved their skills in written presentation;

  • have experience of learning through online discussions and independent study;

  • be able to access the University catalogue;

  • be able to word process their essays.

Module Texts

This module focuses on the different channels through which negotiations, as well as the other functions of diplomacy, are pursued. It is based deliberately on Part II of the third edition of G.R. Berridge’s graduate text, Diplomacy: Theory and Practice 3rd ed. (Palgrave-Macmillan: Basingstoke, 2005) of which the relevant sections will be linked to during the module’s weekly readings.

There is no single textbook for this module but the following may well be useful:


  • Anderson, M. S., The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450-1919 (1993)

  • Berridge, G. R. et al (eds), Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger (2001)

  • Berridge, G. R., Diplomatic Classics: Selected texts from Commynes to Vattel (2004)

  • Hamilton, Keith and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (1995)

  • Among reference works, students should also keep in mind:

  • Berridge, G. R. and Alan James, A Dictionary of Diplomacy, 2nd ed. (2003).

Useful journals are:

  • Diplomacy and Statecraft

  • Negotiation Journal

  • Foreign Affairs

  • International Negotiation (1996 to present with a 12-month delay via EBSCO)

  • Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Week 1: Introduction: Diplomatic Systems

Summary of topic

This topic will introduce discussion of a diplomatic system to students. It will address the concept of a 'diplomatic system' and look at the necessary and sufficient conditions for a diplomatic system. It is a chance for students to make initial estimations of the module material.



Guiding question

What do you understand a Diplomatic System to be?



Recommended reading

  • Anderson, M. S., The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450-1919 (1993)

  • Berridge, G. R., Diplomacy: Theory and practice, 3rd ed. (2005), Introduction.

  • Bull, H., The Anarchical Society (1977), Chapter 7

  • Wight, M., Systems of States (1977)

Pop quiz

1. What distinguishes a Diplomatic system?

2. Is it systematic?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 2: The Ancient Near East, Ancient Greece, Byzantine Diplomacy

Summary of topic

This topic seeks to identify the characteristics that typified each of these eras, by asking students to familiarise themselves with a range of materials.



Guiding question

What characterised diplomacy in each of these eras?



Recommended reading

The Ancient Near East

  • Beckman, G. M. and H. A. Hoffner, Hittite Diplomatic Texts (Atlanta, GA, 1996)

  • Bozeman, A. B., Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed (1994), Chapter 1

  • Cohen, R., and R. Westbrook (eds), Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations (2000) (Google books preview)

  • Edwards, I. E. S., et al (editors), The Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd ed, vol. II, part 2: History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region, c.1380-1000 B.C. (1975)

  • Liverani, M., International Relations in the Ancient Near East (2002), Intro. & Chapter 10

  • Meier, S. A., The Messenger in the Ancient Semitic World (1988)

  • Moorey, P. R. S., 'Pictorial evidence for the history of horse-riding in Iraq before the Kassite period', Iraq 32 (1972), pp. 36-50

  • Moran, W. L., The Amarna Letters (1992)

  • Munn-Rankin, J. M., 'Diplomacy in Western Asia in the early second millenium B.C.', Iraq 18 (1956)

  • Numelin, R., The Beginnings of Diplomacy (1950)

  • Roux, G., Ancient Iraq, 3rd ed (1992)

Ancient Greece

  • Adcock, F. and D. J. Mosley, Diplomacy in Ancient Greece (Thames and Hudson: London, 1975)

  • Aeschines, 'On the Embassy', trsl. by C. D. Adams (1919), Ancient History Sourcebook

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/aeschines-embassy.html

  • Bozeman, A. B., Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed (1994), Chapters 2 & 3

  • Demosthenes, 'On the Crown' and 'On the Misconducted Embassy'

  • Rome (1911), pp. 147-56 [proxenia], 302-46 [embassies]

  • Frey, L. S. and M. L. Frey, The History of Diplomatic Immunity (1999), pp.14-19

  • Grant, J. R., 'A note on the tone of Greek diplomacy', The Classical Quarterly, New Series, 15 (2), Nov. 1965, pp. 261-6

  • Hamilton, K. and R. Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (1995), pp.8-12

  • Mosley, D. J., Envoys and Diplomacy in Ancient Greece (1973)

  • Nicolson, H., The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954), Chapter 1

  • Starr, C. G., Political Intelligence in Classical Greece (1974), Chapter 3

  • Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, Bk. 5

  • Wallace, M. B., 'Early Greek proxenoi', Phoenix, vol. XXIV (1970), pp.189-208

  • Watson, A., Diplomacy: The dialogue between states (1982), Chapter 7

  • Westlake, H. D., 'Diplomacy in Thucydides', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 53 (1970-1), pp. 227-46

Byzantine:

  • Bozeman, A. B., Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed (1994), pp.324-40

  • Brown, H. F., 'The Venetians and the Venetian quarter in Constantinople to the close of the twelfth century', Journal of Hellenic Studies, XL (1920), pp. 68-88

  • Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol. 4 (1984), 'Diplomacy, Byzantine' (E. E. Wozniak)

  • Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio, vol. 1 (1949), vol. 2, Commentary (1962)

  • Dvornik, Francis, Origins of Intelligence Services (Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, N.J., 1974), pp. 165-87

  • Hamilton, K. and R. Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (1995), pp. 14-20

  • 'Liutprand of Cremona: Report of his Mission to Constantinople' [968AD], Medieval

Sourcebook, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/liudprand1.html

  • Miller, D. A., 'The Logothete of the Drome in the Middle Byzantine period', Byzantion, vol. 36, 1966, pp. 438-70

  • Nicol, D., Byzantium and Venice: A study in diplomatic and cultural relations (1988), pp. 33-4, 39-42, 56-62, 302-8, 339-47, 364-5, 374-80

  • Nicolson, H., The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954), Chapter 2

  • Discussion Paper in Diplomacy 102, The Hague, Clingendael Institute, December 2005

  • Obolensky, D., 'The principles and methods of Byzantine diplomacy', in Actes du XII Congrès international d'études byzantines (1964), pp. 45-61.

  • Obolensky, D., The Byzantine Commonwealth (1971)

  • Ostrogorsky, G., 'The Byzantine Empire and the Hierarchical World Order', Slavonic and East European Review, vol. 35 (1965), pp. 1-14

  • Runciman, S., Byzantine Civilization (1933), pp. 155-62

  • Vasiliev, A. A., History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453, 2nd ed. (1952)

Pop quiz

1. What type of representatives were typically sent in each of these eras?

2. Which attributes of each era would you bring together to ensure success in Diplomacy?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 3: Medieval Europe, Renaissance Europe, Ottoman unilateral diplomacy

Summary of topic

This topic seeks to identify the characteristics that typified each of these eras, by asking students to familiarise themselves with a range of materials.



Guiding question

What characterised diplomacy in each of these eras?



Recommended reading

Medieval Europe:

  • Bozeman, A. B., Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed (1994), Chapter 13

  • Cuttino, G. P., English Diplomatic Administration, 1259-1339, 2nd ed (1971)

  • Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol. 4 (1984), 'Diplomacy, Western European' (Queller)

  • Earle, Peter, ‘The Commercial Development of Ancona 1479-1551’, The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol.22, No.1 (April 1969), pp.28-44.

  • Funck-Brentano, F., 'Le caractère religieux de la diplomatie au moyen âge', Revue d'histoire diplomatique, i, 1887

  • Gillett, Andrew, Envoys and Political Communication in the Late Antique West, 411-533 (CUP, 2003)

  • Hamilton, K. and R. Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (1995), pp. 22-28

  • Hill, D. J., A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe, vol. I (1905), pp. 295-9, 359-61

  • Kafadar, Cemal “A Death in Venice: Anatolian Muslim Merchants Trading in the Serenissima,” Journal of Turkish Studies 10 (1986)

  • Mattingly, G., Renaissance Diplomacy (1965)

  • Queller, D. E., The Office of Ambassador in the Middle Ages (1967)

  • Ravid, B ‘A Tale of Three Cities and their Raison d’Etat: Ancona, Venice and Livorno and the Competition for Jewish Merchants in the Sixteenth Century,’ Mediterranean Historical Review 6(2), 1991

  • Tr. Stoianovich, ‘The Conquering Balkan Othodox Merchant,’ Journal of Economic History 19 (1960)

  • Theunissen, H., 'Ottoman-Venetian diplomatics: The 'Ahd-names', Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies, I (1998)

Renaissance Europe:

  • Anderson, M. S., The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450-1919 (1993), Chapter 1

  • Berridge, G. R. et al (eds), Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger (2001)

  • Berridge, G. R., Diplomatic Classics: Selected texts from Commynes to Vattel (2004)

  • Bozeman, A. B., Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed (1994), Chapter 13

  • Carman, E. 'Diplomacy through the grapevine: time, distance, and sixteenth-century ambassadorial dispatches', http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~epf/1997/carman.html

  • Frey, L. S. and M. L. Frey, The History of Diplomatic Immunity (1999),Chapters 4-6

  • Frigo, Daniela (ed), Politics and Diplomacy in Early Modern Italy (2000)

  • Hale, J. R. (ed), Renaissance Venice (1973), Chapter 6 (Queller)

  • Hamilton, K. and R. Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (1995), Chapters 2 and 3

  • Hill, D. J., A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe, vol.II (1906)

  • Mattingly, G., Renaissance Diplomacy (Penguin, 1965)

  • Nicolson, H., The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954), Chapter 2

  • Russell, J. G., Diplomats at Work: Three Renaissance studies (1992)

  • Wright. M. (ed.), Theory and Practice of the Balance of Power, 1486-1914 (1975)

Ottoman unilateral diplomacy:

  • Berridge, G. R., 'Diplomatic integration with Europe before Selim III', in Yurdusev (ed), Ottoman Diplomacy (2004)

  • Berridge, G. R., ‘Notes on the origins of the diplomatic corps: Constantinople in the 1620s,’Clingendael Discussion Paper in Diplomacy 92, The Hague, Clingendael Institute, May 2004

  • Brown, H. F., Studies in the History of Venice, vol. II (John Murray: London, 1907), pp. 1-38

  • Bull, H. and A. Watson (eds), The Expansion of International Society (1984), ch. 10 (Naff)

  • Cassels, L., The Struggle for the Ottoman Empire, 1717-1740 (1966)

  • Findley, C. J., 'The foundation of the Ottoman foreign ministry', International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 4, 1972

  • Mansel, P., Constantinople: City of the world's desire, 1453-1924 (1995), Chapters 6 and 8

  • Naff, T., 'Reform and conduct of Ottoman diplomacy in the reign of Selim III, 1789-1807', Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 83, 1963

  • Vaughan, D. M., Europe and the Turk (1954)

  • Yurdusev, A. N. (ed), Ottoman Diplomacy (2004)

Pop quiz

1. What type of representatives were typically sent in each of these eras?

2. Which attributes of each era would you bring together to ensure success in Diplomacy?

3. What are the merits of the Ottoman’s unilateral approach?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic

Week 4: The French System and the development of Modern Diplomacy

Summary of topic

The French System came to dominate European Diplomacy. Here we investigate the antecedents of the system, its key facets and the foundations it laid.



Guiding question

What was the defining characteristic of the French system of diplomacy?



Recommended reading

  • Adair, E. R., The Exterritoriality of Ambassadors in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1929)

  • Anderson, M. S., The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450-1919 (1993), Chapters 2 and 3

  • Berridge, G. R., Diplomatic Classics: Selected texts from Commynes to Vattel (2004)

  • Callières, François de, The Art of Diplomacy, ed. by H. M. A. Keens-Soper and Karl W. Schweizer (1993)

  • Dockrill, Michael and Brian McKercher (eds.), Diplomacy and World Power, (Cambridge University Press, 1996)

  • Frey, L. S. and M. L. Frey, The History of Diplomatic Immunity (1999)

  • Gulick, E. V., Europe's Classical Balance of Power (1955)

  • Hamilton, K. and R. Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (1995), Chapter 4

  • Horn, D. B., The British Diplomatic Service, 1689-1789 (1961)

  • Jones, R. A., The Nineteenth Century Foreign Office (1971)

  • Jones, R. A., The British Diplomatic Service, 1815-1914 (1983)

  • Lachs, P. S., The Diplomatic Corps under Charles II and James II (1965)

  • Langhorne, R, The Foreign Office Before 1914, Historical Journal Vol. 16 No.4 1973

  • Nicolson, H., Peacemaking 1919 (1933)

  • Nicolson, H., Diplomacy (1939)

  • Nicolson, H., The Congress of Vienna (1946)

  • Nicolson, H, Peacemaking at Paris: Success, Failure or Farce?, Foreign Affairs; an American Quarterly Review, 25:1/4 (1946/1947) p.190

  • Nicolson, H., The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954), Chapters 3 and 4

  • Steiner, Z., The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy, 1898-1914 (1969)

  • Watson, A., Diplomacy: The dialogue between states (1982), Chapter 8

  • Wicquefort, Abraham de, The Embassador and His Functions, translated into English by John Digby in 1716, repr. by the Centre for the Study of Diplomacy, University of Leicester, 1997; first publ. as L'Ambassadeur et Ses Fonctions (1680/1).

Pop quiz

1. In a sentence, what for you characterises the ‘French system’?

2. What rivals are there to the French system?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 5: The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961)

Summary of topic

The VCDR sought to codify elements of Diplomatic Relations at the height of the Cold War. The Optional Protocols and Final Act covered a number of areas that had long concerned diplomats: diplomatic missions, privileges and immunities.



Guiding question

What has the VCDR brought to governance of Diplomatic relations?



Recommended reading

  • VCDR (1961), http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_1_1961.pdf

  • Berridge, G. R., Diplomatic Classics (2004), Chapters 4, 5, 8, and 14

  • Cahier, P., 'Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations', International Conciliation, no. 571, 1961

  • Denza, Eileen., Diplomatic Law: Commentary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, third eds (2008)

  • Hamilton, Keith and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy: its evolution, theory and administration (1995)

  • Hardy, M., Modern Diplomatic Law (1968)

  • Hillgruber, Christian, 'The Admission of New States into the International Community', European Journal of International Law 9 (1998)

  • Jennings, Sir Robert and Sir Arthur Watts (eds), Oppenheim's International Law, Volume I, Peace, 9th ed (1992), pp. 1090-2

  • Kerley, E. L., 'Some aspects of the Vienna Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities', American Journal of International Law, vol. 56, 1962

  • Kolsto, Pal. 'The Sustainability and Future of Unrecognised Quasi-States', Journal of Peace Research, 43 (6) 2006

  • Langhorne, R., 'The regulation of diplomatic practice: the beginnings to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961', Review of International Studies, vol. 18, no. 1, 1992

  • Langhorne, R., ‘The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations considered in the Contemporary Context,’Working Paper' International Studies Association Conference Paper 2009.

  • Lauterpacht, H., 'The codification of the law of diplomatic immunity', Transactions of the Grotius Society, vol. 40, 1955

  • Liang, 'Diplomatic intercourse and immunities as a subject for codification', American Journal of International Law, vol. 47, 1953

  • Lyons, A. B., 'Personal immunities of diplomatic agents', British Yearbook of International Law, vol. 31, 1954

  • Murty, B. S., The International Law of Diplomacy: the diplomatic instrument and world public order (1989)

  • Sen, B., A Diplomat's Handbook of International Law and Practice (1965)

  • United Nations Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities, A/CONF.20/14 and 14/Add. 1 (vols. 1 and 2 of summary records of plenary meetings and of meetings of the Committee of the Whole, etc.), UN Microcards 1961, Box III.

  • Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1956 and following

  • Young, E., 'The development of the law of diplomatic relations', British Yearbook of International Law, vol. 40, 1964, pp. 141-82

  • Wilson, C. E., Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities (1967), Chapter 1

Pop quiz

1. Where in Vienna as the UN Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities held?

2. What was the immediate context to the conference being held at that time?

3. What is the most significant feature of the VCDR?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic

Week 6: Bilateral diplomacy: conventional

Summary of topic

This topic is about the traditional resident embassy and the perennial question as to whether or not it has outlived its usefulness.



Guiding question

In what ways has the resident embassy evolved?



Recommended reading

  • Berridge, G. R., British Diplomacy in Turkey, 1583 to the present: A Study in the evolution of the Resident Embassy, (Leiden & Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009)

  • Berridge, G. R. and Alan James, A Dictionary of Diplomacy (2001)

  • Callières, François de, The Art of Diplomacy, ed. by H. M. A. Keens-Soper and Karl W. Schweizer (1993), first publ. 1716

  • Central Policy Review Staff, Review of Overseas Representation ['The Berrill Report] (HMSO: London, 1977)

  • Denza, E., Diplomatic Law: A Commentary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 2nd and 3rd edns (1998, 2008)

  • Donelan, M., 'The trade of diplomacy', International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 4, 1969

  • Eban, A., The New Diplomacy: International Affairs in the Modern Age (1983)

  • Edwards, R. D., True Brits: Inside the Foreign Office (1994)

  • Faber, R., A Chain of Cities: Diplomacy at the End of Empire (2000), esp. Chapter 10

  • Gotlieb, A., I'll be with you in a minute, Mr. Ambassador: The Education of a Canadian Diplomat in Washington (1991)

  • Henderson, N., Mandarin: The Diaries of an Ambassador, 1969-1982 (London, 1994)

  • Hurd, D., The Search for Peace (1997), Chapter 6

  • James, A. M., 'Diplomacy and International Society', International Relations, vol.6, no.6, 1980

  • Kaiser, P. M., Journeying Far and Wide: A Political and Diplomatic Memoir (1992), esp. pp.262-99

  • Kerley, E. L., 'Some aspects of the Vienna Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities', American Journal of International Law, vol.56, 1962

  • Loeffler, J. C., The Architecture of Diplomacy: Building America's Embassies (1998)

  • Mayers, D., The Ambassadors and America's Soviet Policy (1995)

  • Morgenthau, H. J., Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, 5th ed. (1978), Chapter. 31

  • Nicolson, Harold, Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954); Diplomacy, 3rd ed (1963)

  • Parsons, A., The Pride and the Fall: Iran 1974-1979 (1984)

  • Rana, K. S., Inside Diplomacy (2000)

  • Seitz, R., Over Here (1998)

  • Sharp, Paul & Geoffrey Wiseman, The Diplomatic Corps as an Institution of International Society, (Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

  • Stearns, M., Talking to Strangers: Improving American Diplomacy at Home and Abroad (1996), esp. Chapters 5, 7 and 8

  • Sullivan, W. H., Mission to Iran (1981)

  • Trevelyan, H. , Diplomatic Channels (1973)

  • Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961 [full text] (http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_1_1961.pdf)

  • Walden, G., Lucky George: Memoirs of an Anti-Politician (1999)

  • *Wicquefort, Abraham de, The Embassador and His Functions, trsl. into English by John Digby in 1716, repr. by the Centre for the Study of Diplomacy, University of Leicester, 1997; first publ. as L'Ambassadeur et Ses Fonctions (1680/1).

  • Wolfe, R. (ed), Diplomatic Missions: The Ambassador in Canadian foreign policy (1998)

Pop quiz

1. Why the traditional embassy is said by some to be obsolete

2. Why it has nevertheless survived? Answer with relevance to the following sections:

- commercial and economic work

- negotiating

- lobbying

- 'public diplomacy'

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 7: Consuls & Unconventional Residential Diplomacy

Summary of topic

This topic is about consular posts (including the consular sections of embassies) and in particular about 'consular functions'. Further we look at the less conventional resident methods of conducting diplomacy, chiefly via representative offices, interests sections, and front missions



Guiding question

1. To what extent does the work of consular officers differ from that of diplomats?

2. Distinguish between representative (or liaison) offices, interests sections, and front missions.

Recommended reading


  • Berridge, G. R., Talking to the Enemy (1994), pp. 44-9

  • Coates, P. D., The China Consuls: British consular officers, 1843-1943 (1988)

  • Cross, Charles T., Born a Foreigner: A Memoir of the American Presence in Asia (1999), Chapter 19

  • Dickie, J., The British Consul: Heir to a Great Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008)

  • Edwards, R. D., True Brits: Inside the Foreign Office (1994), Chapter 11

  • Fernandez, Ana Mar, ‘The Europeanisation of Consular Affairs: The Case of Visa Policy,’ Clingendael Discussion Paper in Diplomacy 105, The Hague, Clingendael Institute, October 2006

  • Kear, Simon, 'The British Consulate-General in Hanoi, 1954-73', Diplomacy and Statecraft, vol. 10(1), March 1999, pp. 215-39

  • James, Alan, 'Diplomatic relations and contacts', The British Yearbook of International Law 1991, vol. 62 (1992), pp. 347-87

  • Kissinger, Henry A., Years of Upheaval (1982), pp.60-3

  • Lee, Luke T., Consular Law and Practice, 2nd and 3rd edns (1991, 2008), parts 3, 5, and 6

  • Lloyd, L. ‘What’s in a name? The curious tale of the office of high commissioner’, Diplomacy & Statecraft (2000) 11/1 pp. 47-78

  • Lowe, V., 'Diplomatic law: protecting powers', International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 39(2), Apr.1990

  • Melissen, Jan (ed), Innovation in Diplomatic Practice (1999), Chapter 13

  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey, The Diplomats: The Foreign Office today (1977), Chapter 13

  • Newsom, David E. (ed), Diplomacy under a Foreign Flag: the protecting power and the interests section (1990)

  • Peterson, M. J., Recognition of Governments: Legal Doctrine and State Practice, 1815-1995 (1997), Chapter 7

  • Platt, D. C. M., The Cinderella Service: British consuls since 1825 (1971)

  • Rawnsley, Gary D., Taiwan's Informal Diplomacy and Propaganda (2000)

  • Review Committee on Overseas Representation, Report of the Review Committee on Overseas Representation 1968-1969 (HMSO: London, 1969), ch.IX

  • Suffot, E. Zev, A China Diary (1997)

  • Sullivan, Joseph G. (ed), Embassies Under Siege (1995)

  • Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963)(http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_2_1963.pdf)

  • European Convention on Consular Functions (1967) (http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/061.htm )

  • Whiteman, M. M., 'Diplomatic missions and embassy, protection of interests by third states', Digest of International Law (1970), pp.450-1

Pop quiz

1. Why did consular and diplomatic services, which were usually separate in the 19th century, merge in the course of the 20th?

2. Why are consular functions now of exceptional importance?

3. Discuss the concepts of 'diplomatic relations' and 'breach of diplomatic relations'

4. Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of representative (or liaison) offices, interests sections, and front missions.

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 8: Multilateral diplomacy: decision-making

Summary of topic

This topic is chiefly interested in the claim, now routinely made, that 'consensus decision-making' is the norm in almost all international organizations and conferences.



Guiding question

What are the advantages and disadvantages of consensus decision-making?



Recommended reading

  • Alexander, M., Managing the Cold War (2005)

  • Bailey, S. and Sam Daws, The Procedure of the UN Security Council, 3rd ed (1998)

  • Bourantonis, Dimitris and Marios Evriviades (eds), A United Nations for the Twenty-First Century (1996), Chapter 3 (by Henrikson)

  • Buzan, B., 'Negotiating by consensus: developments in technique at the UN Conference on the Law of the Sea', American Journal of International Law, 75(2), 1981, pp. 324-48

  • Deane, Shelley, 'Instituting Peace: Third Party Mediation and the Mitchell Effect' in Journal of Intervention and State Building. Vol 3 no.1 2009.

  • Jenks W., 'Unanimity, the veto, weighted voting, special and simple majorities and consensus as modes of decision in international organisations', in Cambridge Essays in International Law: Essays in honour of Lord McNair (1965)

  • Kahler, M., 'Multilateralism with small and large numbers', International Organization, 46(3), 1992

  • Kahler, M., Leadership Selection in the Major Multilaterals (2001)

  • Kaufmann, J. (ed), Effective Negotiation: Case Studies in Conference Diplomacy (1989)

  • Luard, E., The United Nations: How it works and what it does, 2nd ed. revised by D. Heater (1994), Chapter 1

  • Peters, J., Building Bridges: The Arab-Israeli Multilateral Talks (1994)

  • Ruggie, John Gerard, 'Multilateralism: anatomy of an institution', International Organization, 46(3), 1992

  • Ruggie, John Gerard, Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Practice of an Institutional Form (1993)

  • Sizoo, J. and R. T. Jurrjens, CSCE Decision Making: The Madrid Experience (1984)

Pop quiz

1. What are the different methods of decision-making (other than consensus) which can in principle be employed in multilateral diplomacy?

2. What is distinctive about consensus decision-making?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 9: Summitry

Summary of topic

The main point here is to analyse the different forms that summitry takes and consider whether they are all as anti-diplomatic as traditional diplomats have been inclined to suggest.

Students will be required to study specific examples of “Summits” depending upon their interests.

Guiding question

What characterises Summitry?



Recommended reading

  • Acheson, D., Present at the Creation (1969), Chapter 50

  • Ball, G., Diplomacy for a Crowded World (1976), Chapter 3

  • Bulmer, S. and W. Wessels, The European Council (1987)

  • Cohen, R., Theatre of Power (1987)

  • Clift, A. D., With Presidents to the Summit (1993)

  • De Magalhães, J. C., The Pure Concept of Diplomacy, (1988), pp. 54-7

  • Dobrynin, Anatoly. In Confidence: Moscow's Ambassador to America's Six Cold War Presidents 1962-1986. (New York: Times Books, 1995)

  • Dunn, D. H. (ed), Diplomacy at the Highest Level (1996)

  • Eubank, K., The Summit Conferences, 1919-1960 (1966)

  • Fairbanks, C. The Allure of Summits (1988)

  • Gorbachev, Mikhail, Memoirs (1997)

  • Kissinger, H. A., The Necessity for Choice (1960), pp.180-91

  • Kissinger, H. A., The White House Years, (1979), pp.769, 781, and 919-21

  • Merlini, C. (ed), Economic Summits and Western Diplomacy (1984)

  • Melisen, Jan, Summit Diplomacy Coming of Age, Discussion Papers in Diplomacy, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingendeal.

  • Nicolson, Harold, Peacemaking 1919 (1943)

  • Nixon, R. M., 'Superpower Summitry', Foreign Affairs, Autumn 1985

  • Plischke, Elmer, Summit Diplomacy: Personal Diplomacy of the President of the United States, (University of Maryland, 1958).

  • Plischke, Elmer, ‘Recent State Visits to the United States - A Technique of Summit Diplomacy’, World Affairs Quarterly. Vol. 29 (1958).

  • Post, J. and R. Robbins, When Illness Strikes the Leader (1993)

  • Putnam, R. D. and N. Bayne, Hanging together: Cooperation and conflict in the Seven Power Summits, 2nd ed (1988)

  • Rana, Kishan S., Inside Diplomacy, Chapter 10

  • Reynolds, David, Summits: Six Meetings that Shaped the Twentieth Century (2007)

  • Reynolds, David, 'Summitry as Intercultural Communication', International Affairs (2009) Vol. 85 No. 1 pp.115-127

  • Schaetzel, R., 'Talking heads', Foreign Policy, 51, 1980

  • Shultz, G. P., Turmoil and Triumph: My years as secretary of state (1993), Chapters 30, 36, 46, and 49

  • Vogel, H., 'The London Summit and the Soviet Union', Aussenpolitik, 42(4), 1991

  • Watt, D., The Inquiring Eye: A Selection of the Writings of David Watt, ed. F. Mount (1988), Chapter 1

  • Weihmiller, G. R. and D . Doder, US-Soviet Summits (1986)

  • Whelan, J. G., The Moscow Summit 1988 (1990)

Pop quiz

1. How important are summits to contemporary international relations?

2. What are the professional diplomats' anxiety about summitry?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



E-tivities

E-tivity 1: Access and Socialisation

Purpose:

Introduce yourself to your peers and familiarise yourself with the use of our forums.



Task: Please tell us a bit about yourself and what you are hoping to take from your programme and this particular module. To help us get to know each other, tell us about something on your workspace near your computer, be that at home or at work that says something about you (for example; a photo of friends, a memento of a holiday, or a cluster of “post-its”!)

Sign' your message with the name you'd like to be called during this course (e.g. Billy or Catherine), and post it to the E-tivity 1 forum.



Respond: Please comment on at least one other person’s description.

Outcome:

You will be able to post messages to a forum and post replies thereby engaging with your fellow students.

(We recommend you spend a minimum of 30 minutes on this e-tivity, although you are encouraged to continue to converse with your peers.)

E-tivity 2: Information Retrieval at the Library

Purpose:

To access e-resources and use a bibliographic database to find an article from an academic journal.



Task:

1. Discover how to access e-resources off campus (opens in a new window).

2. Go to your subject room (relevant to University of Leicester only). Choose an appropriate database to find an article from any academic journal on: Ancient Diplomacy (opens in a new window).

3. Go to the E-tivity 2 forum and post the full bibliographic details by (specify date and time). Remember, be precise and accurate, as your colleagues will need to find the article.



Respond: After this, return to the forum and please provide a brief analysis (400 words maximum) of the major argument in an article someone else has posted, before partaking in any subsequent discussion in the relevant forum.

Outcome:

You will be able to search the University’s databases, identify and access an article, and post the required bibliographic information, as well as beginning to analyse its content and share your thoughts.



E-tivity 3: Text Critique I (5%)

Purpose:

To analyse this well-known article and identify its major attributes:

Nicolson, Harold, ‘Diplomacy: then and now’, Foreign Affairs October 1961.

Or


Cohen, Raymond, 'The great tradition: The spread of diplomacy in the ancient world’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 12:1, pp. 23 — 38 2001

Task: Please read one of the articles above, then provide a brief analysis of it (maximum 400 words) to the E-tivity 3 forum by (specify date and time).

Respond: In the E-tivity 3 forum please post comments on your peer’s assessments by way of sharing your own articulation on the article, between (specify dates and times).

Outcome:

You will be able to analyse the content of a scholarly article and share your thoughts on it.

(We recommend you spend as much time as is necessary to read the article; up to 2 hours composing your analysis; and as much time as you are able participating in the forum).

E-tivity 4: Essay Plan (15%)

Purpose:

To provide you with bespoke guidance to complete your module essay.



Task: Please compose a plan of between 800-1000 words (not including suggested bibliography of a minimum of 10 sources) for an essay chosen from the list of module essay questions.

Please submit your plan by (specify date and time) as an attachment in an email to your Associate Tutor.

Where relevant be aware of the sources identified in the weekly readings.

Respond: Mindful of the need to avoid plagiarism, and that everybody will have their own take on this, please feel free to spend as much time as you are able discussing your approach in the E-tivity 4 forum.

Outcome:

You will have a clear idea as to the strengths and weakness of the approach you intend to undertake for your essay. Further you will have been notified of a particular source that you should consult for E-tivity 5.

(We recommend you spend a minimum of 6 hours researching amongst sources relevant to your essay topic; up to 2 hours composing your plan.)

We aim to return to your essay plan to you as soon as possible so you can begin the next e-tivity.



E-tivity 5: Text Critique II (5%)

Purpose:

To analyse a well-known article and identify its major attributes.

Your source will be identified in the feedback to your essay plan for E-tivity 4.

Task: This e-tivity has two parts.

First, please read the suggested source, then post its full bibliographic reference and a brief analysis of it (maximum 400 words) in the E-tivity 5 forum as soon as you are able, to allow your colleagues time to digest and respond.



Respond: Second, please post comments on how you think your reading of this article informs your essay. Of course your wider reading will also be relevant here, especially if the source that has been recommended represented a different school of thought from your initial reading.

Outcome:

You will be able to analyse the content of a scholarly article in relation to your own essay and share your thoughts on it.

(We recommend you spend as much time as is necessary to read the article; up to 2 hours composing your analysis; and as much time as you are able participating in the forum).

E-tivity 6: Module Essay (70%)

Purpose:

Capstone exercise bringing together elements of the weekly readings, and building upon the e-tivities to illustrate you have understood key aspects of the field of Diplomacy.



Task: Write a 5000 word essay at the MA level illustrating your analytical abilities from a list of questions below.

Your essay questions:

1. What defines a Diplomatic system and how are its successes measured?

2. Explain with reference to specific examples, the challenges to conducting diplomacy in either the Ancient Near East, or Ancient Greece or Byzantine eras.

3. Compare the main attributes (advantages and disadvantages) of two of the following eras of diplomacy: Medieval Europe, Renaissance Europe, and Ottoman unilateral diplomacy.

4. To what extent has the French System left a permanent legacy on the conduct of diplomacy?

5. To what extent did the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations address outstanding issues and enhance the prospects for successful international diplomacy?

6. “Diplomatic Immunity is an oxymoron in meeting the challenges of 21st century international politics”. Discuss.

7. Explain, with reference to specific examples, the role that the resident Embassy plays in conducting diplomacy.

8. How do you assess the importance of the work done within the various sections of the Embassy?

9. "Consensus decision-making is negotiation by another name." Discuss.

10. How far do you agree that the “Summits” of the Cold War have little relevance to understanding diplomacy either before or after the Cold War?

Outcome:

You will have met the learning objectives of the module in completing this aspect of the module.



Further details on the essay requirement for this module can be found under Module Information.


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