Modern U. S. History



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Name _______________________

Modern U.S. History


Mr. Kraft
Vietnam War

Origins


  1. Ho Chi Minh:

  1. Born – 1890

  2. Where – Vietnam

    • France Colonial Rule – Born under France and lived under France which caused him to hate France and anyone who stood for France.

  3. Leaves Vietnam – 1911

  4. Travels To: England, U.S., France, Soviet Union, and China

    • Why – To study other cultures and governments.

  5. Travel Timeline:

  • U.S. (1912 – 1914)

  • England (1914 – 1919)

  • France (1919 – 1923)

  1. French Communist Party (1919) – While living in France he formally joins the French Communist Party

  2. French Alias – Nguyen O Phap (Nguyen who hates the French)

  3. Writings – Wrote numerous articles and papers blasting France and how their colonial rule destroyed Vietnam politically, economically, and socially

  4. Paris Peace Conference to end WWI (1918 – 1919): Ho Chi Minh asked for Vietnam to be represented in France’s parliament.

    • Soviet Union (1923 – 1935)

  1. Meeting With Bolsheviks (1923) – Met Stalin and Trotsky, but failed to meet Lenin because of his death.

  2. Key Teaching – Any revolution could not be separated from the fight against colonialism and a revolution must never begin until all conditions favor its success.

    • China (1925 – 1927)

  1. Translator – Served as a translator for the Bolsheiviks were backing Chiang Kai-Shek who originally allied himself with the Chinese communist party after he gained control of China when Sun Yat-sen died and left the country to him.

      • East Asia and Southeast Asia (1927 – 1930) – Traveled throughout East and Southeast Asia preaching Communist ideas and recruited many followers. They all met at a soccer game in Hong Kong (English Land) in an attempt to be secretive and officially formed the Vietnamese Communist Party.

  1. Arrested (1930) – France had been keeping an eye on him after he bashed France in newspapers while living in France and tracked him to Hong Kong where they persuaded the English, who owned Hong Kong at the time, to arrest him.

  2. Hospital (1930) – Upon his arrest he was seen as having TB and sent to a prison hospital in Singapore.

  3. Fake Death (1933) – Friends at the prison hospital allowed him to escape and said he died instead, therefore causing the French to think he was dead and no longer worry about him carrying Communism to their colony of Vietnam.

    • Soviet Union (1934)

  • Returns to Vietnam (1941)


  1. Original Owner of Vietnam = China:

  1. Chinese Translation – Viet = “tribe of barbarians”, Nam = “south”




  1. French Indochina: 1847 – 1954

  1. French Colonies:

  • Vietnam

  • Laos

  • Cambodia

  1. Occupation:

    • French: 1887 – 1940

    • Japanese: (1940 – 1945) – Given to Japan by Germany after the formation of Vichy France.

    • French: (1945 – 1954) – Given back to France after WWII.




  1. Potsdam Conference (1945): “The Split”

  1. Split – Vietnam was split at the 17th parallel.

  2. Why – To disarm the Japanese in Vietnam.

  3. China – Chinese Nationalists under the leadership of Chiang Kai-Shek will move in and disarm the Japanese north of the 17th parallel.

  4. United Kingdom – Will move in and disarm the Japanese south of the 17th parallel.




  1. Vietnam Power Struggle: 1946 – 1947

  1. China Leaves – After disarming the Japanese the Chinese leave Vietnam in 1946 and the French and Vietnamese argue for control of the area.

  2. North Vietnam: Democratic Republic of Vietnam

  • LeaderHo Chi Minh

  • Government Type – Communist

  • Demand – France must recognize Vietnam as an independent country.

  1. South Vietnam: Republic of Chochinchina

  • LeaderBao Dai

  • Government Type – Democratic (French Protectorate)

  • Demand – Ho Chi Minh must leave North Vietnam and let it become democratic

  1. Clash:

    • N. Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh refuses to leave N. Vietnam.

    • S. Vietnam & French – South Vietnamese and French forces attack N. Vietnam.

    • Escape – Ho Chi Minh and his army escape to the jungles of N. Vietnam and begin a guerilla warfare campaign against the French and S. Vietnamese.

    • 1st Attack – Vietminh forces attack French forces for the first time on Dec. 19, 1946.




  1. Vietnamese Independence War: 1947 – 1954

  1. North (Communist): Vietminh

  • Leader – Ho Chi Minh

  1. South (Democratic):

  • Leader – Bao Dai

  • Support – Backed by the French government and military.

  • U.S. Support – 80% French supplies were from the U.S.

  • U.S. MAAG (1951) – Military Assistance Advisory Group

  1. Final Battle – Battle of Bein Dien Phu

  1. Result – Vietnamese gain independence from France.

  2. Geneva Accords (1954) – The 17th parallel is internationally recognized as the official boundary splitting North and South Vietnam.




  1. Vietnamese Civil War: 1954 – 1975

  1. North (Communist):

  • Leader – Ho Chi Minh

  1. South (Democratic):

  • Leader – Bao Dai

  • Support – Backed by the United States government and military = “Domino Theory”

  1. Result – North defeats the south and turns all of Vietnam into a communist country

  1. Terms:

  1. Vietminh / North Vietnamese Army (NVA) – Communist North Vietnam

  • Key General – Vo Nguyen Giap

  • NVA Air Force – none

  • NVA Navy – none

  1. Vietcong (VC) – Communist Vietnamese / National Liberation Front

  • Function – supporters of North Vietnam living in South Vietnam

  1. Ho Chi Minh Trail – Supply route from North Vietnam to South Vietnam, which helps aid the efforts of the Vietcong

  • Where – Through Cambodia and Laos (neutral countries).


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