Modern Science, Medicine, and Thought Inventors 1850 H. Bessemer



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Modern Science, Medicine, and Thought

Inventors

  1. 1850 H. Bessemer-

  2. 1859 Bessemer Process- iron to steel

  3. *mass produce- skyscrapers = easy city crowding

  4. 1889 Electric elevator makes skyscraper possible

  5. Early 1800’s A. Volta & M. Faraday- use of electricity

Inventors

  1. 1872 Z. Gramme (Belgian electrician)-

  2. 1st industrial dynamo- electric power using steam engines to spin electromagnets

  3. T. Edison- 1,000 inventions

  4. 1870- Menlo Park research lab

  5. 1879 1st practical electric light bulb

Inventors

  1. A. Graham Bell- (Scottish immigrant)

  2. 1876 telephone- sound waves of human voice to electric impulses

  3. 1895 Marconi- wireless radio

  4. J. Maxwell & H. Hertz- helped (worked w/ radio waves)

  5. Radio- wireless telegraph signals used electro-magnetic signals

  6. *mass communication (across Atlantic)




Inventors

  1. Gas Engine/Internal Combustion Engine (less explosions than steam)

  2. 1885 G. Daimler- 1st motorcycle w/ gas engine

  3. Ford and the Assembly Line- cars more people can buy

  4. Machines & mass production

  5. Interchangeable parts- easy repair

  6. War made mobile & quick

Inventors

  1. Wright Brothers- Kitty Hawk, NC

  2. Gas powered flight

  3. Slower development than car

  4. After 1900 most inventions came from research labs not individuals




Changes in Medicine & Science

Medicine

  1. Joseph Lister (Scottish surgeon)

  2. 1840’s- use of anesthesia

  3. ½ of surgical patients still died

  4. 1865- infection from dirty conditions in hospitals

  5. Carbolic acid- clean instruments

  6. 85% survival rate

Medicine

  1. L. Pasteur (French scientist)

  2. 1865 discovered bacteria- heat destroyed bacteria

  3. Pasteurization- process of heating a liquid to destroy bacteria

  4. 1885 Inoculation for rabies

  5. E. Jenner- 1875 widespread smallpox vaccine

Science- Biology

  1. G. Mendel- (Russian) 1860’s pattern to trait inheritance

  2. Foundation for genetics

  3. R. Koch- (German) discovers organisms that caused TB, cholera

Science- Chemistry

  1. J. Dalton (British)- 1803 all matter made of atoms

  2. D. Mendeleev (Russian)- 1869 use of periodic table

  3. M. & P. Curie (French)- 1898 discovered radioactivity (radium, polonium)

Science- Physics

  1. E. Rutherford (British)- atoms made of smaller particles (nucleus surrounded by 1+ electrons)

  2. M. Planck, N. Bohr, A. Einstein- studied forces that held atoms together

  3. Einstein- theory of relativity

Darwin’s Evolution & Social Darwinism

Charles Darwin

  1. 1809-1882 British biologist

  2. Accepted view- “Special creation”- every species created by God at the beginning of time

  3. Darwin- 1859 The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

  4. Outlines Evolution

Evolution

  1. Constant struggle for survival

  2. Variation- no individuals alike

  3. Variants with advantage more likely to survive & reproduce

  4. Differential reproduction = natural selection (EVOLUTION)

  5. Explains change over time, new species




Controversy

  1. Evolution contradicts Bible’s creation

  2. 1871 Darwin writes “The Descent of Man”- humans had evolved from earlier life forms

  3. Ape & man had common ancestor

Social Darwinism

  1. H. Spencer- English sociologist

  2. Apply Darwin to economics& politics

  3. Society- progress thru competition

  4. Economic comp= natural selection

  5. Socially- poor remained poor because they were unfit- govt. should not make laws that upset “natural” system of rich & poor

  6. Weak protected- humanity loses out

F. Nietzsche

  1. German philosopher

  2. Morality- only human convention

  3. Humans create moral order

  4. Glorify pride, strength, assertiveness

  5. Took Darwin further

  6. Some humans could and should evolve to a higher level- use of courage and willpower (Superman)

  7. Ideas used by Hitler

Nationalists & Imperialists

  1. Used Darwin & Nietzsche to support view

  2. Nations prove superiority through power, esp. military power

  3. Dictators use nationalism against democracy to justify oppressive govt.




Classical Economists

Thomas Malthus

  1. 1766 – 1834

  2. 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population

  3. Population outstrip food supply

  4. Condition of working class could not be improved

  5. Wages up- births up- consume more $ and food

David Ricardo

  1. Principles of Political Economy

  2. Iron law of wages”

  3. Wages up- births up- labor market up- wages down- births down- wages up…cycle repeats




Jeremy Bentham

  1. 1748 – 1832

  2. The Principles of Morals & Legislation

  3. Principle of Utility- greatest happiness for greatest number

  4. Overcome special interests of privileged groups- lead to rational govt.

  5. Poor Law Commission- poverty is worst social concern

John Stuart Mill

  1. 1806 – 1873

  2. Economic laws of production follow natural law

  3. Society could not alter existing distribution of income

  4. W/ wife used values of efficiency & utility to argue against inferior role assigned to women

Utopian Socialists

  1. Utopian- create ideal communities

  2. Socialists- questioned capitalism




Robert Owen

  1. 1771 – 1858

  2. Humans put in correct surroundings = improved character

  3. Education for kids, good living conditions, recreation

  4. New Lanark- humane industrial environment = possibility of good profit




Charles Fourier

  1. 1772 – 1837

  2. Industrialism ignored passionate side of humans

  3. Phalanxes- communities of liberated living

  4. Replace industrial boredom

  5. People happier more productive if changed tasks during the day

  6. Agrarian life dominated




Louis Blanc

  1. 1811 – 1882

  2. Organization of Labor

  3. End competition

  4. Political reform- give workers vote

  5. Vote improve economic life

  6. Workshops of workers replace private enterprise- employ poor




Modern Thinkers

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)

  1. Psychoanalysis

  2. Problems-tied to childhood experiences

  3. Reason may not determine behavior

  4. Sexuality basis for disorders

  5. Oedipus Complex

  6. Dreams release unconscious mind

  7. Organization of mind- id, ego, superego

Changes in the Role of Women

Women in the Industrial Age

  1. Women faced political and social inequality

  2. Women’s Social and Political Movement

  3. Organized by Emmeline Pankhurst

  4. Gain suffrage for women

  5. Hunger strikes

  6. Emily Davis- (martyr) jumped in front of King’s carriage

  7. Police tried to stop women’s protest

  8. Brought women’s issues to light




Economic Problems

  1. Result of Industrial Rev.

  2. Women earned ½ as much as men

  3. Trade unions for men- some stopped women from skilled jobs(better pay)

  4. Women formed own unions

  5. Lawmakers helped protect women

  6. Laws backfired- women fired




New Fields

  1. Late 1800’s- most servants, garment and textile workers

  2. Mid class- teachers, nursing, library, social work

  3. Few medical schools admitted women

  4. Some all women med schools opened

  5. 1900-s- shop clerks, office workers (industrial jobs closing)




New Legal Rights

  1. Mid 1800’s- No legal rights No vote

  2. Money earned not theirs

  3. Could not sue, make contracts

Suffragist Movement

  1. Early 1848- push for rights

  2. 1888 Inter’l Council for Women

  3. 1900 more militant groups emerge

  4. Women’s Social & Political Union

  5. Pankhurst

  6. Parades, heckling, hunger strikes, chain to RR, cut telephone wires

  7. 1913 Norway grants suffrage

Political Rights

  1. Local, statewide, national level

  2. Married women gained property rights

  3. Safety inspectors at female work sites

  4. Local boards to oversee schools and hospitals

European Tensions at Turn of Century

Voting

  1. 1914- most industrialized countries gave adult men right to vote

  2. Political Parties more organized- central committee ensured/set policy members of Parliament must follow

  3. New political leaders- appeal to large numbers of voters

  4. Still division- upper v. lower house




Germany

  1. Parliament

  2. Reichstag- lower house, voted

  3. Bundesrat- upper house, apptd

  4. Kaiser named own chancellor, PM

  5. Houses could not control

  6. Bismarck social insurance for support (did not trust democracy socialism)- prevent revolution

  7. Wm. II forces him to resign




England

  1. Two major issues

  2. Irish problems

  3. House of Commons v. House of Lords (People’s Budget)




Social Divisions

  1. La Belle Epoque- for wealthy

  2. Several homes, servants

  3. 1%-2% wealthy

  4. 25%-35% middle class- comfortable homes & lifestyle

  5. Urban lower class lived on edge of poverty

  6. =peasantry in E. Europe




Social Divisions

  1. Urban class

  2. Unions gaining strength- conditions and wages improving

  3. Some believed only revolution would improve lives (anarchists)




Fragile Peace Shaken

  1. GB, Fr., Germ.- stability

  2. France bitter-Alsace -Lorraine

  3. Nationalism issues

  4. Ireland (GB)

  5. Norway (Sweden)

  6. A-H, Russia, Ottomans- multinational empires (lagged industrially, militarily)

  7. Jews persecuted in Russia (pogroms)



Fragile Peace Shaken

  1. Balkans- most complex national problems

  2. Many spoke Slavic language

  3. Separate identities- Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins, Croats, Slovenes, Albanians, Bulgarians, Romanians

  4. Uprising threatened A-H, Ottomans

  5. Russia saw herself as protector

  6. Encouraged nationalism



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