Modern History Stage 6 Syllabus Original published version updated



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2 Background


3 Rise to prominence

  • Youth League and Program of Action

  • Membership of African National Congress (ANC)


4 Significance and evaluation

  • Defiance Campaign and Freedom Charter

  • Umkhonto we Sizwe ‘The Spear of the Nation’ (MK)

  • Rivonia Trial

  • imprisonment on Robben Island

  • ‘Free Mandela’ campaign

  • dismemberment of the apartheid system

  • presidential years

  • evaluation: for example revolutionary, conservative nationalist?


Option 14: Golda Meir 1898–1978
Principal focus: Through the study of Golda Meir, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • the work of the Zionist organisation leading to the creation of Israel

  • the establishment of Israel

  • the Arab–Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • migration to Palestine


3 Rise to prominence

  • role in Histradut and international Zionism

  • signatory of Israel’s Declaration of Independence


4 Significance and evaluation

  • diplomatic and political roles in the 1950s and 1960s

  • role as Prime Minister: attitude to the Occupied Territories

  • role as Prime Minister in the 1973 war

  • evaluation: for example trail-blazing stateswoman, inflexible adversary?



Option 15: Robert Gordon Menzies 1894–1978
Principal focus: Through the study of Robert Gordon Menzies, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • Australia’s relations with Great Britain in the twentieth century

  • fear of communism and the Cold War


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • influence of university education and the law


3 Rise to prominence

  • Member of Victorian and Federal Parliaments

  • role as Federal Attorney-General

  • Prime Minister 1939–1941: failed wartime leader

  • Opposition leader and the birth of the Liberal Party


4 Significance and evaluation

  • election victory in 1949

  • 1950s: decade of stability and prosperity?

  • continuing electoral success

  • the Queen’s man

  • evaluation: for example great leader, political opportunist?



Option 16: Bernard Law Montgomery 1887–1976
Principal focus: Through the study of Bernard Law Montgomery, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • background to the Second World War in Europe

  • overview of the course of the war in North Africa and Europe

  • post-war Europe


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • military career stretching from the trenches of the Great War to the Nuclear Age


3 Rise to prominence

  • service in Palestine in 1938

  • service in France at the beginning of World War II; evacuation from Dunkirk

  • commander of the 8th Army in North Africa and the Battle of El Alamein

  • role in the D Day invasion in 1944 and the final defeat of Germany in 1945

  • post-war NATO command


4 Significance and evaluation

  • nature and significance of Montgomery’s contribution to the Allied victories in North Africa and Europe

  • disputes and rivalry with American generals

  • evaluation: for example military genius, egotistical opportunist?


Option 17: Jawaharlal Nehru 1889–1964
Principal focus: Through the study of Jawaharlal Nehru, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
1 Historical context

  • British imperialism in India

  • rise of Indian nationalism and Gandhi

  • growth of independent India 1947–1964


2 Background


3 Rise to prominence

  • roles in Non-Cooperation, the Salt Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience

  • elected as Congress President

  • roles in 1937 elections and Congress ministries

  • roles during World War II and in Interim Government


4 Significance and evaluation

  • role as a nationalist leader and relationship with Gandhi

  • Prime Minister 1947–1964: socialism, secularism and democracy

  • leader of the Third World

  • evaluation: for example world statesman, a leader who failed to live up to his promise?



Option 18: Ian Paisley 1926 to 2000
Principal focus: Through the study of Ian Paisley, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • sectarianism

  • divisions within Irish society

  • Ulster’s place within the United Kingdom


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • ordination to the Presbyterian ministry 1946

  • founding of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster 1951

  • anti-ecumenism


3 Rise to prominence

  • member of the Northern Ireland Parliament and the British House of Commons

  • foundation of the Democratic Unionist Party 1971

  • opposition to power sharing

  • effect of sectarian oratory


4 Significance and evaluation

  • opposition to British policies towards Northern Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s

  • election to the Northern Irish Assembly 1999

  • influence and reputation beyond Northern Ireland

  • evaluation: for example embittered demagogue, loyalist?


Option 19: Leni Riefenstahl 1902–2003
Principal focus: Through the study of Leni Riefenstahl, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • early career as dancer and film actor


3 Rise to prominence

  • direction of ‘The Blue Light’ 1932

  • 1933 meeting with Hitler at Wilmershaven

  • ban on Jews working in the film industry

  • commission for ‘Victory of Faith’ (Nazi Party rally 1933)


4 Significance and evaluation

  • relationship with Hitler

  • ‘Triumph of the Will’ and ‘Berlin Olympiad’

  • international honours and criticism

  • post-war arrest

  • 1960s Nuba photography

  • controversies in later life

  • evaluation: for example Nazi propagandist, feminist pioneer?


Option 20: Eleanor Roosevelt 1884–1962
Principal focus: Through the study of Eleanor Roosevelt, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • the USA in the first half of the twentieth century

  • the Great Depression


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • marriage to Franklin Roosevelt in 1905 and domestic role


3 Rise to prominence

  • support for Roosevelt during his early political career

  • strength and encouragement following Roosevelt’s paralysis with poliomyelitis

  • involvement in the Women’s Committee of New York State Democratic Party


4 Significance and evaluation

  • First Lady from 1933 to 1945: the eyes and ears of the President

  • role in World War II

  • spokesperson in the United Nations

  • evaluation: for example humanitarian and role model, presumptuous First Lady?


Option 21: Albert Speer 1905–1981
Principal focus: Through the study of Albert Speer, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • rise of the Nazi party and the personal charisma of Adolf Hitler

  • development of the Nazi state after 1933

  • Nazi war effort to 1945

  • Nuremberg War Crimes Trials


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • introduction to Nazism and his reasons for joining the Nazi party


3 Rise to prominence

  • early work for the Nazi party

  • appointment as ‘First Architect of the Reich’

  • the ‘Germania’ project and the new Reich Chancellery

  • work as Armaments Minister


4 Significance and evaluation

  • relationship with Hitler

  • involvement with anti-Semitic activities in connection with the Germania project – the question of the ‘Jew-flats’

  • use and abuse of forced labour

  • knowledge of and links with the concentration camp system

  • reaction to Hitler’s ‘scorched earth’ policy in 1945

  • the significance of Speer’s work as Minister for Armaments and War Production to the overall German war effort

  • evaluation: for example, the ‘Good Nazi’?


Option 22: Achmad Sukarno 1901–1970
Principal focus: Through the study of Achmad Sukarno, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • decolonisation in South-East Asia

  • Japanese conquest during World War II

  • rise of Asian nationalism

  • War of Independence against the Dutch


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • involvement in student nationalist politics in Bandung

  • oratorical skills


3 Rise to prominence

  • chairman and co-founder of Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI)

  • 1929 trial speech

  • Partindo membership, re-arrest and exile

  • role during Japanese Occupation


4 Significance and evaluation

  • declaration of Pancasila principles

  • role in gaining independence

  • systems of ‘Guided Democracy’

  • presidential-style politics

  • Konfrontasi

  • Non-aligned Movement

  • 1965 coup

  • evaluation: for example father of the nation, traditional ruler?


Option 23: Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) 1866–1925
Principal focus: Through the study of Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen), students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • collapse of the Qing (Ch’ing or Manchu) dynasty

  • growth of nationalist and revolutionary forces in China


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • experiences overseas

  • formation of early political ideas


3 Rise to prominence


4 Significance and evaluation

  • development of the Three Peoples’ Principles

  • role as provisional President of Chinese Republic 1911

  • formation of the Guomindang (GMD/Kuomintang)

  • First United Front with the Chinese Communist Party 1923

  • creation of iconic images of Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) by both the CCP and GMD

  • evaluation: for example, father of the Chinese Revolution?



Option 24: Leon Trotsky 1879–1940
Principal focus: Through the study of Leon Trotsky, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • politics in pre-revolutionary Russia

  • the 1917 revolution

  • establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state

  • power struggle with Stalin


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • development of political ideals


3 Rise to prominence

  • emerging political role 1905–1917

  • role in 1917 revolution


4 Significance and evaluation

  • role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs

  • role as Commissar for War

  • power struggle following the death of Lenin

  • expulsion from the Communist Party

  • life and activities in exile

  • evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, naïve idealist?


Option 25: Woodrow Wilson 1856–1924
Principal focus: Through the study of Woodrow Wilson, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • USA in the Progressive era

  • the legacies of Taft and Roosevelt


2 Background


3 Rise to prominence

  • 1912 presidential election

  • economic and financial reforms

  • death of first wife, courtship and second marriage

  • USA in World War I: neutral 1914–1917 and belligerent 1917–1918

  • Paris Peace Conference

  • the League fight

  • stroke and incapacity


4 Evaluation

  • Wilson as champion of liberal internationalism

  • role in attempting to mediate an end to World War I

  • poor civil liberties record and poor attitude to women’s suffrage

  • role in the foundation of the League of Nations

  • 1919–1920: lame duck presidency

  • evaluation: for example politician, true believer?


Option 26: Isoruku Yamamoto 1884–1943
Principal focus: Through the study of Isoruku Yamamoto, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • Japan’s rise as a world power to 1941

  • outbreak of war in the Pacific

  • successes and failures of Japan’s war effort


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • early naval career

  • education at Harvard


3 Rise to prominence

  • career as Japanese naval attaché in Washington in 1936

  • career as Vice-Minister for the Navy

  • appointment as Naval Commander in Chief 1941


4 Significance and evaluation

  • the attack on Pearl Harbour

  • the Battle of Midway

  • Yamamoto’s death and its consequences for Japan

  • evaluation: for example, the reluctant warrior?


Option 27: Zhu De (Chu Teh) 1886–1976
Principal focus: Through the study of Zhu De (Chu Teh), students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • development of the Chinese revolution from 1911

  • success of communist forces in 1949

  • growth of the Peoples’ Republic of China


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • role as a war lord 1916–1920

  • political and military experiences in Europe

  • membership of the Chinese Communist Party


3 Rise to prominence

  • early association with Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)

  • role in the development of the Red Army and guerrilla warfare


4 Significance and evaluation

  • leadership during the Long March

  • political and military career in Yan’an (Yenan)

  • communist Commander in Chief during Sino-Japanese War

  • Commander in Chief of Peoples’ Liberation Army after 1949

  • Deputy Chairman of Peoples’ Republic 1954–1959

  • Chairman of National Peoples’ Congress 1959–1967

  • denounced during the Cultural Revolution

  • evaluation: for example military genius, ‘party hack’?


10.4 Part IV: International Studies in Peace and Conflict
Percentage of course time: 25%
Principal focus: Students investigate key features and issues of ONE International Study in Peace and Conflict.
Outcomes
Students:

H1.1 describe the role of key features, issues, individuals, groups and events of selected twentieth-century studies

H1.2 analyse and evaluate the role of key features, issues, individuals, groups and events of selected twentieth-century studies

H2.1 explain forces and ideas and assess their significance in contributing to change and continuity during the twentieth century

H3.1 ask relevant historical questions

H3.2 locate, select and organise relevant information from different types of sources

H3.3 analyse and evaluate sources for their usefulness and reliability

H3.4 explain and evaluate differing perspectives and interpretations of the past

H3.5 plan and present the findings of historical investigations, analysing and synthesising information from different types of sources

H4.1 use historical terms and concepts appropriately

H4.2 communicate a knowledge and understanding of historical features and issues, using appropriate and well-structured oral and written forms
Students learn to:


  • ask relevant historical questions

  • locate, select and organise information from different types of sources, including ICT, to describe and analyse relevant features and issues

  • describe and analyse the origins of conflict in the relevant study

  • analyse the major events and issues in the development of the conflict

  • describe and evaluate the role of key individuals and groups during the conflict

  • evaluate the success of attempts to resolve the conflict

  • evaluate the usefulness and reliability of sources

  • account for and assess differing perspectives and interpretations of the conflict

  • present the findings of investigations on aspects of the conflict, analysing and synthesising information from different types of sources

  • communicate an understanding of relevant features and issues using appropriate and well-structured oral and/or written and/or multimedia forms including ICT.

Students will undertake ONE International Study in Peace and Conflict from those listed:


A Anglo-Irish Relations 1968–1998

B Conflict in Europe 1935–1945

C Conflict in Indochina 1954–1979

D Conflict in the Pacific 1937–1951

E The Arab–Israeli Conflict 1948–1996

F The Cold War 1945–1991



G The United Nations as Peacekeeper 1946–2001

Option A: Anglo-Irish Relations 1968–1998
Principal focus: Students investigate key features and issues in the history of Anglo-Irish relations 1968–1998.
Key features and issues:

  • nature and impact of sectarianism

  • differing interpretations of nationalism

  • differing forms of terrorism and their impact on Northern Ireland and the British mainland

  • roles of paramilitary groups

  • changing tactics of the conflicting groups

  • impact of the conflict on the civilian population

  • attempts at peacemaking


Students learn about:
1 Growth of conflict in Northern Ireland 1968–1972

  • rise of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland in the 1960s

  • causes of sectarian violence between Catholics and Protestants

  • reasons for and impact of British policies and actions in Northern Ireland

  • reaction in Northern Ireland and Britain to the imposition of Direct Rule


2 Continuing conflict and movements towards peace 1973–1983

  • reasons for and impact of the spread of the IRA campaigns to the British mainland

  • the Maze prison protests and attempts to achieve political representation

  • widespread dissatisfaction with the cycle and culture of violence

  • popular movements towards peace

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