Modern History Stage 6 Syllabus Original published version updated



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Key features and issues:

  • democracy: differing visions

  • nature and impact of apartheid

  • resistance to apartheid

  • role and impact of state terror and repression

  • changes in society

  • reasons for the collapse of apartheid

  • international responses to apartheid


Students learn about:
1 The apartheid system

  • political, economic, social and demographic issues in South Africa in 1960

  • apartheid: ideology, policy and practice

  • impact of apartheid on rural and urban communities


2 National resistance to apartheid

  • the nature, growth and impact of the African National Congress and one other anti-apartheid movement within South Africa

  • significance of the Sharpeville massacre 1960

  • role of Mandela’s leadership of the ANC

  • significance of Steven Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement


3 Repression and control by South African governments

  • the nature, impact and significance of tactics of repression and oppression

  • role of South African security forces

  • role and significance of Bantustans and independent black states

  • relations with neighbouring African countries

  • international responses to South African policies


4 End of apartheid

  • political, economic and social factors contributing to the end of apartheid

  • international factors contributing to the end of apartheid

  • problems facing the National Party and the ANC in the transition to democracy in South Africa



Option I: USA 1919–1941
Principal focus: Students investigate the key features and issues of the history of USA 1919–1941.
Key features and issues:

  • nature and impact of industrialisation

  • nature and impact of consumerism

  • the Great Depression

  • racism in American society

  • changes in society

  • influence of conservatism

  • American capitalism

  • government intervention

  • American foreign policy and extent of isolationism


Students learn about:
1 Politics in the 1920s

  • Republican economic policies

  • long-term causes of the Great Depression

  • the Great Crash of 1929


2 The Great Depression and its impact

  • effects of the Depression on different groups in society: workers, women, farmers, Afro-Americans

  • attempts to halt the Depression: the Hoover Presidency, the FDR years

  • assessment of the New Deal


3 US society 1919–1941

  • implications of growing urbanisation and industrialisation

  • growth and influence of consumerism including entertainment

  • social tensions: immigration restrictions, religious fundamentalism, Prohibition, crime, racial conflict, anti-communism and anti-unionism


4 US foreign policy

  • nature, aims and strategies of US foreign policy 1919–1941

  • impact of domestic pressures on US foreign policy 1919–1941


10.3 Part III: Personalities in the Twentieth Century
Percentage of course time: 25%
Principal focus: Through the study of a modern personality, students gain an understanding of the role of the individual in a period of national or international history.
Outcomes
Students:

H1.1 describe the role of key features, issues, individuals, groups and events of selected twentieth-century studies

H1.2 analyse and evaluate the role of key features, issues, individuals, groups and
events of selected twentieth-century studies

H2.1 explain forces and ideas and assess their significance in contributing to change and continuity during the twentieth century

H3.1 ask relevant historical questions

H3.2 locate, select and organise relevant information from different types of sources

H3.3 analyse and evaluate sources for their usefulness and reliability

H3.4 explain and evaluate differing perspectives and interpretations of the past

H3.5 plan and present the findings of historical investigations, analysing and synthesising information from different types of sources

H4.1 use historical terms and concepts appropriately

H4.2 communicate a knowledge and understanding of historical features and issues using appropriate and well-structured oral and written forms
Students learn to:


  • ask relevant historical questions

  • locate, select and organise information from different types of sources, including ICT, to describe and analyse relevant features and issues

  • assess the impact of the personality on twentieth-century history

  • analyse the contribution of the personality to the period in which they lived

  • account for and assess differing perspectives and interpretations of the personality

  • evaluate the usefulness and reliability of sources

  • present the findings of investigations on aspects of the personality, analysing and synthesising information from different types of sources

  • communicate an understanding of relevant concepts, features and issues using appropriate and well-structured oral and/or written and/or multimedia forms including ICT.

Students will undertake study of ONE personality from those listed.


The personality selected may or may not align with a student’s national or international study giving teachers and students greater flexibility of choice and the opportunity for a broader study of Modern History.
1 Yasser Arafat 1929 to 2000

2 Joseph Benedict Chifley 1885–1951

3 Herbert Evatt 1894–1965

4 Mikhail Gorbachev 1931 to 2000

5 Emperor Hirohito 1901–1989

6 Ho Chi Minh 1890–1969

7 Kita Ikki 1883–1937

8 William Randolph Hearst 1863–1951

9 J Edgar Hoover 1895–1972

10 Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1876–1948

11 Alexandra Kollontai 1873–1952

12 Douglas MacArthur 1880–1964

13 Nelson Mandela 1918 to 2000

14 Golda Meir 1898–1978

15 Robert Gordon Menzies 1894–1978

16 Bernard Law Montgomery 1887–1976

17 Jawaharlal Nehru 1889–1964

18 Ian Paisley 1926 to 2000

19 Leni Riefenstahl 1902–2003

20 Eleanor Roosevelt 1884–1962

21 Albert Speer 1905–1981

22 Achmad Sukarno 1901–1970

23 Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) 1866–1925

24 Leon Trotsky 1879–1940

25 Woodrow Wilson 1856–1924

26 Isoruku Yamamoto 1884–1943



27 Zhu De (Chu Teh) 1886–1976
Option 1: Yasser Arafat 1929 to 2000
Principal focus: Through the study of Yasser Arafat, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • creation of the ‘Palestinian issue’ in 1948

  • development, aims and policies of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO)

  • the issue of terrorism

  • the Arab–Israeli peace process


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • early student activism in Cairo


3 Rise to prominence

  • foundation of Al Fatah and leadership of the PLO

  • development of terrorism campaign 1968–1972

  • change from terrorism to diplomacy

  • relocation of PLO headquarters from Jordan to Lebanon to Tunis to Gaza and the reasons for these relocations

  • role in the peace process


4 Significance and evaluation

  • autocratic style of leadership and its effects on the Palestinian cause

  • aims and methods used to achieve Palestinian goals

  • evaluation: for example terrorist, peacemaker?


Option 2: Joseph Benedict Chifley 1885–1951
Principal focus: Through the study of Joseph Benedict Chifley, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • the Labor movement in Australia in the first half of the twentieth century

  • the struggle for social equity: from the Great War to post–World War II


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • engine driver and trade union official


3 Rise to prominence

  • from Member of Federal Parliament to Treasurer

  • role as Prime Minister

  • role as Opposition leader


4 Significance and evaluation

  • Chifley’s vision for a post–World War II Australia

  • the Snowy Mountains Scheme, post-war immigration, Trans Australian Airlines (TAA), and proposed bank nationalisation

  • evaluation: for example politician, true believer?


Option 3: Herbert Evatt 1894–1965
Principal focus: Through the study of Herbert Evatt, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • the Labor movement in Australia in the first half of the twentieth century

  • the creation of the United Nations


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • lawyer, judge, politician


3 Rise to prominence

  • member of Parliament, Attorney-General and Minister for External Affairs

  • role in the formation of the United Nations and as the first President of the UN General Assembly

  • role as leader of the Opposition: opposed to dissolution of the Communist Party, the Petrov Affair, ALP split


4 Significance and evaluation

  • role as jurist, diplomat and politician

  • significance in Australia and overseas

  • evaluation: for example idealist, flawed genius?


Option 4: Mikhail Gorbachev 1931 to 2000
Principal focus: Through the study of Mikhail Gorbachev, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • Cold War and détente

  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

  • the Brezhnev era

  • Reagan’s renewal of the Cold War

  • Soviet economic and social problems

  • nationalist movements within and outside the USSR


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • early roles within the Communist Party

  • technocrat


3 Rise to prominence

  • General Secretary of the Communist Party

  • death of Andropov and Chernenko

  • policies of Glasnost and Perestroika


4 Significance and evaluation

  • relations with the USA

  • relations with Eastern Europe

  • end of the Cold War

  • collapse of Eastern Europe

  • evaluation: for example visionary, traitor to communism?


Option 5: Emperor Hirohito 1901–1989
Principal focus: Through the study of Emperor Hirohito, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • overview of the social, political, military and economic structures of the Showa period

  • traditional role of the emperor in Japanese society

  • relationship between militarism and the role of the emperor


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • role as a prince

  • succession to the throne in 1926


3 Rise to prominence

  • role in government and foreign policy 1926–1941

  • relationship with the militarists


4 Significance and evaluation

  • role during World War II

  • role during the Allied Occupation of Japan 1945–1951

  • role in Japan’s resurgence 1951–1989

  • evaluation: for example, more than just a figurehead?


Option 6: Ho Chi Minh 1890–1969
Principal focus: Through the study of Ho Chi Minh, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • decolonisation in Indochina

  • Japanese conquest during World War II

  • rise of Asian nationalism and communism

  • the Cold War and the policy of containment


2 Background

  • family and education in Vietnam

  • Western influences and travels: France and USSR


3 Rise to prominence

  • formation of the Indochina Communist Party

  • experiences in China

  • development of Viet Minh and propaganda units

  • resistance to Japanese occupation


4 Significance and evaluation

  • Declaration of Independence

  • the French War (First Indochina War)

  • Geneva Conference

  • the Second Indochina War

  • role and impact as a revolutionary and war leader

  • evaluation: for example nationalist, communist?


Option 7: Kita Ikki 1883–1937
Principal focus: Through the study of Kita Ikki, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.

1 Historical context

  • legacy of the Meiji era: political, social, economic

  • World War I: Japanese participation and its impact

  • nature of the growth of Japanese nationalism and imperialism

  • the weakness of Taisho governments in establishing liberal democracy


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • membership of the Black Dragon Society, supporting revolution in China


3 Rise to prominence

  • ‘The Unofficial History of the Chinese Revolution’ (writing)

  • ‘Plan for the Reorganisation of Japan’

  • banning of the Plan in 1920

  • political activism, including 1925 arrest for protesting Hokkaido land sales

  • support for the Plan from young Army Officers


4 Significance and evaluation

  • writer as political activist and agent of change

  • impact on Japanese militarist – nationalists

  • influence on ideas of Japanese imperialism in Asia

  • influence on ideas of the role of the Emperor

  • influence on 26 February 1936 coup

  • evaluation: for example genuine patriot, fanatical propagandist?


Option 8: William Randolph Hearst 1863–1951
Principal focus: Through the study of William Randolph Hearst, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • emergence of the United States as a major power

  • role and power of the media in twentieth-century USA


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • inheritance and expansion of media interests


3 Rise to prominence

  • member of US Congress

  • development of media empire: the press, radio, film and television

  • growing fortune and political influence: the Spanish–American War


4 Significance and evaluation

  • nature of Hearst’s influence on public opinion: ‘yellow journalism’, opposition to the League of Nations, racist sentiments

  • establishment of the humanitarian Hearst Foundation

  • evaluation: for example embodiment of the American dream, egomaniacal bigot?



Option 9: J Edgar Hoover 1895–1972
Principal focus: Through the study of J Edgar Hoover, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • the period of the USA’s emergence as a world power

  • growth of social conservatism and anti-communism

  • the Prohibition era

  • the Great Depression


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • entry into the civil service as a clerk in the Library of Congress

  • law degree 1916; appointment as an intelligence clerk in the Department of Justice 1917


3 Rise to prominence

  • appointed as a special minister to Attorney General A Mitchell Palmer

  • coordination of the Palmer Raids 1919

  • appointed as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 1924

  • role of the FBI during World War II

  • post-war period: relationship to US presidents


4 Significance and evaluation

  • Hoover’s creation of the FBI as one of the world’s great law enforcement agencies

  • creation of iconic media images of the FBI and J Edgar Hoover

  • the challenge of finding the ‘real’ J Edgar Hoover

  • evaluation: for example super-patriot, flawed egomaniac?


Option 10: Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1876–1948
Principal focus: Through the study of Mohammed Ali Jinnah, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • British imperialism in India

  • rise of Muslim identity

  • rise of Indian nationalism


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • early career as a lawyer

  • Congress and All India Muslim League (AIML) leader


3 Rise to prominence

  • differences with Gandhi

  • the Nehru Report

  • the Round Table Conferences

  • return to India in the 1930s and revival of the Muslim League


4 Significance and evaluation

  • impact of the 1937 election

  • development of the Muslim League as a mass party

  • the demand for Pakistan

  • role during World War II

  • Independence and Partition

  • Governor-General of Pakistan

  • evaluation: for example nationalist, communalist?


Option 11: Alexandra Kollontai 1873–1952
Principal focus: Through the study of Alexandra Kollontai, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • political dissent in pre-revolutionary Russia

  • the 1917 revolution

  • establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state

  • role of women in Bolshevik/Communist Russia


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • political activity prior to 1917


3 Rise to prominence

  • role in the 1917 revolution

  • appointment as Commissar for Social Welfare


4 Significance and evaluation

  • changing relationship with Lenin

  • participation in the Workers’ Opposition

  • role in the Zhenotdel

  • writings on women and relationships

  • evaluation: for example visionary, naïve?


Option 12: Douglas MacArthur 1880–1964
Principal focus: Through the study of Douglas MacArthur, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • rise of the United States as a world power in the 1950s

  • development of American foreign policy

  • war in the Pacific 1941–1945 and Korea 1950–1953


2 Background

  • family background and education

  • military training at West Point

  • early travels in Asia


3 Rise to prominence

  • early military career in Washington

  • experiences in France during World War I

  • role as Superintendent at West Point

  • appointment as Army Chief of Staff 1930

  • head of US military mission to the Philippines 1935–1941


4 Significance and evaluation

  • responsibility for the defeat in the Philippines 1941

  • command of Allied Forces in the Pacific

  • return to the Philippines 1944 and Japanese surrender

  • career in Japan as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Pacific 1945–1951

  • role during the Korean War

  • dismissal by President Truman

  • evaluation: for example war hero, political opportunist?


Option 13: Nelson Mandela 1918 to 2000
Principal focus: Through the study of Nelson Mandela, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history.
Students learn about:
1 Historical context

  • decolonisation after World War II

  • rise of National Party and creation of the apartheid state

  • nature of the apartheid system

  • varieties of resistance to apartheid

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