Modern Era 1750-1914 Take-Home Exam Please have integrity while working on your test Honor Code



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45. Which of the following does not represent the ideology of ethnocentrism?
a) desire to convert heathens to Christianity and civilize them in the European fashion

b) Rudyard Kipling’s novel the White Man’s Burden

c) Chinese believed they were the center of the world – the “Middle Kingdom”

d) Japan believed they were racially superior having an emperor as descendant of the creator of man

e) Europe had the military technology to act on their ethnocentric beliefs
46. Why was change able to happen so quickly during the Modern Era?
a) communication rapid due to trains, ships and telegraph cables

b) invention of gunpowder

c) ruralization allowed like-minded people to associate

d) countryside becomes more liberal, desiring change

e) Japan and Africa eager to see their culture become controlled by Europeans
47. Examples of changes in World Trade during the Modern Era
a) the transfer of manufactured goods from the West to the rest of the world

b) Latin American and African nations allowed to choose which crops they grew

c) large plantations divided into small, independently owned plots of land

d) slavery increases initially to satisfy demands of industrialization

e) Ottoman Empire increases control of the Mediterranean
48. The Opium Trade
a) benefited China by increasing revenue from India

b) shifted the trade balance away from China to Europe

c) led to Opium Wars which eventually opened up trade in China to only England

d) initially was able to trade out of all Chinese ports

e) opened up the Suez Canal and made Egypt a dominant force in world trade
49. World Trade in the Modern Era saw
a) Japan refrain from joining the worldwide trading network

b) the African Slave trade end in Brazil, North America, the Caribbean and the Middle East

c) Commodore Perry open trade in China

d) Russia export grain to Western Europe

e) a maintenance of serfdom in Russia until 1900
Demographic and Environmental Changes
50. All of the following were push factors that increased emigration in the Modern Era except
a) oppressive Communism in Russia

b) famine in Ireland

c) anti-Semitism in Russia

d) poverty

e) Russian pogroms


51. As immigration increased
a) European settler colonies were unable to control native populations

b) industrialized nations began to lose profits

c) indigenous populations suffered from disease

d) young adults moved away from cities to the countryside in mass numbers

e) middle class stayed in the cities while the poor were pushed to suburbs
52. Which of the following was not an effect of the Atlantic Slave Trade
a) Africans began to rely more on the slave trade for economic gain

b) Internal trade relies on the importation of foreign goods

c) coastal kingdoms become ruled by merchants and warlords who take advantage of slave trade

d) coastal communities were so strong due to slave trade that they could not be defeated by Europeans

e) introduction of guns increased severity of conflicts between tribes
53. What caused the end of the Atlantic Slave Trade
a) France took a leading role in enforcing abolition

b) Great Britain convinces nations to discontinue trade after Napoleonic wars

c) ending of slavery first in Cuba and then in Brazil

d) the cost of obtaining slaves was decreasing

e) military defiance by Africans
54. Which of the following does not reflect a population change during the Modern Era?
a) birth rate eventually declines due to lack of need for farm laborers

b) drop in death rate due to Louis Pasteur’s germ research

c) China’s development of the sweet potato eventually increases the food supply

d) Japanese population declines due to famine and agricultural famines

e) improved sanitation improves health
55. The end of the Atlantic Slave Trade
a) was enforced by Great Britain after the abolition of the slave trade in 1640

b) might have officially ended, but still over two million slaves were traded illegally

c) only increased the power of the coastal kingdoms

d) left the African states independent and economically vibrant

e) came at the same time as the end of the Islamic slave trade
56. The ideal women during the Victorian Age
a) fought for reform efforts

b) worked in the factory to support a family

c) held off marriage until she found someone she truly loved

d) was consistently exposed to foul jokes and grotesque images

e) focused on proper manners and etiquette



57. Because of Industrialization
a) many people felt no longer resigned to fate and felt as if they could alter their situation

b) monkeys were able to floss their teeth with electric tooth brushes

c) the standard of living went up immediately for everyone in the country, but then went down

d) men's occupational sphere primarily consisted of teaching and nursing

e) eventually governments had to encourage companies to work their laborers longer hours under worse conditions
58. Serfdom
a) was prevalent in Russia, Madagascar and Papua New Guinea

b) ended, but peasants could not leave the land until they paid off their debt to the landowner

c) occurred decades before the emancipation of slaves in the US

d) was needed to maintain a large population with surplus money to buy manufactured goods

e) was economically successful because it inspired peasants to work to their full ability
59. Which of the following was not a major cause championed by women during the reform movements of the 1800s?
a) temperance

b) access to birth control

c) equal job opportunities

d) suffrage

e) equal pay
60. During the French Revolution, how was the abolishment of the monarchy and the aristocracy justified?
a) threat of invastion from Austria and German states

b) need to test the effectiveness of the guillotine and other forms of cutlery

c) surplus of grain

d) Napoleon's rise to powe

e) the United States' promise to intervene
61. Which of the following is not a reason why historians claim the American Revolution was not actually a revolution?
a) merely the exchange of power from one wealthy group to another

b) actually an independence movement

c) social/political structure remained relatively unchanged

d) regions of Colonial America already ruled with a growing degree of autonomy

e) the Declaration of Independence was actually just copied from the work of John Locke
62. The Haitian Revolution
a) failed to receive the support of creoles and mulattoes

b) was put down by Napoleon's agent Touissant L'Ouverture

c) was caused in part by the self-serving French mercantilist policy

d) inspired the American Revolution

e) created the first nation in the Caribbean ruled under a policy of apartheid


63. The French were defeated in the Haitian Revolution because of
a) their reliance on Freedom Fries as primary source of carbohydrates

b) yellow fever wiped out French soldiers

c) Napoleon utilized indigenous soldiers to put down the revolution

d) Napoleon's desire to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States

e) the slaves never splintered into rival factions
64. The Latin American struggles for independence were caused in large part by
a) Napoleon's wars against Europe left the power authority of Spain and Portugal in doubt

b) the indigenous desire to set up a mercantilist economy

c) British naval destruction of the Spanish Armada

d) decrease of Amazonian vegetation

e) the frustration of the Spanish hierarchy that all governmantal jobs were dominated by Creoles
65. Though most Latin American nations gained independence from Europe,
a) constitutional law oftentimes proved a failure, establishing a precedent of caudillos rising to power

b) Mexico and Brazil remained under control of Spain until World War I

c) religious leaders refused to recognize any of the new governments

d) Latin America eventually became one nation-state under the title Estados Unidos del Sud Amerigo

e) reformers and liberals chose to refrain from further attempts to extend political and economic opportunities
66. Which of the following was not a cause of economic difficulty for Latin American nations in the 19th century?
a) failure to diversify economies

b) reliance on slave labor to survive

c) industrialization occcured too rapidly

d) importation of manufactured goods

e) predisposition to mere extraction of natural resources
67. Which of the following best describes Latin America's relationship with Europe
a) Europe had no influence on Latin America

b) Europe had little influence on Latin America

c) United States stayed out o Latin American affairs

d) Europeans had no impact on political leaders of Latin America

e) A huge European influence continued both economically and politically
68. The first Mexican Revolution was led by
a) a Creole priest without assistance from mestizos and Native Americans

b) a Creole priest that led mestizos and Native Americans

c) Creole business owners frustrated by Spanish influence

d) French revolutionaries intent on transforming region

e) an overweight Northern European from the Arctic who passed out presents





69. All of the following were results of the first Mexican Revolution except
a) universal manhood suffrage

b) French occupation

c) eventual reforms under Benito Juares

d) continued years of chaos

e) relative lack of Creole interest in reform
70. One of the primary causes of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 was
a) the widening income gap between landowners and peasants

b) oppressive Spanish rule

c) decreasing impact of Catholicism

d) conservative reformers demanding change

e) the French Revolution
71. Which of the following was not a cause of the Chinese Revolution?
a) Qing administration's decision to take power from provincial governments

b) increasing influence of foreigners

c) frustration of rural peasants

d) diffusion of Western reform ideas by educated Chinese

e) embarassing defeat in Sino-Japanese War
72. Dowager Empress Cixi
a) has a name I can readily pronounce

b) nephew's concubine who ruled in his place

c) encouraged implementation of Western reform ideals

d) eventually arrested Emperor after considering Hundred Days Reform

e) increased territorial holdings of China
73. The Chinese Revolution of 1911 was followed by
a) years of chaos and the gradual secession of provinces

b) decades of stability enforced by a democratic regime

c) the establishment in 1927 of a Republican parliament

d) the return of power to the Qing emperor in 1912

e) the decreasing power of warlords in outlying provinces
74. Sun Yat-sen
a) initiated the revolt in 1911 by leading a military insurgency

b) was frustrated that he had not achieved the title of father of Modern China

c) advocated the principles of nationalis, democracy and the People's Livelihood

d) refused to employ military strategies to gain power

e) died before seeing the revolution succeed
75. The Chinese Republic of 1912
a) was run by the Communist Party - Kuomintang

b) represented the first time in China a politician had come to power by the will of the people

c) ended in a Civil War as Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong united to assume power

d) succeeded without assistance fromthe Soviets

e) implemented the American Constitution for 87 years


76. Which of the following does not accurately reflect the Latin American independence movements
a) Portuguese King John VI runs Portugal in exile in Brazil

b) were caused in large part by the confusion over authority due to Napoleon's European conquests

c) Venezuelan Simon Bolivar attempted to implement reforms learned through his Western education

d) The Argentinian independence movement was contained within Argentina's borders

e) King John VI's son Pedro eventually declares independence from Portugal
77. Which of the following was not a characteristic of Latin American independence movements?
a) acceptance of Enlightenment ideals by the both creoles and peasants

b) slavery still existed in some nations for centuries

c) peasants worked on huge estates

d) a dominant middle class never emerged

e) economies continued to rely on European goods
78. Independence from European influence was hampered by
a) the Catholic Church's desire to give up control

b) conservative attempts to give up power

c) Latin American maintenance of a mercantilistic-type economy

d) an ocean

e) Latin America's burgeoning manufacturing industry
79. One method that allowed Russian leaders to maintain control over a huge territory was
a) usage of a secret police to squash rebellion

b) recruitment of serfs for military duty

c) alliance with China to fend off Mongol advance

d) clever flag with a hammer and sickle

e) leadership wholesale acceptance of Enlightened ideals
80. Russia's Emancipation Edict of 1861
a) freed slaves

b) enabled serfs to move only if they made payments to government

c) followed the precedent of America's Emancipation Proclamation

d) was an alliteration

e) was passed by Czar Nicholas II
81. During Nicholas II's Russification
a) thousands of Jews were killed in religious pogroms

b) Communist forces storm Leningrad

c) bread harvests reach unprecedented heights

d) Russia's borders spread to Northern California

e) vodka is outlawed on streets, but not avenues
82. The creation of the Duma
a) satisfied the peasant demands for autonomy

b) had no real power and could be cancelled at any time

c) demonstrated Czar Nicholas II's understanding of the needs of the people

d) followed Russia's victory in the Russo-Japanese War

e) followed the incorporation of universal manhood suffrage in Russia




83. In India,
a) a large number of educated elite demanded the freedom they learned from their Western education

b) the Indian National Congress was established in 1912

c) Mohandas Gandhi became the nation's first Prime Minister

d) independence was gained due to violent confrontation with Britain

e) the Great Wall of China can not be seen from my house
84. Latin American revolutions were
a) led by wealthy, educated creoles

b) replaced creole landowners with peninsulares

c) for the most part completed by 1812

d) successful in that they prevented future civil wars or power rivalries

e) put down by caudillos, priests who protected peasants at all costs
85. A connection to one's own home, region, language and culture is known as
a) nationalism

b) feudalism

c) communism

d) the Great Schism

e) multi-colored prism
86. Germany and Italy
a) were two of the first European regions to centralize authority while creating a nation

b) unified by the second part of the nineteenth century and changed the balance of power in Europe

c) were free of foreign control prior to their unification

d) refused to involve themselves in land claims around the world

e) invented noodles and schnitzel
87. Which of the following was not true about Italy's unification?
a) it was inititated by the king of the island kingdom Sardinia

b) focused on kicking out the Austrians from northern Italy

c) northern Italians were content with the established border following unification

d) forced France to withdraw in 1870

e) difficult to unite because regions quite culturally different
88. The German states and the Austrian Empire
a) were united under the Holy Roman Empire

b) shared Prussia and Poland

c) pushed for Industrial Revolution under Frederick the Great

d) devalued education

e) both ruled through a central authority in the capital
89. William I was able to unify Germany by
a) transferring money spent on the military to improving infrastructure

b) uniting German states against a common enemy

c) fighting the Catholic German states in the Battle of Bismarck

d) declaring the Third Reich

e) asking a short dictatoresque Austrian to take over power


90. Once Germany had unified
a) Europe embraced the new nation

b) Europe was threatened by the industrial potential of the new nation

c) Otto von Bismarck was annointed emperor

d) Germany devalued their navy in favor of a superior standing army

e) they pursued colonial ambitions in Latin America and Eastern Europe
91. Which of the following was not a reason why nations moved toward representative government in the 19th century?
a) industrialization

b) modernization

c) urbanization

d) population growth

e) religion
92. Which of the following was not an issue facing republican governments?
a) British needed to balance needs of aristocracy and growing middle class

b) France under the Fourth Republic became the most democratic nation in Europe

c) Nations such as Italy and Germany still preferred leader who championed nationalistic causes

d) Austria moved closer toward autocracy, dismissing liberal claims

e) In Germany, upper class votes more important than that of the lower classes
93. In Russia, Alexander II
a) was shot after trying to implement reforms

b) increased censorship to maintain power of czar

c) centralized government by taking power from provincial governments

d) emancipated serfs in 1861

e) created Duma to satifsy radicals
94. During the Tokugawa Shogunate
a) power resided with the emperor

b) the samurai fought with the haiyatsu for dominance

c) the Tokugawa clan centralized government

d) social mobility became increasingly possible

e) Japan involved itself with world trade
95. The Meiji Restoration
a) was implemented from above by the government

b) was successful due to the dominance of the merchant class

c) came without Western encouragement

d) abolished payments to samurai

e) created formal law code and elected parliament known as the Diet
96. Japan successfully industrialized for all of the following reasons except
a) sent diplomats and members of the upper class to West to train

b) private banks took a leading role in funding entrepreneurs

c) the increasing dominance of the zaibatsu

d) the encouragement of private enterprise

e) already had access to technology of Industrial Revolution

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