Modern Era 1750-1914 Take-Home Exam Please have integrity while working on your test Honor Code



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Modern Era

1750-1914


Take-Home Exam

Please have integrity while working on your test


Honor Code

I understand that this is an independent assignment and that I can not receive any assistance from any other person. I will conduct all of my own research and will answer the questions to the best of my ability.

____________________________ ___________ ____________________________

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I understand that this was an independent assignment. I can honestly state that I did not receive any assistance from any other person. Each response is representative of my own knowledge and research.

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1. Which of the following was not a characteristic of the Industrial Revolution?
a) capitalism replaces mercantilism as dominant political philosophy

b) mass production of goods due to advancement in machinery

c) civilizations replace agriculture with industry

d) massive urbanization

e) lacked a clear-cut beginning and end
2. Which of the following was not an effect of the Industrial Revolution?
a) Western countries hesitant to export industrialization to colonies to maintain dominance of trade

b) labor became less-skilled

c) empowered people to believe they should have say in the government

d) led to reform movements that limited working hours and child labor

e) the wealthy middle class left urban areas for the suburbs
3. Which of the following best explains why Britain was able to industrialize first?
a) Great Britain had vast deposits of natural energy sources – primarily coal, oil, and nuclear power

b) By leaving their fields fallow, Great Britain was able to increase crop production

c) life expectancy rose due to improved medical care, nutrition and hygiene

d) steam power was invented by James Watt

e) Rousseau’s landmark Enlightenment work – The Wealth of Nations – outlined the steps Britain had already taken to industrialize
4. Which of the following was not a key phase of industrialization in Great Britain?
a) steam engine use adapted to every economic field

b) encouraged the development of vast networks of canals and railroads

c) electricity surpasses steam and coal as primary energy source

d) Bessemer Process takes impurities from iron allowing for the creation of steel

e) Eli Whitney’s invention of interchangeable parts prevented regions from exchanging technology
5. Which of the following was a social effect of the Industrial Revolution?
a) birth of the proletariat – owners who control labor

b) middle class prevented from owning agriculture

c) man becomes part of machine instead of controlling machine

d) on the assembly line, independent thought encouraged

e) pace of work slows down giving individual workers more control over pace of labor


6. Which of the following best summarizes the reform movements of the Industrial Revolution?
a) capitalism should not be checked by government intervention

b) reform more possible in Russia than in the United States due to autocratic structure

c) parliaments started passing laws that limited hours, child labor and worsened working conditions

d) factory owners almost always made changes because they realized a happy, healthy, well-paid work force could be more productive

e) the number of people with influence – aristocracy and middle class – increased pressuring the government to act on behalf of the workers
7. Which of the following was not a major global effect of the Industrial Revolution?
a) countries with industrial technology had advanced military weapons

b) Western European nations could not be defeated by Africans in battle

c) the creation of a monoculture that damaged both the environment and the economy

d) countries needed colonies to act as markets for finished goods

e) Britain became dominant global nation of 19th century because they were first to industrialize
8. Which of the following reflected the living conditions of the Industrial Revolution
a) Initial housing was quite comfortable for immigrants

b) crime able to spread relatively unchecked in densely populated areas

c) factories closed in the winter time creating free time for factory laborers

d) health care prevented spread of disease in tenements

e) the bourgeoisie and proletariat frequently shared housing because that’s just the nice thing to do
9. What was the reaction to the Luddite protests?
a) business began to incorporate Luddite traditions in operational manuals

b) government sided with the Luddites

c) factories began making more user-friendly machines

d) government supported the bourgeoisie

e) conservatives frustrated by Luddite support for technological advancement
10. Which of the following was not a military improvement made during the Industrial Revolution?
a) gunpowder

b) modern artillery

c) machine gun

d) steam powered battleships

e) more accurate rifles




11. Which of the following best describes “Banana Republics”?
a) one crop was prioritized at the expense of developing additional crops and creating a complex economy

b) parliamentary buildings created in a crescent shape to stimulate active discussion

c) tropical regions that lived on bananas as a staple product

d) businessmen and industrialists were unable to strike deals with local aristocrats and politicians

e) wealth created spreads to entire population
12. What was the first major trade to be fully power-driven and industrialized?
a) the canning of food

b) the textile industry

c) the production of rubber

d) the manufacture of glass

e) the leatherworking trade
13. What effect did nineteenth-century industrialization have on Europe’s aristocratic class?
a) Industrialization made the aristocratic class more powerful

b) Industrialization had very little effect on the aristocratic class

c) Industrialization gradually weakened the power and prestige of the aristocratic class

d) Industrialization suddenly weakened the power and prestige of the aristocratic class

e) Industrialization had no effect at all on the aristocratic class
14. Which of the following was NOT among the Western world’s industrial leaders during most of the nineteenth century?
a) Austria

b) England

c) Belgium

d) the United States

e) the western German states
15. Who came up with the notion of the “iron law of wages” that the employer will pay the lowest possible wage to make a profit?
a) Adam Smith

b) Thomas Malthus

c) Robert Owen

d) David Ricardo

e) Karl Marx


16. Which of the following best characterizes standard Marxist doctrine?
a) Economic competition leads to the highest possible level of prosperity for all

b) the struggle between propertied classes and laboring classes is the determining force in all human affairs

c) Any interference with the natural operation of supply and demand is harmful.

d) It is possible to achieve social justice and economic equality within the capitalist framework

e) There is no avoiding the fact that there will always be impoverished classes in every society
17. How did industrialization affect the Atlantic slave trade?
a) Reliance on machines caused the slave trade to end somewhat earlier than it would have otherwise

b) Industrialization had little or no effect on the slave trade

c) Industrialization of the textile trade increased the demand for U.S. cotton and revived slavery for several decades

d) Industrialization quickly ended the slave trade

e) Steam power allowed the British and U.S. navies to stop the slave trade altogether before the 1850s
18. Which of the following was a major advantage Britain had over Japan in industrializing
a) British able to industrialize faster due to prior knowledge

b) Britain is an island

c) Britain has smarter people willing to work hard

d) Britain has large domestic deposits of coal

e) British government favored industrialization
19. Which of the following was a difference between Japanese industrialization and British industrialization?
a) success of women’s reform movements

b) class tensions developed

c) limited foreign investment

d) rapid urbanization

e) factories built quickly
20. Which of the following was not a technological innovation of the Industrial Revolution?
a) new weaponry

b) cotton gin that made textile revolution possible

c) new technological innovations to extract resources from earth

d) Spinning Jenny

e) ox-drawn plow
21. Which of the following was not a commonality of Industrial Revolutions around the world?
a) urbanization due to poor harvests, too little land, too many mouths to feed

b) brutal initial working conditions that lead to demands for reform

c) middle class forms made of factory managers, shop owners and the proletariat

d) factories built near towns

e) increased need to find natural resources and markets for goods




22. Which of the following was not a change in social thought that stemmed directly from urbanization?
a) women’s emancipation movements

b) the Enlightenment

c) rise of unions and laws to protect workers

d) rise of Marxism

e) independence movements and revolutions
23. Which of the following does not accurately reflect the changing role of women due to the Industrial Revolution?
a) by 1900, most working women were single

b) women were usually paid less than men

c) reform laws eventually limited women’s access to the marketplace

d) upper class women more restricted to their home than in previous eras

e) poor women actually had more opportunity for gender equality than upper/middle class women
24. Middle class housewives during the Industrial Revolution
a) lived in suburbs and sometimes managed a servant

b) expansive social opportunities consistently involving white collar laborers

c) resisted pull of traditional role in house

d) were the most active opponents of suffrage

e) did not have access to labor saving devices
25. Because of the Industrial Revolution
a) the massive working class consistently saw income disparity vis a vis the upper class

b) power and wealth were again based solely on hereditary

c) the new middle class consisted of managers, accountants, doctors, factory laborers and lawyers

d) social mobility was limited

e) husbands became homemakers and wives became primary wage earners
Revolutions
26. Modern political revolutions were characterized by
a) the influence of Enlightenment ideals

b) peasants and urban workers refusing to protest

c) eventual choice of universal democracy instead of autocracy

d) the destruction of traditional religion

e) the unopposed rule of absolute monarchs
27. Which of the following was not a cause of the American Revolution
a) enforcement of navigation laws

b) frustration of colonists that they lacked representation in England

c) opening of western lands to exploration and migration

d) debt from Seven Years War

e) notions of a social contract described by British writer John Locke



28. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was notable for
a) its clear outlining of the correct operation of the steam engine

b) its firm rebuttal of Christian ideology

c) its attempt to unite Canada and the United States against the British Empire

d) statement that monarchy stripped America of its natural rights

e) its limited press run
29. One of the direct results of the American Revolution was
a) France’s impending economic crisis

b) loss of all British territory in the Americas

c) establishment of the United States of America – a communist dictatorship bent on taking over the world

d) creation of a Constitution that discussed notions of government never before experienced in the history of mankind

e) the election of John Adams as the first president of the United States
30. Which of the following was not a cause of the French Revolution?
a) the American Revolution

b) economic policies of Louis XVI

c) leisure expenditures of Marie Antoinette

d) inability to collect taxes from the Third Estate

e) Poor harvests and unemployment
31. Which of the following did not occur in the early stages of the French Revolution?
a) Napoleon established stability by taking power from the Directory

b) the Third Estate broke away from the First and Second Estate and established the National Assembly

c) revolutions in the city eventually spread to the countryside

d) Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were brought to Paris

e) Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General for the first time in over 150 years
32. The Declaration of the Rights of Man
a) increased the authority of feudal rights

b) established natural rights not discussed by previous Western nations

c) guaranteed freedoms of press and religion

d) was embraced by other European nations

e) reestablished the control of the Catholic Church
33. Which of the following was not accomplished during the Reign of Terror
a) killing of thousands of French by using the guillotine

b) creation of a new constitution

c) beheading of its leader Robespierre

d) establishment of universal male suffrage

e) refusal to adopt universal military conscription




34. During the French Revolution, the Directory
a) was led by three men who jointly ruled the executive branch

b) failed to end the chaos in France

c) increased the size of the military

d) was replaced by Napoleon

e) agreed on all proposals without debate
35. Which of the following is not true about the cycle of revolution
a) the initial stages are planned by the liberal nobility and wealthy middle class

b) the radical phase becomes too radical leading to a conservative backlash

c) the revolution almost always ends in a democracy

d) the initial reforms aren’t enough so the revolution becomes more radical

e) the greatest freedoms come at the beginning of the revolution, but don’t last
36. Which of the following changes to France was not attributed to Napoleon?
a) created the fifth constitution of the French Revolution

b) censored speech and the press

c) created the Bank of France

d) established law codes

e) developed the Napoleonic standardized law code that exists in France to this day
37. Napoleon was successful in
a) defeating Moscow

b) making himself king of all of Europe

c) turning the Holy Roman Empire into Germany

d) bringing the freedoms of France to Europe

e) conquering Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal and England
38. The Congress of Vienna
a) punished France by decreasing their borders to pre-medieval size

b) formed moderate democracies in major European states

c) attempted to divide Europe amongst the Prussians and the British

d) attempted to maintain equilibrium in Europe by preventing any one nation from becoming too powerful or weak

e) prevented any military conflict for a hundred years
39. The French Revolution can be considered a success because
a) the old royal family was put back into power

b) it did away with all forms of absolute monarchy

c) set the precedent that the voice of the masses could not be ignored

d) it resulted in universal manhood suffrage

e) tempered the spread of nationalism to European nations



40. Which of the following is an accurate depiction of politics in Europe between 1815 and 1848?
a) aside from French’s mini-revolutions, the remainder of Europe prevented social rebellions

b) the monarchies of Western Europe attempted to maintain control while controlling the frustration of the lower class

c) though Russia allowed serfs to leave their land, they could only vote in local elections

d) even in Great Britain, only 50% of the population actively participated in parliament

e) the lower classes gradually became more content with their status
41. The Revolution of 1848
a) were massive disturbances that to some degree affected every country in Europe

b) was started because the French king decided to enact reforms not agreed on by other nations

c) reflected the frustration of the lower classes at the negative social and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution

d) forced the king of Prussia to withdraw reforms

e) demonstrated that people were inspired more by religion than by nationalism
Major Themes
42. Which of the following was not a continuity of the Modern Era?
a) Chinese belief in their own cultural superiority

b) Slavery ends and slaves incorporated into society

c) after decades of revolution, France emerged with a monarch in power

d) Christianity continued to play large role in lives of Europeans

e) Conservatives attempt to keep power by fighting liberalizing elements
43. Which of the following was not a shift of the Modern Era?
a) mechanization and industrialization become driving forces

b) mercantilism and feudalism replaced by capitalism

c) elite status can now be achieved through wealth

d) scientific/secular world begins to dominate thought

e) republican governments come to an end in favor of stable monarchies
44. Which of the following occurred during the Modern Era?
a) Europe had a head start in industrialization due to their previous voyages of exploration, colonization and control of world trading networks

b) unification of Germany, Italy and France

c) end of absolute monarchies

d) developments in one region have impact on other regions

e) nationalism becomes huge force uniting people

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