MN2155: Asia Pacific Business 2010/2011



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MN2155: Asia Pacific Business 2010/2011




Lecturers

Dr Huaichuan Rui (course co-ordinator). Room 009, Moore Complex. huaichuan.rui@rhul.ac.uk

Dr Li Dong. Room 102, Moore Complex. Li.Dong@rhul.ac.uk

Brief Outline and Aims of the Course

This course is a comparative study of business in the Asia Pacific. For much of the past four decades the Asia Pacific has been the most economically dynamic region in the world. The importance of understanding the region for businesses, governments and academics cannot be overstated. The main aims of this course are to encourage and stimulate your interest in the Asia Pacific, to provide you with a firm grounding in the contemporary economic, political, and cultural contexts of the Asia Pacific nations, and to enable you to recognise and appreciate the degree of diversity of the business environments and business practices in the region. In a one-term course it is not possible to delve into the details of business in all the Asia Pacific nations. Instead, taking for granted your basic theoretical knowledge of economics, strategic management and organisational behaviour, you will be introduced to the characteristics of business organisation and management in several countries in the Asia Pacific, locating business practice in the context of political economy, institutional environment, and cultural background. The main emphasis is upon China and Japan but attention will also be devoted to other Asia Pacific economies including Korea and Malaysia.


Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course you will be able to:




  • Assess and evaluate the factors that lay behind the rapid growth of the Asia Pacific region in the last four decades.

  • Appreciate and be able to discuss the extent of diversity in Asia Pacific business institutions and markets.

  • Analyse the impact of foreign multinationals in the region.

  • Distinguish and describe the range of different relationships between Asia Pacific states and indigenous businesses.

  • Evaluate human resources management and employment relations issues in the region.

  • Apply theoretical insights from first and second year courses to the context of the Asia Pacific.

In addition, after graduating from Royal Holloway if you interact with people from the region in your working life the knowledge of the political, economic, cultural and business background gained from this course should help to make these interactions more effective and productive in business terms, and more enjoyable and interesting on a personal level.


Organisation

This course will last for ten weeks. The course is conducted through ten sessions of two-hour duration per week (one hour lecture and one hour seminar). The format will vary from week to week; there will be a mix of lectures, student presentations, and discussion. Regular attendance and careful preparation for each session are essential ingredients to success in this course. Enthusiasm and active participation in workshops are equally vital!


The first lecture and seminars will be held on Monday 4th Oct 2010.
The lecture is held at 13:00 -14:00 at MLT.

You will be allocated to one of the workshop groups (contact School UG administration team if you still don’t know your workshop group by Monday 4th Oct 2010).

All the workshops (A, B, C, and D) will be held in MB003.
Assessment

The course is assessed by a combination of one individual written assignment, a group presentation, and an end of year unseen examination. The weighting of each is as follows: 70% examination, one individual written essay worth 20%, and one group class presentation worth 10%.


Group Class Presentation (10%)


  1. You will be assigned to a group during the first Workshop in order to begin preparing for your presentation. The Workshop presentation topics - which can be found under each week’s topic - will also be assigned in this session. Students who fail to present their allocated topic will receive a mark of zero.

  2. Every student will be asked to present on one of the questions set for each Workshop. You should draw upon the suggested readings indicated for each Workshop and are encouraged to seek out and use additional apposite material including case study examples.

  3. Presentations should last for 20 minutes, after which your classmates and the Workshop tutor will ask you questions on your topic.

  4. Students who are not presenting during a specific Workshop must undertake the relevant reading in order to participate in the discussion. The Workshop readings are designed to provide the theoretical and empirical basis for students to complete assignments and the examination successfully.

  5. The criteria for assignments and the examination apply equally for the presentations, namely answering the question; knowledge and understanding of theory and literature; knowledge and reference to appropriate cases and evidence; and analysis and structure.

  6. Presenters should consider how they first introduce their topic, presenting an overview and indicating the key theoretical and empirical points that will cover the topic or validate their argument. The core of the presentation should then investigate each of these key issues in turn. Students should bear in mind the links between each key issue and their main argument and the links between the key issues. The conclusion should summarise and re-emphasise the main argument and key points.

  7. The time for each group of presenters is quite short. The argument, therefore, has to be sharp and concise, as well as analytical and well structured. You might wish to prepare handouts that provide an outline of your presentation. During the presentation avoid reading out large chunks of material directly from the readings, instead you should aim to engage directly with your audience. Equally, do not try and relay too much detail, which the audience cannot absorb. Ensure that sources of material consulted are referred to during the presentation, but do not be led merely by the information and approach of the authors you have read. You should include full bibliographic details of the material consulted.

  8. Remember that these are team presentations so aim to integrate fully each presenter’s input. This will require careful planning and attention to the structure of the presentation.

  9. The presentation will be assessed and a mark awarded for the group as a whole. Formative feedback will be given after each presentation; marks will be awarded to all groups at the end of term. If you pass a set of the OHPs prepared for the presentation to the Workshop tutor these can be placed on the course website.


Individual Essay Question (20%)

Select one of following two topics for your assignment. The criteria for presentations and examinations apply for the essay question (please refer especially to notes b), e) and f) above). Essays should be between 2,000 and 2,500 words in length.


  1. Compare and contrast business systems in Japan and China. Answer with reference to relevant theories and use comparative country and/or corporate examples.




  1. Has state played a leading role in upgrading technologies in the Asia Pacific? Answer with reference to relevant theories and use comparative country and/or corporate examples.


The assignment is due by 12 noon on Thursday the 2nd December 2010.
Important: You need to submit your assignment via Turntin and one hard copy to the Reception of the School of Management in the Moore Building by 12.00 noon on the deadline day. Full regulations on submission of assignments and guidance on essay writing are given in the School of Management Student Handbook 2010/2011.
Recommended Text Books

No single book is adequate as a text for this course. IMPORTANT READING MATERIALS WILL BE INDICATED IN EACH LECTURE. However, should you wish to purchase any of the relevant books, the following provide excellent introductions to business in the region (particularly those with *):

*Chen, M. (2004) Asian Management Systems: Chinese, Japanese and Korean Styles of Business,

Thomson. ISBN: 1861529414.



*Rowley, C. and Warner, M. (eds.) (2009) Management in South-East Asia: Business Culture,

Enterprises and Human Resources, Routledge.

*El Kahal, S. (2001) Business in Asia Pacific, Texts and Cases. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

*Thompson, G. (ed) (1998) Economic Dynamism in the Asia-Pacific: The Growth of Integration and Competitiveness. London, Routledge.

Ambler, T., Witzel, M. and Xi, C. (2008) Doing Business in China. Routledge

Budhwar, S. Pawan. and Bhatnagar J. (2008) The Changing Face of People Management in India,

Routledge.



Keizer, A. (2009) Changes in Japanese Employment Practices, Beyond the Japanese Model,

Routledge.

Kim, Eun Mee (ed) (1998) The Four Asian Tigers: Economic Development and the Global Political Economy. London, Academic Press.

Lasserre, P. and Schütte, H. (1999) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Beyond the Crisis. London, Macmillan.

McLeod, Ross H. and Garnaut, R. (eds) (1998) East Asia in Crisis: From Being a Miracle to Needing One? London, Routledge. 338.95 EAS

Moore, L.F. and Devereaux Jennings, P. (eds) (1995) Human Resource Management on the Pacific Rim. Berlin, de Gruyter. 338.753 HUM

Nolan, P. (2001). China and the global business revolution, Palgarve. ISBN: 0-333-80119-9.

Orrù, M., Biggart, N. and Hamilton, G. (1997) The Economic Organization of East Asian Capitalism. London, Sage. 338.095 ORR

Robison, R., Beeson, M., Jayasuriya, K. and H. Kim (eds) (2000) Politics and Markets in the Wake of the Asian Crisis. London, Routledge.

Rowley, C. and Paik, Y. (eds.) (2008) The Changing Face of Korean Management, Routledge

Singh, K, Pangarkar, N. and Heracleous, L. (2010) Business Strategy in Asia: A casebook. Singapore: Cengage Learning.

Whitley, R. (1992) Business Systems in East Asia: Firms, Markets and Societies. London, Sage.

Wilkinson, B. (1994) Labour and Industry in the Asia-Pacific: Lessons from the Newly-Industrialized Countries. Berlin, de Gruyter. 382.091724 WIL

World Bank (1993) The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 338.95 EAS
This course does not assume any particular knowledge of the region. However, in order to gain the greatest benefit from this course you will find it essential to read widely. Academic journals you may wish to seek out include: the Asia Pacific Business Review, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, the Journal of Far Eastern Business, World Development, and the International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Those with a keen interest in keeping abreast of the latest developments in the region should not miss the regular Asia-Pacific coverage in newspapers such as the Financial Times, the Asian Wall Street Journal and the International Herald Tribune. More in-depth journalism and case and country analysis can be found in the Far Eastern Economic Review, the Economist and Asia Business Week. Students are strongly encouraged to use the libraries of the School of Oriental and African Studies and the London School of Economics, both of which have extensive collections on the Asia Pacific region.
Internet Sites

There are countless Internet sites which provide information on the Asia Pacific. The following are particularly useful:


Japan Economic Foundation (JEF)

http://www.jef.or.jp/en/what/index.html
Nippon Keidanren (Japan Business Federation)

http://www.keidanren.or.jp/
Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)

http://www.jetro.go.jp/top/
Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)

http://www.meti.go.jp/english/index.html
China Ministry of Commerce

www.mofcom.gov.cn
Malaysia Industrial Development Authority (MIDA)

http://www.mida.gov.my/

The US-China Business Council

http://www.uschina.org/

The World Bank

http://www.worldbank.org/
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

http://www.oecd.org/EN/home/0,,EN-home-0-nodirectorate-no-no-no-0,FF.html

The World Trade Organisation

http://www.wto.org/
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

http://www.apecsec.org.sg/
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

http://www.aseansec.org/800x600.html
Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC)

http://www.tdctrade.com/
Korea Trade Promotion Corporation (KOTRA)

http://www.kotra.co.kr/eng/index.php3

Korea Ministry of Finance and Economy

http://www.mofe.go.kr/mofe/eng/e_index.htm

Yahoo country directories

http://dir.yahoo.com/Regional/countries/

Overview of Lecture and Workshop Topics 2010/11

Date


Lecture

Workshop Topic

1

4 Oct

Economic development in the Asia Pacific (H Rui)

Allocation of presentation topics

2

11 Oct

Business strategies and structures in Japan (H Rui)

Seminar induction

3

18 Oct

The emergence of South Korea as a newly industrialised nation (H Rui)

Distinctive features of Japanese business

4

25 Oct

Business in China (H Rui)

Korea’s chaebol

5

1 Nov

Malaysia: Seeking to catch-up with Japan (H Rui)

Challenges facing foreign firms in China

6

8 Nov

Varieties of capitalism, institutions and the Asia

Pacific (L Dong)



Lessons of Malaysia or other Asian countries in catching up with Japan

7

15 Nov

Business and state relations in the Asia Pacific

(L Dong)


Government policies towards FDI in the

Asia Pacific



8

22 Nov

National innovation system and technology

development in the Asia Pacific (L Dong)



The development of electronics industry

in Taiwan



9

29 Nov

Entrepreneurship and culture in the Asia Pacific

(L Dong)


Overseas Chinese business in the

Southeast Asia



10

6 Dec

Entering the Asia Pacific (L Dong)

Exam preparation


Lecture/Workshop Schedule
Session 1 Monday 4 October 2010

Economic development in the Asia Pacific region since 1945.


This session will include an introduction to the course, an introductory lecture and a short quiz to assess your knowledge of the historical, political and cultural background of the Asia Pacific region. We shall also divide the class into teams of two and select topics to prepare for the class presentations which will begin in Week 3.
An introductory lecture will examine economic development in the Asia Pacific since the end of the Second World War. It focuses on the evolving economic structure of the Asia Pacific, which sees Japan at the apex, the newly industrialised economies (NIEs) of South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong in the second tier, and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) nations of Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the third tier. China and India have become the newly emerged giant economies in the region, which will be briefly introduced. The importance of the Asia Pacific within the global economy will also be explored. This will entail a discussion of:


  • Economic growth and industrialisation

  • The role of the state in economic development

  • Patterns of investment and trade

  • Regional economic inter-dependencies

  • Obstacles to and potential for further growth


Workshop: Allocation of presentation topics to the organized groups
Reading

Amsden, Alice (1989) Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York, Oxford University Press. 338.095195 AMS

Chen Xiangming (1996) ‘Taiwan investments in China and Southeast Asia’, Asian Survey 36(5): 447-67.

Gereffi, Gary (1998) ‘Commodity chains and regional divisions of labor in East Asia’, pp.93-124 in Eun Mee Kim (ed) The Four Asian Tigers: Economic Development and the Global Political Economy. London, Academic Press.

Hoesel, Roger van. (1999) New Multinational Enterprises from Korea and Taiwan: Beyond Export-led Growth. London: Routledge.

Lasserre, P. and Schütte, H. (1999) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Beyond the Crisis. London, Macmillan. Chapter 1. 338.88 LAS

Lauridsen, Laurids S. (1998) ‘The financial crisis in Thailand: causes, conduct and consequences?’, World Development 26(8): 1575-91.

Luo, Y. and Rui, H., 2009. “An Ambidexterity Perspective Toward Multinational Enterprises from Emerging Economies”, Academy of Management Perspective, 23(4): 49-70.

Nolan, P. (2001). China and the global business revolution, Palgarve. ISBN: 0-333-80119-9.

Singh, K, Pangarkar, N. and Heracleous, L. (2010) Business Strategy in Asia: A casebook. Singapore: Cengage Learning.

Thompson, G. (ed) (1998) Economic Dynamism in the Asia-Pacific. London, Routledge. Chapter 1 and 7.

Wade, Robert (1999) ‘The Asian debt-and-development crisis of 1997-?: Causes and consequences’, World Development, 26(8): 1535-53.

Wilkinson, B. (1994) Labour and Industry in the Asia-Pacific: Lessons from the Newly-Industrialized Countries, Berlin, de Gruyter. Chapter 1. 382.091724 WIL

World Bank (1993) The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Chapter 7. 338.95 EAS

Yeung, Henry Wai-chung (2000) ‘Neoliberalism, laissez-faire capitalism and economic crisis: the political economy of deindustrialisation in Hong Kong’, Competition and Change 4: 121-169.

Session 2 Monday 11 October 2010

Business strategies and structures in Japan.


Japan was the only major industrial power in Asia prior to the Second World War. Today, the country has a central role not only in Asia, but also in the world economy. Japan is the world’s second largest economy. Japan’s economy is equivalent to about 70 per cent of Asia’s GDP and accounts for about one-sixth of the world’s industrial output. The country is a global leader in electronics and precision engineering. In this session we examine the ways in which businesses are organised and managed in Japan. The main focus will be on the practices of indigenous companies, and will include consideration of characteristic business strategies, business structures, and forms of management and organisation. Particular attention will be devoted to those features of Japanese business which are seen to lay behind Japan’s post-war economic success: state-business relations; inter-firm relations; manufacturing techniques; and (briefly) employment practices. We will also explore the challenges to these practices since the early 1990s.
Workshop: Seminar induction
Reading
Beasley, W.G. (1995) The Rise of Modern Japan: Political, Economic and Social Change Since 1850. London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Berggren, Christian and Masami Nomura (1997) The Resilience of Corporate Japan: New Competitive Strategies and Personnel Practices. London, Paul Chapman Publishing. 338.753 BER

Fruin, W. Mark (1992) The Japanese Enterprise System: Competitive Strategies and Cooperative Structures. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 338.740952 FRU

Hiroshi, Okumura (1996) ‘Intercorporate relations in Japan’, pp.177-185 in G. Hamilton (ed) Asian Business Networks, Berlin, de Gruyter.

Imai, K. (1994) ‘Enterprise groups’, pp.117-140 in Imai, K. and Kamiya, R. (eds) Business Enterprise in Japan, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. 338.7400952 BUS

Keizer, A. (2009) Changes in Japanese Employment Practices, Beyond the Japanese Model,

Routledge.

Kingston, J. (2001) Japan in Transformation, 1952-2000, Longman.
Lasserre, P. and Schütte, H. (1999) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Beyond the Crisis. London, Macmillan. Chapters 4 (pp.83-97) and 8. 338.88 LAS

Lincoln, James R., Gerlach, Michael L. and Christina L. Ahmadjian (1996) ‘Keiretsu networks and corporate performance in Japan’, American Sociological Review, 61(1): 67-88.

McMillan, C. (1995) ‘The state as economic engine: lessons from the Japanese experience’, Journal of Far Eastern Business, 1 (3): 1-16.

Okumura Hiroshi (1996) ‘Intercorporate relations in Japan’, pp.177-185 in G. Hamilton (ed) Asian Business Networks, Berlin, de Gruyter.

Pilkington, Alan (1996) ‘Japanese production strategies and competitive success: Mazda's quiet revolution’, Journal of Far Eastern Business, 1(4): 15-35.

Porter, Michael E. and Hirotaka Takeuchi (1999) ‘Fixing what really ails Japan’, Foreign Affairs, May/June: 66-81.

Thompson, G. (ed) (1998) Economic Dynamism in the Asia-Pacific. London, Routledge. Chapters 6 and 9 (pp.213-226). 338.959 ECO

Yoshiaki Ueda (1996) ‘Types and characteristics of iinterlocking directorates in Japan’, pp.187-199 in G. Hamilton (ed) Asian Business Networks. Berlin, de Gruyter.



Session 3 Monday 18 October 2010

The emergence of South Korea as a newly industrialised nation.


In 1955, two years after the Korean War ended in a precarious stand-off, South Korea was economically backward. Four decades later, Korea was the world’s eleventh largest economy and had become a member of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). South Korea’s industrialisation proper began only in the 1960s. By the 1980s, after two decades of growth averaging around 10 per cent per annum, Korea was home to major manufacturers able to compete in world markets for automobiles, consumer electronics, shipbuilding, steel and computer chips. Its GDP is as large as that of Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia combined. Korea has also become a significant exporter of foreign investment. This session explores some of the factors which lay behind Korea’s economic growth and the difficulties which afflicted Korea during the Asian financial crisis. The key elements to be focused upon are the:


  • Historical background to Korea’s development

  • Relationship between business and the state

  • Korean conglomerates, the chaebol

  • Developments since Korea’s democratisation


Workshop and Presentation Topic: What is so distinctive about Japanese business structure? In what ways has this structure begun to change in recent years?

Reading
Amsden, Alice (1989) Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York, Oxford University Press. 338.095195 AMS

Buzo, A. (2002) The Making of Modern Korea. London, Routledge.

Cumings, Bruce (1998) ‘The Korean crisis and the end of 'late' development’, New Left Review 231: 43-72.

Fields, Karl J. (1995) Enterprise and the State in Korea and Taiwan. London, Cornell University Press.

Fitzgerald, Robert and Young, Chan kim (2004) ‘Business Strategy, Government and Globalization: Policy and Miscalculation in the Korean Electronics Industry’ Asian Pacific Business Review; Spring/Summer2004, Vol.10 Issue3/4, p331-462, 22p

Hoesel, Roger van (1999) New Multinational Enterprises from Korea and Taiwan: Beyond Export-led Growth. London, Routledge.

Lasserre, P. and Schütte, H. (1999) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Beyond the Crisis. London, Macmillan. Chapter 4 (pp.97-101). 338.88 LAS

Lee, Yeon-ho (1996) ‘Political Aspects of South Korean State Autonomy: Regulating the Chaebol, 1980-93’, The Pacific Review 9(2): 149-79.

Kims, Dong-one and Kim, Seongsu (2003) ‘Globalization, Financial crisis, and Industrial Relations: The Case of South Korea’ Industrial Relations; Jul2003, Vol.42, Issue 3, p342-367, 27p

Moon, C. and S. Rhyu (2000) ‘The state, structural rigidity, and the end of Asian capitalism: a comparative study of Japan and South Korea’, pp.77-98 in Robison, R., Beeson, M., Jayasuriya, K. and H. Kim (eds) Politics and Markets in the Wake of the Asian Crisis. London, Routledge.

Pucik, V. and Lim, J. (2001) ‘Transforming human resource management in Korean chaebol: a case of Samsung’, Asia Pacific Business Review, special edition on Korea, pp.137-161.

Porter, Michael (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations, pp.272-93. New York, Free Press.

Rowley, C. and Paik, Y. (eds.) (2008) The Changing Face of Korean Management, Routledge.

Rowley, C., Bae, J. and Sohn, T. (2001) ‘Introduction: capabilities to liabilities in Korean management’, Asia Pacific Business Review, special edition on Korea, pp.1-21.

Rowley, C and Bae, J (2004) ‘Human Resource Management in South Korea after the Asian Financial Crisis’ International Studies of Management & Organization; Spring20004, Vol.34 Issue 1m p52-82, 31p

Shim, W. and Steers, R. (2001) ‘The entrepreneurial basis of Korean enterprise: past accomplishments and future challenges, Asia Pacific Business Review, special edition on Korea, pp.22-43.

Thompson, G. (ed) (1998) Economic Dynamism in the Asia-Pacific. London, Routledge. Chapter 6 (review) and 9 (pp.227-47). 338.959 ECO

Ungson, Gerardo R., Steers, Richard M., and Seung-Ho Park (1997) Korean Enterprise: The Quest for Globalization. Boston, Harvard Business School Press.

Wilkinson, Barry (1994) Labour and Industry in the Asia-Pacific: Lessons from the Newly-Industrialized Countries. Berlin, de Gruyter, Chapter 3: Korea. 382.091724 WIL

Yoo, S. and Lee, Sang M. (1993) 'Management style and practice of Korean chaebols', pp.157-73 in P. Blunt and D. Richards (eds) Readings in Management, Organisation and Culture in East and South East Asia. Darwin, Northern Territory University Press.



Session 4 Monday 25 October 2010

Business in China


The lecture will focus on the social, political and business environment and SOEs that developed in China during the Maoist era, and on the economic reforms which have taken place since the late 1970s. In the late 1970s China embarked upon a transformation of its foreign trade and investment policies. In place of economic autarky China began to promote export-led growth and to encourage foreign investment. The lecture will also briefly introduce the recent trend of Chinese firms’ outward investment. The Workshop Presentation will focus upon management issues in foreign-funded ventures.
Workshop and Presentation Topic: How do you account for the success of Korea’s chaebol? What problems did the chaebol face in the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s?
Reading

Aimin Chen (1998) ‘Inertia in reforming China's state-owned enterprises: the case of Chongqing’, World Development 26(3): 479-495.

Beamish, P.W. and Jiang, R. (2002) ‘Investing profitably in China: is it getting harder?’, Long Range Planning 35: 135-51.

Child, John and Yuan Lu (eds) (1996) Management Issues in China, Volume 2: International Enterprises. London, Routledge. 338.750095 CHI

Child, J. and Tse, D. (2001) ‘China’s transition and its implications for international business’, Journal of International Business 32(1).

Ding, Daniel., Goddall, Keith and Malcolm Warner (2000) ‘The end of the “iron rice-bowl” whither Chinese human resource management?’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management 11(2): 217-36.

Gamble, Jos. (2000) ‘Localizing management in foreign-invested enterprises in China: practical, cultural, and strategic perspectives’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(5): 883-903.

Gamble, Jos. (2003) ‘Transferring human resources practices from the United Kingdom to China: the limits and potential for convergence’ International Journal of Human Resource Management; May2003, Vol.14 Issue 3, p369, 19p, 1chart

Goodall, K. and Warner, M. (1997) ‘Human resources in Sino-foreign joint ventures: selected case studies in Shanghai, compared with Beijing’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management 8(5): 569-94.

Goodall, K. and Warner, M. (1998) ‘Human resource management dilemmas in China: the case of foreign-invested enterprises in Shanghai’, Asia Pacific Business Review 4(4): 1-21.

Guthrie, Doug (1999) Dragon in a Three-piece Suit: The Emergence of Capitalism in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Duckett, Jane (2000) ‘Bureaucrats in business, Chinese-style: the lessons of market reform and state entrepreneurialism in the People’s Republic of China’, World Development 29(1): 23-37.

Hassard, J., Morris, J and Sheehan, J (2004) ‘The ‘third way’: the future of work and organization in a ‘corporatized’ Chinese economy’ International Journal of Human Resource Management; Mar2004, Vol.15 Issue 2, p314-330, 17p, 1chart

Hamill, J. and Pambos, P. (1996) ‘Joint ventures in China: “same bed, different dreams”’, Asia Pacific Business Review 3(2): 26-46.

Hayter, R. and Han, S.S. (1998) ‘Reflections on China’s open policy towards foreign direct investment’, Regional Studies 32(1): 1-16.

Henley, J., Kirkpatrick, C. and Wilde, G. (1999) ‘Foreign direct investment in China: recent trends and current policy issues’, The World Economy 22(2): 223-43.

Kaiser, Stefan., Kirkby, David A. and Ying Fan (1996) ‘Foreign direct investment in China: an examination of the literature’, Asia Pacific Business Review 2(3): 44-65.

Lasserre, P. and Schütte, H. (1999) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Beyond the Crisis. London, Macmillan. Chapter 7. 338.88 LAS

Lasserre, Philippe, and Poy-Seng Ching. (1997) ‘Human resources management in China and the localization challenge’, Journal of Asian Business 13(4): 85-99.

Lockett, Martin. (1988) ‘Chinese culture and the problems of Chinese management’, Organization Studies 9(4): 475-96.

Lu, Yuan and Ingmar Björkman. (1997) ‘Human resource management practices in China-Western joint ventures: MNC standardization versus localization’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management 8(5): 614-28.

Lü Xiaobo and Elizabeth J. Perry (eds) (1997) Danwei: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective. New York, M.E. Sharpe.

Nolan, Peter (2001) ‘China and the Global Economy’ : National Champions, Industrial Policy and the Big

Business Revolution, Palgrave Macmillan, London pp16-40, 65-74, 83-94, 115-116.

Rui, H. (2005). Globalisation, transition, and development in China, RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0415222199.

Rui, H., and Yip, G., (2008), “Foreign acquisitions by Chinese firms: A strategic intent perspective”,



Journal of World Business, (43):3: 213-226.

Shenggen, F., Xiaobo, Z and Sherman, R (2003) ‘Structural Change and Economic Growth in China’ Review of Development Economics, 7(3) p360-377

Shenkar, Oded (1996) ‘The firm as a total institution: reflections on the Chinese state enterprise’, Organization Studies 17(6): 885-907.

Strange, R. (ed) (1997) ‘Management in China: the experience of foreign businesses’, Asia Pacific Business Review (Special Issue) 3(3).

Tian, Xiaowen (2007) Managing International Business in China. Cambridge: CUP.

Tsang, E.W.K. (1994) ‘Human resource management problems in Sino-foreign joint ventures’, International Journal of Manpower 15(9-10): 4-21.

Vanhonacker, W. (1997) ‘Entering China: an unconventional approach’, Harvard Business Review (March-April): 130-40.

Williamson, P and Zeng, M (2004) ‘Strategies for Competing in a Changed China’, MIT Slone Management Review; Summer2004, Vol.45 Issue4, p85-91, 7p



Session 5 Monday 1 November 2010

Malaysia: Seeking to catch up with Japan


Japan was the first economically powerful nation in the Asia Pacific, other countries in the region have sought to emulate this success. The NIEs are seeking to catch up with Japan, and the third tier economies with the NIEs. This session focuses on Malaysia and assesses its economic development since independence, and its ambitions and potentialities. This study of Malaysia also enables us to explore the possibility and the potential for the NIEs and the third tier nations to take a step up the tiers that were introduced in the first Workshop. It seems especially appropriate to look at Malaysia since, in 1991, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad announced that Malaysia would aim to achieve developed (i.e. industrialised) status by the year 2020.
This exploration of Malaysia will involve:

  • A brief historical introduction to Malaysia

  • Investigating the key post-independence economic policies

  • Exploring the successes and problems of Malaysia’s economic development


Workshop and Presentation Topic: What challenges do foreign firms face when they seek to transfer their home country management style to China?
Reading

Abdullah, W. (1995) ‘The ‘old’ and ‘new’ competition and Malaysian manufacturing firms: a case study’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management 6(4): 872-90.

Alavi, Rokiah (1996) Industrialization in Malaysia: Import Substitution and Infant Industry Performance. London, Routledge.

Ali, Anwar (1994) ‘Japanese industrial investments and technology transfer in Malaysia’, pp.102-126 in K.S. Jomo (ed) Japan and Malaysian Development: In the Shadow of the Rising Sun. London, Routledge.

Guyton, Lynne F. (1995) ‘Japanese FDI and the transfer of Japanese consumer electronics production to Malaysia’, Journal of Far Eastern Business 1(4): 63-97.

Jomo, K.S. (1998) ‘Financial liberalization, crises, and Malaysian policy responses’, World Development 26(8): 1563-74.

Jomo, K.S. (ed) (1993) Industrializing Malaysia: Policy, Performance, Prospects. London, Routledge. 338.95905 IND

Jomo, K.S. (ed) (1994) Japan and Malaysian Development: In the Shadow of the Rising Sun. London, Routledge. 338.67352 JAP

Jomo, K.S. (1994) ‘The Proton saga: Malaysian car, Mitsubishi gain’, pp.263-290 in Jomo, K.S. (ed) Japan and Malaysian Development: In the Shadow of the Rising Sun. London, Routledge.

Jomo, K.S., Felker, Greg and Rasiah, Rajah. (eds) (1999) Industrial Technology Development in Malaysia: Industry and Firm Studies. London: Routledge.

Kahn, Joel S. (1996) ‘Growth, economic transformation, culture and the middle classes in Malaysia’, pp.49-75 in R. Robison and D.S.G. Goodman (eds) The New Rich in Asia: Mobile Phones, McDonald’s and Middle-Class Revolution. London, Routledge. 301.4412 NEW

Lasserre, P. and Schütte, H. (1999) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Beyond the Crisis. London, Macmillan. Chapter 5. 338.88 LAS

Rasiah, Rajah (1996) ‘The changing organisation of work in Malaysia’s electronics industry’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint 37(1): 21-37.

Smith W and Abdullah, A (2004) ‘The Impact of the Asian Financial Crisis on Human Resource Management in Malaysia’ Asia Pacific Business Review; Spring/Summer2004, Vol.10 Issue3/4, p402-421, 20p

Thompson, G. (ed) (1998) Economic Dynamism in the Asia-Pacific. London: Routledge. Chapters 2 and 11. 338.959 ECO

Todd, Patricia and Peetz, David (2001) ‘Malaysian industrial relations at the century’s turn: Vision 2020 or a spectre of the past?’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(8): 1365-82.

Wad, Peter and Jomo, K.S. (1994) ‘In-house unions: “Looking East” for industrial relations’, pp.213-231 in K.S. Jomo (ed) Japan and Malaysian Development: In the Shadow of the Rising Sun. London, Routledge.

Wilkinson, B., Gamble, J., Humphrey, J., Morris, J. and D. Anthony (2001) ‘The new international division of labour in Asian electronics: work organization and human resources in Japan and Malaysia’, Journal of Management Studies 38(5): 675-95.



Session 6 Monday 8 November 2010

Varieties of capitalism, institutions, and the Asia Pacific.


This lecture reviews some key arguments of varieties of capitalism as an institution-based view of firm strategy, examining issues of coordination amongst economic actors, isomorphism and institutional complementarity with firm performance. The applicability of the varieties of capitalism perspective to the context of Asia is then examined. The remainder of the lecture examines key dimensions of national business system in the Asian context, the factors for its variation across Asian economies.
The main aspects explored in the lecture are:

  • Varieties of capitalism

  • Impact of institutions on firm performance

  • National business system in the Asia Pacific


Workshop and Presentation Topic: What are the main characteristics of China’s business system? What challenges does China face as China’s business system evolves?

Reading
Berger, S., & Dore, R. P. (Eds.). 1996. National diversity and global capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell

University Press.


Boisot, M., & Child, J. 1996. From fiefs to clans: Explaining China’s emerging economic order.

Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4): 600–628.


Chen, C. C., Peng, M. W., & Saparito, P. A. 2002. Individualism, collectivism, and opportunism: A

cultural perspective on transaction cost economics. Journal of Management, 28(4): 567–583.


Guthrie, D. 2005. Organizational learning and productivity: State structure and foreign investment in the

rise of the Chinese corporation. Management and Organization Review, 1(2): 165–195.


Hall, P. A., & Soskice, D. 2001. An introduction to varieties of capitalism. In P. A. Hall & D. Soskice

(Eds.). Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantage: 1–68. Oxford,

UK: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, G., and Deeg, R. 2008. Comparing capitalisms: Understanding institutional diversity and its implications for international business. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4): 540–561.
Keister, L. 2000. Business groups: The structure and impact of interfirm relations during economic

development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.


Oi, J. C. 1999. Rural China takes off: Institutional foundations of economic reform. Berkeley, CA:

University of California Press.


Orrù, M., Biggart, N. W., & Hamilton, G. G. 1997. The economic organization of East Asian capitalism. London: Sage Publications.
Ralston, D. A., Terpstra, R. H., Wang, X., & Egri, C. P. 2006. Today’s state-owned enterprises of China:

Are they dying dinosaurs or dynamic dynamos. Strategic Management Journal, 27(9): 825–843.


Redding, S. G. 1990. The spirit of Chinese capitalism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Redding, S. G. 2005. The thick description and comparison of societal systems of capitalism. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(2): 123-155.
Redding, G., & Witt, M. A. 2007. The future of Chinese capitalism: Choices and chances. Oxford, UK:

Oxford University Press.


Tan, J., & Tan, D. 2005. Environment-strategy co-evolution and co-alignment: A staged model of Chinese

SOEs under transition. Strategic Management Journal, 26(2): 141–157.


Wade, R. 2004. Governing the market: Economic theory and the role of government in East Asian

industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Whitley, R. 1992. Business systems in East Asia: Firms, markets and societies. London: Sage Publications.

Session 7 Monday 15 November 2010

Business and state relations in the Asia Pacific.


This session focuses upon the political economy dimension of explaining miraculous growth in the Asia Pacific, with an especial emphasis on how state-driven institutional structures have provided favourable opportunities for business firms in Asian economies. Direct and indirect state interventions are examined, together with a discussion of objectives and activities of several developmental states in the Asian context.
The main topics explored in this session are:

  • The developmental state theory

  • Objectives and activities of development states

  • Government linked corporations in Singapore

  • State, foreign direct investment and economic growth


Workshop and Presentation Topic: Compare and contrast two economies in the Asia Pacific in terms of the government policies towards FDI, and the impact of FDI on the host economies.

Reading
Amsden, A. H. 1991. Diffusion of development: the late industrializing model and Greater

Asia. American Economic Review, 81(2), 282–6.


Amsden, A. H. 2001. The rise of ‘the rest’: challenges to the West from late-industrializing

economies. New York: Oxford University Press.


Giroud, A. 2003. Transnational corporations, technology and economic development: backward

linkages and knowledge transfer in South East Asia. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA:

Edward Elgar.
Haggard, S. 1990. Pathways from the Periphery: The politics of growth in the newly

industrializing countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Johnson, C. 1982. MITI and the Japanese economic miracle. Stanford: Stanford University

Press.
Jomo, K.S. 2001. Southeast Asia’s industrialization: industrial policy, capabilities and

Sustainability. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave.
Lall, S. 2002. Linking FDI, technology development for capacity building and strategic competitiveness.

Transnational Corporations. 11(3): 39–88.


Stoever, W.A. 2005. Restructuring FDI policy in emerging economies: the Republic of Korea

Case. Thunderbird International Business Review. 47(5), 555–74.


Takatoshi, I., & A.O. Krueger 2000. The Role of foreign direct investment in East Asian

economic development. Chicago: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).


Wade, R. 1990. Governing the market: economic theory and the role of government in East

Asian industrialization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Woo-Cumings, M. (ed.) 1999. The developmental state. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University

Press.
World Bank 1993. The East Asian miracle: economic growth and public policy. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Session 8 Monday 22 November 2010

National innovation system and technology development in the Asia Pacific.
Innovation has played and will continue to play a central role in the transformation of the Asian economies. It is recognized that the capacity to be continually innovative is a key source of competitive advantage for nations and firms, and Asian countries and corporations are enthusiastically pursuing innovation as a key objective. This lecture focuses on institutional foundations of technological upgrading in the Asian context.
Workshop and Presentation Topic: How do we account for the development of electronics industry in Taiwan? What challenges might there be for its future development?
Reading
Dodgson, M., Matthews, J., & Kastelle, T. 2006. The evolving role of research consortia in East Asia.

Innovation: Management, Policy and Practice, 8(1–2): 84–101.


Dodgson, M., Mathews, J., Kastelle, T., & Hu, M.-C. 2008b. The evolution of Taiwan’s national

innovation system. Research Policy, 37: 430–445.


Freeman, C. 1987. Technology policy and economic performance: Lessons from Japan. London: Pinter.
Gu, S., & Lundvall, B. A. 2006. China’s innovation system and the move toward harmonious growth and

endogneous innovation. Innovation: Management, Policy and Practice, 8(1–2): 1–26.


Hobday, M., Rush, H., & Bessant, J. 2004. Approaching the innovation frontier in Korea: The transition

phase to leadership. Research Policy, 33(10): 1433–1457.


Hu, M.-C., & Mathews, J. A. 2005. Innovative capacity in Asia. Research Policy, 34(9): 1322–1349.
Kim, L. 1997. Imitation to innovation: The dynamic of Koreas technological learning. Boston: Harvard

Business School Press.


Kim, L., & Nelson, R. R. 2000. Technology, learning and innovation: Experiences of newly industrializing

economies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Lall, S., & Urata, S. 2003. Competitiveness, FDI and technological activity in East Asia. Cheltenham: Elgar.
Lee, S. M., & Peterson, S. J. 2000. Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness.

Journal of World Business, 35(4): 401–416.


Lundvall, B. A. 1992. National system of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive

learning. London: Pinter.


Lundvall, B. A., Intarakumnerd, P., &Vang, J. 2006. Asia’s innovation systems in transition. Cheltenham: Elgar.
Lundvall, B. A., Johnson, B., Andersen, E. S., & Dalum, B. 2002. National systems of production, innovation and competence building. Research Policy, 31(2): 213–231.
Mathews, J. A., & Cho, D.-S. 2000. Tiger technology: The creation of a semiconductor industry in East

Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


McKinsey Quarterly 2005. Asia’s next export: Innovation. New York: McKinsey Quarterly.
Nelson, R. R. 1993. National innovation systems: A comparative analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Session 9 Monday 29 November 2010

Entrepreneurship and culture in the Asia Pacific


The dominant position of the Chinese business in all of the economies of the Southeast Asia has attracted scholarly attentions in the relationship between culture, entrepreneurship and economic growth. This lecture considers some classic scholarship in the study of entrepreneurship, and reviews the debate surrounding the impact of culture/religion on entrepreneurship, and in turn, the relationship with business organisation and economic growth in the Southeast Asia.
Workshop and Presentation Topic: What are the distinctive characteristics of overseas Chinese business in the Southeast Asia, and in what areas are these characteristics advantageous or disadvantageous, and why?
Reading
Adams, F.G. & Vernon H. 2004. Economic developments, business culture, and links to business

practice: is there a Thai style of management?. International Journal of Business, 9(2):169–190.


Carney, M., & Gedajlovic, E. 2002. The co-evolution of institutional environments and organizational

strategies: The rise of family business groups in the ASEAN region. Organization Studies, 23(1): 1–29.


Chen, M. 1995. Asian management systems: Chinese, Japanese and Korean styles of business. London: Routledge.
Fukuyama, F. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.
Gambe, A. R. 2000. Overseas Chinese entrepreneurship and capitalist development in Southeast Asia. London: Macmillan.
Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s Consequences, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. 1997. Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede,G. 1998. Attitudes, values and organizational cultures: disentangling the concepts.

Organizational Studies, 19(3): 477–94.


Hofstede, G. & Bond, M. 1988. The Confucian connection: from cultural roots to economic

Growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16(4): 4–21.


Li, J., Lam K., & Qian G. 2001. Does culture affect behavior and performance of firms? The

case of joint ventures in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(1): 115–31.


Pistrui, D., Huang, W., Oksoy, D., Jing, Z. & Welsch, H. 2001. Entrepreneurship in China: characteristics, attributes, and family forces shaping the emerging private sector. Family Business Review, 14(2): 141-152.
Redding, S. G. 1990. The spirit of Chinese capitalism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Schumpeter, J. A. 1934. The theory of economic development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Weber, M. 1904. The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New York: Scribner’s.
Whitley, R. 2000. Divergent capitalisms: The social structuring and change of business systems. New

York: Oxford University Press.


World Bank 1993. The East Asian miracle: economic growth and public policy. New York: Oxford

University Press.



Session 10 Monday 06 December 2010

Entering the Asia Pacific


Many multinational enterprises view the Asia Pacific as a vital market, and one with tremendous potential for growth in the future. The debate on the implication of globalisation for market entry strategies in the Asia Pacific is reviewed. The lecture also provides a summary of many factors examined in the earlier part of the course in connection with entry mode choice by multinational enterprises into the Asia Pacific.
Reading
Agarwal, S. 1994. Socio-cultural distance and the choice of joint ventures: a contingency prospective, Journal of International Marketing, 2 (2), 63 - 80.
Anderson, E. & Gatignon, H. 1986. Modes of foreign entry: a transaction cost analysis and propositions, Journal of International Business Studies, 17, 1 - 26.
Brouthers, K. D. 2002. Institutional culture and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance, Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (2), 203 - 221.
Brouthers, L. E., Brouthers, K. D. & Werner, S. 1999. Is Dunning's eclectic framework: descriptive or normative?, Journal of International Business Studies, 30 (4), 831 - 844.
Chen, H.Y. & Hu, M. Y. 2002. An analysis of determinants of entry mode and its impact on performance, International Business Review, 11, 193 - 210.
Chung, H. F. L. & Enderwick, P. 2001. An investigation of market entry strategy selection: export vs. foreign direct investment modes: a home-host country scenario, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 18 (4), 443 - 460.
Dunning, J. H. 2000. The eclectic paradigm as an envelope for economic and business theories of MNE activity, International Business Review, 9, 163 - 190.
Dunning, J. H. 1988. The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions, Journal of International Business Studies, 19 (1), 1 - 31.

El Kahal, S. 2001. Business in Asia Pacific: texts and cases. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Hill, C. W. L., Hwang, P., & Chan, K. W. 1990. An eclectic theory of the

choice of international entry mode, Strategic Management Journal, 11, 117 - 128.


Kogut, B. & Singh, H. 1988. The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode, Journal of International Business Studies, 19, 411 - 432.
Madhok, A. 1998. The nature of multinational firm boundaries: transaction costs, firm capabilities and foreign market entry mode, International Business Review, 7, 259 - 290.
Ralston, D.A., Holt, D.H., Terpstra, R.H. & Kai-Cheng, Y.1997. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan

and China’, Journal of International Business Studies, 28(1), 177–207.


Root, F. R. 1994. Entry Strategies for International Markets. London: Lexington Books.
Tse, D. K., Gang, P. Y. & Au, K. Y. 1997. How MNCs choose entry modes and form alliances: the China experience, Journal of International Business Studies, 28 (3), 779 - 805.
N.B. Please ensure that you keep all course outlines as they will prove valuable in obtaining exemptions for postgraduate qualifications, e.g. CIMA and useful for future employers. Note that the Department only keeps previous year's outlines for a limited period.
Current outlines and other course materials are available from the Moodle - http://www.moodle.rhul.ac.uk
Please regularly check Moodle for the comprehensive and updated information on the course.

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