# M/j pre-Algebra Course # 1205070

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M/J Pre-Algebra Course # 1205070
Gridded Response
1. The area of the United States of America is approximately

$$9 \text{x} {10}^{6}$$ square kilometers. The area of Delaware is approximately $$5 x {10}^{3}$$ square kilometers.

About how many times larger is the area of the United States than the area of Delaware?

Answer: 1800

Standard: MAFS.8.EE.1.3

Gridded Response

2. Mr. Rodriguez has a square garden with an area of 324 square feet. He wants to put a fence along 3 sides of the garden. What is the fewest number of feet of fencing he will need?

Answer: 54

Standard:  MAFS.8.EE.1.2

Constructed Response

3. What is the value of the expression $${5}^{3}·{5}^{-5}\text{?}$$

Answer: $$\frac{1}{25}\text{ or }0.04$$ or equivalent response

Standard: MAFS.8.EE.1.1

Why enter a resource? Can I simply copy and paste the passage or stimulus into the questions?
M/J Language Arts 1, Grade 6 Course # 1001010
Cleisthenes: The Path to Democracy

In the United States, we often take democracy for granted. However, the democracy we enjoy today developed slowly over centuries. It is the product of a number of different thinkers. One of the most important was Cleisthenes, who was born in Athens in 570 BCE. Cleisthenes was a member of a wealthy clan that ruled Athens, yet he made changes to the government that gave all people in Athens more control over their city.

During Cleisthenes’ childhood, the ruling members of the clans were struggling among themselves as well as with members of the lower classes. Cleisthene’s family was at the center of the conflict. Historically, Cleisthene's family had supported Solon, a poet and statesman who felt that Athens should be ruled by many members of society, not just the wealthy. However, many other powerful families were opposed to Solon’s ideas. Eventually, these families forced Solon and his supporters out of Athens. This meant that Cleisthenes and his family had to leave Athens. Cleisthenes was 25 at the time, and he found himself in exile for the next 20 years.

In approximately 525 BCE., the ruler who ordered the exile—Peisistratus—died. Cleisthenes and the other exiles were allowed to return to Athens. In an attempt to make up for their years of exile, some were given positions in the government. Cleisthenes was named chief archon, the highest ruling magistrate1in the city. He began to develop the foundations of a new form of government, one where all people were involved in making decisions. This type of government was popular with the people and was approved by the Council of 400, the governing body that created the laws for Athens.

However, many powerful clans did not approve of the new system. There was, once again, a struggle for power in Athens. In 508 BCE, Isagoras, who received help from the Spartans, took control of Athens. The Spartans, from the rival city-state of Sparta, wanted to have control over Athens. They did not want Athens to become a democracy. After helping Isagoras take control of Athens, the Spartans helped him exile 700 households opposing him. Cleisthenes was among those exiled.
Isagoras got rid of the Council of 400 and ignored the decision it had made to enact Cleisthenes’s reforms. Instead, Isagoras tried to establish an oligarchy, or government by the few. However, the people were angry that Isagoras had ignored the council and that he had partnered with the Spartans. They did not want people from outside their city to have any control. Therefore, Isagoras could not maintain stability, and a rebellion occurred. At the end, Isagoras was surrounded on all sides by the people he had oppressed and cast out earlier. Isagoras’s troops could not defend him properly, and he was forced off his throne. Cleisthenes was once again put into power. With no more conflict, and with the support of the people, he was now able to begin making changes that would lead to a more democratic state.

Cleisthenes had been in power before, and he had witnessed many other people try to govern Athens. This experience made Cleisthenes wiser than other rulers. One central part of his political belief, which he had adopted from Solon, was that all of the people in Athens should have a say in government—not just the rich. Another, and possibly more important, idea was that of residency. He believed that to take part in an area’s political decisions, an individual should be a resident of that area.

Prior to Cleisthenes, people who merely owned property in an area could take part in government of that area. Cleisthenes did not believe that outsiders should have the power to affect decisions for a community. He had seen how poorly the Spartans’ attempt to control Athens from the outside had worked. He also understood that ownership and clan membership limited participation in government.
Positions of power and authority were traditionally handed down according to family relationships. This meant that the same families kept power in the city. These families tended to place their own interests above the good of the city. Therefore, Cleisthenes designed a new civic system. This system was based on the idea that ownership and clan membership were not as important as where you lived. In this new system, if you were a citizen of a city or town, you had a right to affect its decisions. The importance of location affected everything in Cleisthenes’ idea of government, including people’s names. Under his rule, the city you lived in became an actual part of your name!
The new government had an assembly at its heart. All the male citizens of Athens were members of this assembly, and each member had one vote. Every matter of importance in Athens was voted upon. One clan, or a group of families, could no longer make decisions for their own benefit, negatively affecting the rest of the city. Subsequently, Athens changed. Political conflicts still occurred, but they were not as serious as they had been in the past. With a stable political system, Athens developed into one of the world’s great cities.

The benefit of Cleisthenes’s rule extends beyond ancient Greece. The early forms of democracy were studied by other leaders and used to establish new governments, including the United States of America. In our democratic society, leaders are elected by the people, public decisions are voted upon, and citizenship is truly meaningful. We can thank Cleisthenes for that!

magistrate: local judge in charge of enforcing laws

4. Based on the information in ″Cleisthenes: The Path to Democracy,″ what is the main reason that Cleisthenes is of historical importance?

A. He had greater wisdom than the other rulers of his day.

B. He was ordered into exile for his ideas about government.

C. He was a member of a clan that believed people without wealth should rule Athens.

D. He set up a government that allowed citizens to vote on the decisions that affected them.

Answer: D Standard: LAFS.6.RI.1.2

5. Based on the information in ″Cleisthenes: The Path to Democracy,″ what is the main reason that Cleisthenes is of historical importance?

1. He had greater wisdom than the other rulers of his day.

2. He was ordered into exile for his ideas about government.

3. He was a member of a clan that believed people without wealth should rule Athens.

4. He set up a government that allowed citizens to vote on the decisions that affected them.

Answer: D Standards: LAFS.6.RI.1.2

Constructed Response with Image (and a resource) + Scoring Guide

The Decision

"WHAT?" Sebastian screeched in shock, hardly able to believe what he had just heard. He and his best friend Xavier had been planning for months—no, years—to be in the band together: Sebastian playing the saxophone and Xavier the trumpet. Throughout the summer the boys had spent hours discussing their plans and speculating about what band class would be like. But now, after only a few weeks, Xavier claimed he was about to change his schedule and drop out of the band.

"I just don’t think I want to," Xavier explained. "C'mon, admit it, I sound stupid, and I mess up even the easiest songs. That's not fun."

After a moment of listening to the drone of the school bus engine, Sebastian noticed his reflection in the window. Realizing that he had been staring at Xavier with his mouth agape, he snapped his mouth shut and took a deep breath before starting to speak. "But, Xavier, this is just the initial step. By the time we get to high school we'll be good, and there will be football games and band trips, plus Mr. Salvio is really cool. Remember what Ramon told us?"

In the Hillview Apartment complex, where Xavier and Sebastian lived with their families, Ramon was a legend. All of the kids idolized him. Now Ramon was at college, with the majority of his tuition paid for by a band scholarship. For years, the younger boys had listened to Ramon's band anecdotes and had envisioned joining as soon as they were old enough. After years of waiting and spending so much time contemplating the "team" strategy with Xavier, Sebastian could not fathom doing it on his own.
Xavier sighed deeply and shrugged. "I'm sorry," he said. "I know we talked about it a lot, but I made up my mind last night. I'm going to take a study period instead. You should too! It will be better to have a break during the day, and we can probably get our homework done before we even leave school. Wouldn't that be awesome?"
A thick silence hung between them. Sebastian thought about practicing the saxophone. At his current level of proficiency, almost every song he played was punctuated with squeaks and wrong notes; learning an instrument was definitely harder than he had thought it would be. Then he pictured Ramon, who spoke with such enthusiasm about band. Sebastian had always admired Ramon and wanted to be like him. But he and Xavier had always done everything together. He looked back at his friend. "Let me think about it," he said, his voice sounding almost as low as he felt.
By the time band class rolled around, Sebastian was even more upset and confused than he had been on the bus. The idea of extra free time sounded great, but he also felt Xavier had betrayed him by bailing out after so little time. He felt conflicted. Although he hated the idea of abandoning his long-held dream, he worried that he could lose his best friend. Without band, their schedules would be completely different, and Sebastian would have to practice his music and do his homework after school while Xavier would be free to play basketball or hang around outside. Was the band worth it? Sebastian felt like his brain was spinning inside his skull, which made his saxophone playing even worse than usual. By the time the bell rang, Sebastian’s entire face reflected his frustration. He began to gather his things, not realizing Mr. Salvio had walked up beside him.
"Sebastian, I can't help but notice that you seem out of sorts today. Want to talk about it? I have a free period right now."

"I better not, Mr. S. I'll be late for math," Sebastian replied, embarrassed that his teacher had been paying attention to him while he was playing so badly. He just wanted to get to his next class and hopefully forget about everything.

"Look, let me walk with you," Mr. Salvio said. "If you want to talk, great; if not, that's okay too. At least that way if you are late, I will be right there to explain to Ms. Roth that it's not your fault you are tardy. Sound good?" He seemed determined, so Sebastian just shrugged his consent, picked up his backpack, and started walking toward the door.
Students veered around Sebastian and Mr. Salvio as they walked side by side down the hallway. Although Mr. Salvio cheerfully returned the greetings of several students, he was true to his word and did not pressure Sebastian to talk. Sebastian's thoughts continued to swim around in his mind until he felt he just could not remain silent anymore. "Xavier is quitting band," he blurted out.
"Ah, I wondered where he was today. You two are good friends, right?" Mr. Salvio replied.

"He's my best friend. We were supposed to take band together through high school, get scholarships together, and go to college together, but now I don't know what will happen. I always wanted to play an instrument like my older friend Ramon, but I stink at the saxophone. Maybe I should quit too. I don't know what to do." Sebastian felt close to tears. Mr. Salvio put a hand on his shoulder and the two of them stopped walking.

"I don't want to influence your decision, but it sounds to me like you want to stay in the band. You have a dream, and a pretty good one at that," said Mr. Salvio with a little smile. "You say Xavier is your best friend; surely you can do something separate from him and still maintain your friendship. I bet he'll still have fun coming to all the games to watch you perform. My suggestion is that you wait a little while—until the Winter Concert, maybe—and by then you might have a better idea about how you want to move forward."
"Really?" said Sebastian, a look of hope sparking in his eyes. "That might work, Mr. S. Thanks." Maybe he could honor his own dream and his friendship with Xavier. He turned and walked into his math class, eyeing the seats for Xavier. He felt he could now speak honestly with him about the whole situation and all of his uncertainties that he had shared with Mr. Salvio. He spotted his best friend, who had saved a seat for him. Smiling, Sebastian took the seat and pulled out his math book.

6. In one paragraph, explain what effect Sebastian’s interaction with Mr. Salvio has on Sebastian and how that interaction moves the plot of the “The Decision” towards a resolution. Support your answer with evidence from the story. (LAFS.6.RL.1.3)

 Score Description 2 • Response provides a complete and correct explanation of, or answer to, the item. • Response includes clear and specific explanations, interpretations, and opinions of the text based on effective comprehension, inference, analysis, evaluation, and/or comparison. • Response is supported with details from the passage. 1 • Response provides a partially complete and correct explanation of, or answer to, the item. • Response may attempt to include explanations, interpretations, and opinions of the text, but they may be unclear or unsubstantiated, and they may show limitation in comprehension, inference, analysis, evaluation, and/or comparison. • Response is supported with limited details (in quantity or quality) from the passage. 0 • Response is incorrect, irrelevant, or not provided.

A 2-point response:

• explains what effect his interaction with Mr. Salvio has on Sebastian (e.g., Mr. Salvio gives Sebastian hope and the idea that he doesn’t have to make a decision right away, that Mr. Salvio served as mentor or adviser to Sebastian, helping him make the difficult decision)

• explains that Mr. Salvio leads the plot towards a resolution by helping to solve the story’s main conflict--Sebastian's decision).

Mathematics Grade 3 Course # 5012050

7. Brian is studying multiplication and division fact families.  Brian says he can make four different related equations using the numbers 5, 8, and 40.  Write the equations that Brian can make.  Write the equations on your Student Answer Sheet.

Answer: __________ X _________ = _________

__________ X _________ = _________

__________ / _________ = __________

__________ / _________ = __________

Answer: 5 X 8 = 40, 8 X 5 = 40, 40 / 5 = 8, 40 /8 = 5

Standard: MAFS.3.OA.3.7

Multi-select and adding distractors

8. Chizu and Dabir each have a rectangular canvas to paint on.

(1) Chizu's canvas is 3 feet wide and 9 feet long.

(2) Dabir's canvas is 6 feet long and 6 feet wide.

Select all the statements that are true.

1. The perimeter of Chizu's canvas is greater than the perimeter of Dabir's canvas.

2. The perimeter of Chizu's is equal to the perimeter of Dabir's canvas.

3. The perimeter of Dabir's canvas is 9 feet longer than the perimeter of Chizu's canvas.

4. The area of Dabir's canvas is greater than the area of Chizu's canvas.

5. The area of Chizu's canvas is equal to the area of Dabir's canvas.

6. The area of Chizu's canvas is 9 feet square feet less than the area of Dabir's canvas.

Standard: MAFS.3.MD.4.8

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