Miss Breitinger’s Global I review Packet



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Miss Breitinger’s Global I Review Packet

General History Vocabulary



  • Primary Source

  • Anthropology

  • Archeology

  • Secondary Source

  • Cause

  • Effect

  • Compare

  • Contrast

  • Economic

  • Political

  • Social

  • Bureaucracy

  • Arable

  • Cultural Diffusion

  • Civilization

  • Culture

  • Technology

  • Artifact

  • Cartography

  • Document

  • Empire

  • Generalization

Rise of Societies and Civilizations aka the Flintstones

I.The Stone Age (before 4000 BCE)



  1. Hominid- refers to prehumans, early humans and modern humans

  2. Hominids began to make tools and weapons from stone, wood, and bone…. THEY WERE HUNGRY!

  3. Stone age divided into two

    1. Old Stone Age,or Paleolithic Period 500,000 to 8000 years ago

      1. Survival Techniques- Hunting and Gathering. This could not support a large civilization.

      2. Nomadic- traveled from place to place looking for food

      3. Spiritual Beliefs- Animism- belief that everything has a spirit in nature

    2. New Stone Age, or Neolithic Period 8000 to 5000 years ago

      1. Neolithic Revolution- aka Agricultural Revolution

        1. F
          More Food = Population Growth, Civilization & Organized Soceity

          Result
          arming

        2. D

          omestication of Animals



        3. Age of Metals- Copper and Bronze was used to make tools and weapons

        4. More Results

          1. Permanent Settlements

          2. New Social Classes

          3. Cities

          4. Central Governments

          5. Specialized jobs

          6. Systems of Writing

          7. Economies

          8. Infrostructure




Neolithic Revolution (cause) gives rise to the Age of Civilizations (effect)
Early Civilizations and their Characteristics

Almost all early civilizations begin by a River!!!!!!

WHY?
Mesopotamia

Located in Middle East



  1. Known as the land between the Rivers

    1. Tigris River

    2. Euphrates River

  2. Fertile Crescent AKA the cradle of civilization- land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

  3. Sumerians- first settled in Mesopotamia

    1. Religion

      1. Polytheistic

      2. Built ziggurats-

    2. Government

      1. Hereditary ruler was considered servant of the gods

    3. S
      Ruling Family
      ocial Structure



Officials and High Priests



Middle Class- merchants & Artisans





Peasant Farmers





    1. Economy

      1. Trade from deserts and rivers

    2. Contributions

      1. Cuneiform- wedge-shaped writing

      2. Algebra

      3. Geometry

  1. Other Civilizations in Mesopotamia

    1. Assyrians-

    2. Persians- conquered Assyrians under Darius

      1. Accomplishments- Built Roads

WHY ARE ROADS IMPORTANT?

    1. Babylonian- Important leader Hammurabi

      1. Contribution- Code of Hammurabi

        1. First major collection of laws that were codified, punishments were harsh. Ex: An eye for an eye

Why is it important to have laws in a civilization?

    1. Hittites-

      1. Accomplishments

        1. Hittites mined iron ore, to produce iron

Why is this important achievement?

What were they using before iron ore?

          1. Iron ore mined introduces the Iron Age

This displaces the Bronze Age

Indus River Valley Civilization

Location India

*Geographic problem of India it is a large subcontinent which makes it hard to unite*


  1. Important Rivers- River Valleys were fertile

    1. Indus River

    2. Ganges River- Important to Hindu Religion

  2. Himalayas- In the North

    1. Khyber Pass

  3. Deccan Plateau

    1. Dry and Sparsely populated

  4. Costal Plains

    1. Good for fishing farming and trade

  5. First Civilization

    1. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro

    2. Accomplishments

      1. Large grid patterns of roads

      2. Houses with plumbing, baths and sewer system

  6. Aryan Invasion 1750 BC -500 BC

    1. Vedas- text foundation of Hinduism

    2. Mingled with Native population to develop a definitive Indian culture

  7. Mauryan Empire (321-185 AD)

    1. Founder Chandra Gupta Maurya- conquered northern India, and eventually the whole subcontinent *First Dynasty to unite India*

    2. Government

      1. Bureaucracy- is a system of managing government through departments that are run by appointed officials

        1. The officials could

          1. Collect taxes

          2. Build roads and harbors

    3. Asoka- Chandragupta’s grandson



China River Civilization

Location China



  1. Important Rivers

    1. Huang He aka Yellow River aka River of Sorrows

      1. Loess- Rich yellow soil that is present in this River

      2. River of Sorrows because it overflows when ever it wants

Why is this problematic?

    1. Yangzi River

  1. Geography

    1. Mountains

      1. Himalayas

Do mountains hinder or help cultural diffusion?

    1. Deserts

      1. Gobi Desert to the North

Do deserts hinder or help cultural diffusion?

      1. Jungles

      2. Oceans

        1. Pacific Ocean

As a result of the geographical features surrounding China it becomes isolated and its culture develops independently from the west. As a result they developed ETHNOCENTRISM


  1. Government

    1. Dynasty- or ruling family in China

      1. First Dynasty Shang

      2. Social Structure




      1. Religion

        1. Polytheistic- many and nature spirits

        2. Ancestor worship

        3. Yin-Yang- dualism in nature

      2. Contributions

        1. System of writing

          1. Includes: pictographs, ideographs

Why are writing systems important in a society?

    1. Zhou Dynasty (1027- 221 BC)

      1. Zhou Dynasty over threw the Shang Dynasty

      2. Ruled with the Mandate of Heaven- a divine right to rule

      3. Dynastic Cycle



      1. Government- Feudalism- local lords controlled their own regions but owed military service to the ruler

      2. Economy

        1. Using Iron

        2. Irrigation projects= agricultural surplus

        3. Roads built = Trade expands

    1. Qui Dyansty (221-206 BC)

      1. Shi Huangdi- Leader of the Qui

      2. Accomplishments

        1. Abolished feudalism

        2. Est. military districts

        3. standardized measurements

        4. national coins

        5. Conformity in writing

        6. Repaired canals and roads

        7. THE GREAT WALL

    2. Han Dynasty (206-220 AD)

      1. EMPEROR WUDI- 141 BC 87 BC

    1. IMPORTANT EMPEROR IN THE HAN DYNASTY

    2. Strengthens china’s economy and government

    3. EXPANSIONISM- INCREASING THE AMOUNT OF TERRITORY UNDER CHINESE RULE

      1. His armies moved nomadic people out of the empire

    4. SILK ROAD- trade route that links china and the west together for centuries

    5. Wudi makes THE OFFICAL BELIEF SYSTEM- Confucianism

      1. CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION- idea that government officials should win government positions on intelligence and merit

        1. Exam consisted of Confucian beliefs in order to bring about an organized government

    6. ACHIEVEMENTS DURING HAN GOLDEN AGE

      1. SCIENCE- Measured movements of stars and planets

      2. MEDICINE- ACUPUNCTURE- needles in the skin to relieve pain

      3. TECHNOLOGY- MOST TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCED CIVILIZATION IN THE WORLD!!

        1. INVENTED

          1. PAPER

          2. SHIP BUILDING- including a rudder

          3. Wheel barrels



          1. Suspension bridges

          2. Bronze and Iron stir ups

      1. ARTS

        1. TEMPLES

        2. PALACES

        3. PARKS

    1. COLLAPSE- HAN DYNASTY will ignore several problems in China and as a result the dynasty will fall and China will break up into several smaller civilizations China will be divided for four hundred years until the Tang Dynasty.

  1. TANG DYNASTY( THE GOLDEN AGE OF CHINA BEGINS)

    1. Li Yuan- first Tang dynasty Emperor

    2. Created TRIBUTARY STATES- of Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet

    3. Government created Land Reform- broke up large agricultural holdings and gave more land to the peasants

    4. Achievements- encouraged international trade and transportation

    1. Built the Grand Canal- which links the Huang He and Yangtze Rivers

    1. Decline- fall of dynasty resulted from corruption, high taxes drought, famine and rebellions

  1. SONG DYNASTY- did not control as much territory as the Tang Dynasty

    1. Agriculture- switched main crop production from wheat to RICE

    2. NEW IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    3. ECONOMY- Government issued paper money

  2. CHINESE SOICTEY UNDER SONG AND TANG

    1. TWO MAIN SOCIAL CLASSES

    2. GENTRY- WEALTHY LAND OWNING LAND OWING CLASS

    3. PEASANTS

    4. MERCHANTS- A LOWER CLASS THAN PEASANTS BECAUSE OF CONFUCIAN IDEAS THAT THEIR RICHES CAME FROM OTHER PEOPLE

  3. FOOT BINDING POPULAR IN TANG DYNASTY


Egyptian Civilization

Location Africa



  1. Geography

    1. River

      1. Nile

        1. Silt deposits

    2. Desert

      1. Sahara Desert

  2. Religion

    1. Polytheistic

    2. Main Gods

      1. Amon-Re

      2. Osiris

      3. Isis

      4. Egyptian Afterlife

        1. mummification

  3. Government

    1. Pharaoh- Egyptian ruler

  4. Society




  1. Contributions

    1. Calendars

    2. Hieroglyphics

    3. Art & Architecture


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