Miscellaneous essays Traduits et annotés



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WANG CH‘UNG

LUN-HÊNG

Miscellaneous essays

Traduits et annotés

par


Alfred FORKE

Dans le cadre de la collection : “Les classiques des sciences sociales”

fondée et dirigée par Jean-Marie Tremblay,

http://classiques.uqac.ca
Une collection développée en collaboration avec la Bibliothèque

Paul-Émile Boulet de l’Université du Québec à Chicoutimi.



http://bibliotheque.uqac.ca


Politique d’utilisation
de la bibliothèque des Classiques

Toute reproduction et rediffusion de nos fichiers est interdite, même avec la mention de leur provenance, sans l’autorisation formelle, écrite, du fondateur des Classiques des sciences sociales, Jean-Marie Tremblay, sociologue.


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Jean-Marie Tremblay, sociologue

Fondateur et Président-directeur général,

LES CLASSIQUES DES SCIENCES SOCIALES.

Un document produit en version numérique par Pierre Palpant, collaborateur bénévole,

Courriel : ppalpant@uqac.ca

à partir de :

WANG CH‘UNG,

LUN-HÊNG


[WANG CHONG, LUNHENG]

part II, Miscellaneous essays


Traduits et annotés par Alfred FORKE (1867-1944)

Berlin, Londres, 1911. Réimpression par Paragon Book Gallery, New York, 1962. Volume II, pages 1-418 de VI+536 pages.


Police de caractères utilisée : Verdana, 10 et 9 points.

Mise en page sur papier format Lettre (US letter), 8. 5’’x11’’

Les liens hypertextes sont dirigés soit vers les traductions des Classiques (par Couvreur, Chavannes, Granet, Philastre, Wieger, Legge) parues dans la collection Chine ancienne, soit vers les sites wengu, sacred texts, nothingistic et remacle.

© en tête de chaque chapitre renvoie à l’abstract correspondant donné par Forke dans son Introduction au Lun-hêng.

Édition complétée le 1er janvier 2007 à Chicoutimi, Québec.

C O N T E N T S



Comparative Table of Contents

Vol. I, Philosophical essays

Forke : Introduction, Appendixes

A. Metaphysical.



  1. Coincidences. Ou-hui. Bk. III, Chap. I.

  2. Periods of Government. Chih-ch‘i. Bk. XVII, Chap. III.

  3. Sympathetic Emotions. Kan-lei. Bk. XVIII, Chap. II.

B. Ethical.

4. Success and Luck. Feng-yü. Bk. I, Chap. I.

5. Annoyances and Vexations. Lei-hai. Bk. I, Chap. II.

6. On the Cunning and Artful. Ta-ning. Bk. XI, Chap. III.



  1. Weighing of Talents. Ch‘êng-ts‘ai. Bk. XII, Chap. I.

  2. The Valuation of Knowledge. Liang-chih. Bk. XII, Chap. II.

  3. Admitting Shortcomings. Hsieh-tuan. Bk. XII, Chap. III.

10. The Display of Energy. Hsiao-li. Bk. XIII, Chap. I.

11. On Intelligence. Pieh-t‘ung. Bk. XIII, Chap. II.

12. Apparent Backwardness. Chuang-liu. Bk. XIV, Chap. I.

13. The Real Nature of Knowledge. Shih-chih. Bk. XXVI, Chap. I.

14. A Definition of Worthies. Ting-hsien. Bk. XXVII, Chap. I.

C. Critique.

15. Fictitious Phenomena. Pien-hsü. Bk. IV, Chap. II.

16. Fictitious Prodigies. Yi-hsü. Bk. V, Chap. I.

17. Fictitious Influences. Kan-hsü. Bk. V, Chap. II.

18. Praise of the Han Dynasty. Hsüan Han. Bk. XIX, Chap. I.

19. Further Remarks on the State. Hui-kuo. Bk. XIX, Chap. II.

20. Ominous Signs Investigated. Yen-fu. Bk. XIX, Chap. III.

21. Necessity of Eulogies. Hsü-sung. Bk. XX, Chap. I.

22. On Literary Work. Shu-chieh. Bk. XXVIII, Chap. II.

23. Falsehoods in Books. Shu-hsü. Bk. IV, Chap. I.

24. Literary Exaggerations. Yi-tsêng. Bk. VIII, Chap. II.

25. Lost Texts. Yi-wên. Bk. XX, Chap. II.

26. The Knowledge of Truth. Chih-shih. Bk. XXVI, Chap. II.

27. On Preeminence. Ch‘ao-chi. Bk. XIII, Chap. III.

D. Folklore and Religion.

28. Thoughts on Omens. Chih-jui. Bk XVII, Chap. I.

29. Auguries Verified. Shih-ying. Bk. XVII, Chap. I.

30. On the Rain Sacrifice. Ming-yü. Bk. XV, Chap. III.

31. Gentle Drums. Shun-ku. Bk. XV, Chap. IV.

32. A Last Word on Dragons. Luan-lung. Bk. XVI, Chap. I.

33. The Tiger Trouble. Tsao-hu. Bk. XVI, Chap. II.

34. Remarks on Insects. Shang-ch‘ung. Bk. XVI, Chap. III.

35. Simplicity of Funerals. Po-tsang. Bk. XXIII, Chap. II.

36. Four Things to be Avoided. Sse-hui. Bk. XXIII, Chap. III.

37. False Charges against Time. Lan-shih. Bk. XXIII, Chap. IV.

38. Slandering of Days. Chi-jih. Bk. XXIV, Chap. I.

39. Questions about the Year Star. Nan-sui. Bk. XXIV, Chap. IV.

40. Criticisms on Certain Theories. Ch‘i-shu. Bk. XXV, Chap. I.

Quotations

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COMPARATIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS



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Chinese Text Translation (Vol., Chap., Page)

Book I.

1. Chap. I. Feng-yü (Success and Luck). II, IV, 30.

2. Chap. II. Lei-hai (Annoyances and Vexations). II, V, 37.

3. Chap. III. Ming-lu (On Destiny and Fortune). I, IX, 144.

4. Chap. IV. Ch‘i-shou (Long Life and Vital Fluid). I, XXV, 313.
Book II.

5. Chap. I. Hsing-ou (On Chance and Luck). I, X, 151.

6. Chap. II. Ming-yi (What is meant by Destiny ?). I, VIII, 136.

7. Chap. III. Wu-hsing (Unfounded Assertions). I, XXVII, 325.

8. Chap. IV. Shuai-hsing (Forming of Characters). I, XXXI, 374.

9. Chap. V. Chi-yen (Auspicious Portents). I, XIII, 173


Book III.

10. Chap. I. Ou-hui (Coincidences). II, I, 1.

11. Chap. II. Ku-hsiang (On Anthroposcopy). I, XXIV, 304.

12. Chap. III. Ch‘u-ping (Heaven’s Original Gift). I, VII, 130.

13. Chap. IV. Pên-hsing (On Original Nature). I, XXXII, 384.

14. Chap. V. Wu-shih (The Nature of Things). I, IV, 103.

15. Chap. VI. Chi-kuai (Miracles). I, XXVI, 318.
Book IV.

16. Chap. I. Shu-hsü (Falsehoods in Books). II, XXIII, 240.

17. Chap. II. Pien-hsü (Fictitious Phenomena). II, XV, 152.
Book V.

18. Chap. I. Yi-hsü (Fictitious Prodigies). II, XVI, 161.

19. Chap. II. Kan-hsü (Fictitious Influences). II, XVII, 171.
Book VI.

20. Chap. I. Fu-hsü (Wrong Notions about Happiness). I, XI, 156.

21. Chap. II. Huo-hsü (Wrong Notions on Unhappiness).I, XII, 164.

22. Chap. III. Lung-hsü (On Dragons). I, XXIX, 351.

23. Chap. IV. Lei-hsü (On Thunder and Lightning). I, XXII, 285.
Book VII.

24. Chap. I. Tao-hsü (Taoist Untruths). I, XXVIII, 332.

25. Chap. II. -tsêng (Exaggerations). I, XXXIX, 481.
Book VIII.

26. Chap. I. Ju-tsêng (Exaggerations of the Literati). I, XL, 494.

27. Chap. II. Yi-tsêng (Literary Exaggerations). II, XXIV, 392.
Book IX.

28. Chap. I. Wên K‘ung (Criticisims on Confucius). I, XXXIII, 392.


Book X.

29. Chap. I. Fei Han (Strictures on Han Fei Tse). I, XXXV, 433.

30. Chap. II. T‘se Mêng (Censures on Mencius). I, XXXIV, 418.
Book XI.

31. Chap. I. T‘an-t‘ien (On Heaven). I, XIX, 250.

32. Chap. II. Shuo-jih (On the Sun). I, XX, 258.

33. Chap. III. Ta-ning (On the cunning and artful). II, VI, 43.


Book XII.

34. Chap. I. Ch‘êng-t‘sai (Weighing of Talents). II, VII, 56.

35. Chap. II. Liang-chih (The Valuation of Knowledge). II, VIII, 67.

36. Chap. III. Hsieh-tuan (Admitting Shortcomings). II, IX, 75.


Book XIII.

37. Chap. I. Hsiao-li (The Display of Energy). II, X, 86.

38. Chap. II. Pieh-t‘ung (On Intelligence). II, XI, 96.

39. Chap. III. Ch‘ao-chi (On Preeminence). II, XXVII, 295.


Book XIV.

40. Chap. I. Chuang-liu (Apparent Backwardness). II, XII, 108.

41. Chap. II. Han-wên (On Heat and Cold). I, XXI, 278.

42. Chap. III. Ch‘ien-kao (On Reprimands). I, VI, 119.


Book XV.

43. Chap. I. Pien-tung (Phenomenal Changes). I, V, 109.

44. Chap. II. Chao-chih (This chapter has been lost.).

45. Chap. III. Ming-yü (On the Rain Sacrifice). II, XXX, 327.

46. Chap. IV. Shun-ku (Gentle Drums). II, XXXI, 339.
Book XVI.

47. Chap. I. Luan-lung (A Last Word on Dragons). II, XXXII, 349.

48. Chap. II Tsao-hu (The Tiger Trouble). II, XXXIII, 357.

49. Chap. III. Shang-ch‘ung (Remarks on Insects). II, XXXIV, 363.

50. Chap. IV. Chiang-jui (Arguments on Ominous Creatures).I, XXX, 359.
Boox XVII.

51. Chap. I. Chih-jui (Thoughts on Omens). I, XXVIII, 306.

52. Chap. II. Shih-ying (Auguries verified). II, XXIX, 315.

53. Chap. III. Chih-ch‘i (Periods of Government). II, II, 9.


Book XVIII.

54. Chap. I. Tse-jan (Spontaneity). I, III, 92.

55. Chap. II. Kan-lei (Sympathetic Emotions). II, III, 16.

56. Chap. III. Ch‘i-shih (The Equality of the Ages). I, XXXVIII, 471.


Book XIX.

57. Chap. I. Hsüan Han (Praise of the Han Dynasty). II, XVIII, 192.

58. Chap. II. Hui-kuo (Further Remarks on the State). II, XIX, 201.

59. Chap. III. Yen-fu (Ominous Signs Investigated). II, XX, 213.


Book XX.

60. Chap. I. Hsü-sung (The Necessity of Eulogies). II, XXI, 220.

61. Chap. II. Yi-wên (Lost Texts). II, XXV, 272.

62. Chap. III. Lun-sse (On Death). I, XV, 191.


Book XXI.

63. Chap. I. Sse-wei (False Reports about the Dead). I, XVI, 202.


Book XXII.

64. Chap. I. Chi-yao (Spook Stories). I, XVII, 220.

65. Chap. II. Ting-kuei (All about Ghosts). I, XVIII, 239.
Book XXIII.

66. Chap. I. Yen-tu (On Poison). I, XXIII, 298.

67. Chap. II. Po-tsang (Simplicity of Funerals). II, XXXV, 369.

68. Chap. III. Sse-hui (Four Things to be avoided). II, XXXVI, 376.

69. Chap. IV. Lan-shih (False Charges against Time). II, XXXVII, 387.
Book XXIV.

70. Chap. I. Chi-jih (Slandering of Days). II, XXXVIII, 393.

71. Chap. II. Pu-shih (On Divination). I, XIV, 182.

72. Chap. III. Pien-sui (Criticisms on Noxious Influences). I, XLIII, 525.

73. Chap. IV. Nan-sui (Questions about the Year Star). II, XXXIX, 402.
Book XXV.

74. Chap. I. Ch‘i-shu (Criticisms on Certain Theories). II, XL, 410.

75. Chap. II. Chieh-ch‘u (On Exorcism). I, XLIV, 532.

76. Chap. III. Sse-yi (Sacrifices to the Departed). I, XLI, 509.

77. Chap. IV. Chi-yi (Sacrifices). I, XLII, 516.
Book XXVI.

78. Chap. I. Shih-chih (The Real Nature of Knowledge). II, XIII, 114.

79. Chap. II. Chih-shih (The Knowledge of Truth). II, XXVI, 281.
Book XXVII.

80. Chap. I. Ting-hsien (A Definition of Worthies). II, XIV, 129.


Book XXVIII.

81. Chap. I. Chêng-shuo (Statements Corrected). I, XXXVI, 447.

82. Chap. II. Shu-chieh (On Literary Work). II, XXII, 229.
Book XXIX.

83. Chap. I. An-shu (Critical Remarks on Various Books). I, XXXVII, 461.

84. Chap. II. Tui-tso (Replies in Self-Defence). I, II, 83.
Book XXX.

85. Chap. I. Tse-chi (Autobiography). I, I, 64.

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CHAPTER I



Coincidences

10. III, I. Ou-hui

© — @

p.2.001 Fate holds sway over happiness and misfortune, being a spontaneous principle and a decree to meet with certain incidents. There is no alien force, and nothing else exercises an overwhelming influence or affects the final result.



The world speaks of Tse Hsü 1 falling upon his sword, and of Ch‘ü Yuan 2 drowning himself. Tse Lan and Tsai P‘i had slandered them to the princes of Wu and Ch‘u, and they died innocently. It just so happened that the lives of the two were to end, that Tse Lan and Tsai P‘i defamed them, and that King Huai 3 and Fu Ch‘ai 4 put faith in their trumped up charges. It so happened that these princes were short-sighted, so that their officers could be slandered. The lives of the two unfortunate men chanced to be naturally of short duration. It world seem as if there were two chances and three coincidences 5, but, as a matter of fact, there is but fate and nothing else.

When the Hsia and Yin dynasties were just on the verge of ruin, the crimes of Chieh and Chou happened to be rife, and when the stars of the Shang and Chou 6 were just in the ascent, the virtues of T‘ang and Wu 7 happened to be flourishing.



Kuan Lung Fêng 8 met with a violent death, and Chi Tse 9 and Pi Kan 10 both expired in jail. At that time the corruption of Chieh and Chou was at its height, and the spans of the two men were to terminate. The words of Yi Yin 11 were listened to, and the advice of p2.002 Lü Wang 12 was accepted. That was the period, when T‘ang and Wu were going to rise, and the time, when the two statesmen were to be employed.

The destiny of a subject may be lucky or unlucky, and a virtuous or a vicious sovereign meets with him. Wên Wang’s time was to be glorious, and it was Wang’s fate to become exalted. Kao Tsung’s 1 reign was to be peaceful, and Fu Yüeh’s 2 virtue to chime in with it. Not that Wên Wang and Kao Tsung were born for their two subjects, or that Wang and Fu Yüeh were created for their two sovereigns. The sovereign being wise, and the minister virtuous, they heard of each other’s fame. Everything being adjusted above, and well ordered below 3, their lots came to be linked together.

When Yen Yuan 4died, the Master said,

Heaven is destroying me  ,




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