Miriam Ben-Yair November 24, 2008 sed 514, Herr



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Miriam Ben-Yair
November 24, 2008


SED 514, Herr




(1) Writing in your subject: Students learn to write by writing. Research indicates that students write more when using a computer than when writing by hand.


  • Develop a computer-based writing assignment relevant to the theme of your portfolio.

  • Explain how this assignment will promote writing skills through the use of computer based resources.


Computer Assignment I would give to 3rd-5th grade class:

  • Students will pick a topic they have a great interest in researching, such as any topic dealing with the academic subjects, English, Science, Math, or Social Studies. I will have some listed topics on the board as well.




  • Once students pick a topic of research they must do all their research online, through online articles, databases, or internet search engines.




  • Students must complete a report fulfilling the following requirements of their research: 5-10 pg typed report of the data, with a thesis statement and a complete conclusion to answer the thesis statement. Cover/Title pg. completed on Word with added clip art (should be first pg). A table and graph of the data they found must be included in the report, one pg. of graphic illustrations of the data either found on the web or through clip art, and a Works Cited pg. at the end of the report.



(2) Editing: Research indicates that students edit and revise more when writing on a computer than when writing by hand.


  • Use the footnote feature to identify all of the mistakes you can find in this document without the aid of a grammar checker, and repeat with the aid of a grammar checker.


Errors I found without the use of a grammar checker.
The causes of the Revolutionary War1 was that the the2 English put tacks3 in4 their tea. Also, the colonists would send their parcels through the post without stamps. During the War.5 the Red Coats and Paul Revere was6 throwing balls over stone walls. The dogs were barking and peacocks crowing. Finally the colonists won and no longer had too7 pay for taxis8 .9 delgats10 from the original 13 states formed an11 Contented Congress. Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were towo12 singers13 of the Declaration of Independence. Frankin14 declared "A horse15 divided against itself cannot16 stand." Franklin died in 1790 and is still dead. Soon the Constitiion17 of the united states18 was adopted to secure domestic hostility. Abraham Lincoln became America's greatest Precedent19. Lincoln's mother died in infancy20, and he was born in a log cabin which he built with his own hands. Lincoln said,:21 "in22 onion23 there is great strength."
Errors I found with the use of a grammar checker.
The cause of the Revolutionary War was that the English put tacks in their tea. Also, the colonists would send their parcels through the post without stamps. During the War, the Red Coats and Paul Revere was throwing balls over stone walls. The dogs were barking and peacocks crowing. Finally the colonists won and no longer had to pay for taxes. Delegates from the original 13 states formed a Contented Congress. Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were two signers of the Declaration of Independence. Franklin declared "A house divided against it can not stand." Franklin died in 1790 and is still dead. Soon the Constitution of the United States was adopted to secure domestic hostility. Abraham Lincoln became America's greatest Precedent. Lincoln's mother died in infancy, and he was born in a log cabin which he built with his own hands. Lincoln said, "In union there is great strength."



  • What kinds of errors are generally not detected by the software? Give examples. Would you encourage your students to use a grammar/style checker? If so, explain how it might be best employed. If not, explain why not.

The grammar checker mainly does not recognize wrong words that are used in the wrong context of a sentence. The grammar checker also will also make mistakes about some of the words it does think is used in the wrong context, such as words like “itself.” This is because it may only recognize one type of definition of a word and if that word is not used with the context of that definition in a sentence, the grammar checker will think it’s the wrong word. Therefore, the grammar checker seems to only recognizes one type of definition for each word and if the word is not used in the context of that definition it will not recognize that word even if the word is present in grammar checker’s recognition.





(3) Analysis of your textbook: Readability is a measure of the comprehensibility or understandability of written text. There are many methods and formulas for determining readability and the related reading age. Teachers should be aware of the readability level of their text as well as the reading level of their students.


  • Scan three or more paragraphs from your textbook into a word processor file using OCR software. Perform a document check and readability estimate on the text and include the results in your portfolio.

340 SE C T I 0 N 5 Fundamental Motor Skills

FIGURE 16.2 Performing airplanes.

FOUR-CORNERS MOVEMENT

Lay out a square with a cone at each corner. As the student passes each corner, he or she changes to a different locomotor movement with an agility emphasis. Challenge students with some of the following sport agility movements: backward running, leaps, grapevine step, front crossover, back crossover, high knees, and slide steps. Add variation by changing the qualities of movement (i.e., soft, heavy, slow, fast, etc.). Students can pass to the outside of the area if they are doing a faster-moving movement.
JUMPING AND HOPPING PATTERNS

Each child has a home spot. The teacher provides jump; ing and hopping sequences to take children away from and back to their spot. The teacher could say, "Move with three jumps, two hops, and a half turn. Return to place the same way_." The teacher should have on hand a number of sequences. Action can extend beyond simply jumping and hopping.

LEADING WITH BODY PARTS

Students move throughout the area with some body part leading. Try using various body parts, such as elbow, fingers, head, shoulder, knees, and toes. Try the same exercise with different body parts trailing. Try moving and leading with two different body parts. Try with three. Try also with combinations of body parts trailing the body. Children can jog with some body part

leading or trailing. On signal, tell them to make a ent body part lead or trail the body.

MOVE, ROCK, AND ROLL

Each youngster procures an individual mat and pla on the floor. Students are challenged to move arc over, and on the mats. When a signal is given, chi move to a mat and try different ways of rockin3 rolling. Rocking on different parts of the body c specified, and different body rolls can be suggests another challenge, tell the children to do a rock or or both on a mat, get up and run to another mat, ax peat the sequence. Older children enjoy seeing how, mats they can move to within a certain amount of

Individual Rhythmic Movements

MUSICAL RELAXATION

Musical relaxation can be conducted with a drum propriate recorded music. Children run in time rhythm. When the rhythm stops, each child reck the back, closes the eyes, and remains relaxed ur music begins again.


MOVING TO RHYTHM

The possibilities with rhythm are many. Rhytl guide locomotor movements, with changes in being part of the activity. The intensity of the sot be translated into light or heavy movements.


Readability test for this paragraph
Flesch Kincaid Grade Level: 6.7

Flesch Kincaid Reading Ease: 67.8


  • According to the computer-generated readability estimates, does this text appear to be appropriate for your students? Explain. (Note: In some programs, document analysis appears at the end of a grammar check).

These paragraphs are from a physical education textbook and it would be appropriate for either a 5th- 6th grade class.




(4) Equations: Many teachers have the need to incorporate equations into handouts, tests and notes. Equation editors allow you to make equations and then export them as graphics to word processors.


  • Use an Equation Editor to create two or more complex equations from your discipline. If your discipline does not use many equations, you may select from the following list.





(5) Word relationships : English dictionaries contain more than 250,000 words, while Spanish dictionaries contain approximately 100,000 words, and most other languages have far fewer. English has an extensive vocabulary and many synonyms. This can cause difficulties for English learners. An electronic thesaurus may be used to help students understand the complex relationship within the English lexicon.


  • Using a thesaurus, paraphrase the preamble of the Constitution. Include at least ten logical substitutions for the original words. You may use the built-in thesaurus (Tools/Language/Thesaurus) in Word or internet resources such as Merriam Webster's Dictionary & Thesaurus, or Roget's Thesaurus. Describe (with an example) how you can use a thesaurus when tiring to explain the meanings of difficult words to your students


Preamble: We the People of the United States, in Order to develop a more ideal society, create Justice, protect domestic Tranquility, provide for the conventional security, promote the general wellbeing, and secure the fortune of Liberty to ourselves and our descendants, do appoint and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
A thesaurus will help students to find synonyms for words, and this will allow them to understand how most English words have multiple definitions and connotations. When students are aware of this they will understand how to check if they are using a word in the right context of a sentence, and if not they could use the aid of a thesaurus and dictionary to find the synonym with the correct contextual definition.



(6) Mastering Content Vocabulary: Although modern English has the largest and most complex lexicon of any language in history, the meanings of many words can be determined if one knows the common prefixes, suffixes and root words. Knowledge of such morphemes is particularly useful for English learners who face the formidable challenge of mastering English vocabulary, with all of its many nuances. According to Richard E. Hodges of the University of Puget Sound ("Improving Spelling and Vocabulary in the Secondary School; 1982, p 30) ,“If you were to examine the 20,000 most used English words, you would find that about 5,000 of them contain prefixes and that 82 percent (about 4,100) of those words use one of only fourteen different prefixes out of all the available prefixes in the language.” Thus, if students master these prefixes, they will know clues to the meanings of thousands of words." *TPE-tip. TPE 7 requires teachers to "implement an instructional program that facilitates English language development, including reading, writing, listening and speaking skills" You may wish to develop a root-word bank for the subject you teach and show how it facilitates vocabulary development (TPE-7)


  • Identify five words commonly used in your subject. Identify one or more prefixes, suffixes or roots from each. Use an online dictionary to identify 5 or more other words in the English language that use these morphemes as per the example. When searching, you will need to use standard wildcards: *=multiple characters; ?=single character.



Root

Meaning

Five or more related words that share this root

dict-

(from dictionary)

tell, pronounce

dictator (one whose word is law), diction (enunciation), edict (a formal pronouncement or command.), dictum (an authoritative, often formal pronouncement), dictate (to say or read aloud to be recorded or written by another)

associate

To connect things in the mind.

disassociate, association, associates, assonance, assonant

Claim

To say something is true without proof or evidence.

acclaim, proclaim, reclaim, disclaim, claimant

Title

A descriptive heading for something such as a book, magazine, article or speech.

Entitlement, titlist, subtitles, titled, titling

Dow

Something or someone that has worth or value.

Endowment, dowry, doughty, dowed, dowing

Form

A type of something that has various different types.

Formal, formulate, formation, informal, formula



  • English has acquired words from many languages as seen in this story. It is helpful to show students these foreign words and cognates so they can better understand the historical relationship between English and other languages and look for cognates when learning new terms. Translate 5 or more words from your discipline into each of four languages using Sherlock, Logos or other resources. Include the translations in your portfolio. Identify cognates and explain how you can use them to help students master English.




English

Spanish

Italian

French

German

arithmetic

aritmética

aritmetica 

arithmétique

arithmetik

writing

Escritura

scrittura

écriture

schrift

vocabulary

Vocabulario

vocabolario

vocabulaire

Vokabular

geography

geografía

geografia

géographie

Geografie

art

las artes

arte

artistique

spezies

When students know the definition of a word and then see the cognates of that word in all the different romance languages which are closely related, and all which derived from Latin they could see how the words have derived from each other and are closely related in spelling and definition. Therefore, students might have an easier time decoding words when they are able to associate the word with a cognate from their language.




  • One way to interest students in the significance of words is to have them study the meaning of their own names. Identify the meaning of five common first names of students in your class.




(8) Communicating with English Learners and their families: Southern California is home to a very diverse population, many of whom are immigrants from non-English speaking countries. Translation programs can help break down some of the language barriers between teachers, their students, and the families of these students.


  • Use translation resources to translate a simple document from your class into one or more languages spoken by students in your class. Include the English version AND the translated version. Show this to someone who is fluent in English and the language into which you have translated it, and explain any potential problems.

  • Translate a foreign language text-rich website into English. Discuss the values and limitations of such translation resources.


Text from English Physical Education Text

Student Logs

Intermediate-grade youngsters are capable of maintaining a log that indicates progress toward a goal over time. Assume students want to increase the amount of physical activity they accomplish each day. The teacher and students could discuss some goals that would help them become more active. Another approach is to ask students to develop behaviors they need to accomplish to reach their goals. The log should include goal behaviors they have accomplished over time—including decisions and choices made, time spent on goal behaviors, and a reflection area to record their perceptions of the experience.


Students can share their experiences and feelings about things they have tried. The logistics of activities each student has tried can be shared. Examining how well the stated outcomes were reached is the most common way to evaluate logs. For example, for students who wanted to increase their activity outside of school, a high score would go to youngsters who were active for 30 minutes five days a week. An acceptable score would go to students who were active three days a week. An unacceptable score would go to those who were active one day or less.

Translation of text into Spanish
Los jóvenes del Intermedio-grado

De los registros del estudiante son capaces de mantener un registro que indique progreso hacia una meta en un cierto plazo. Asuma que los estudiantes desean aumentar la cantidad de actividad física que logran cada día. El profesor y los estudiantes podrían discutir algunas metas que les ayudarían a llegar a ser más activas. Otro acercamiento es pedir que los estudiantes desarrollen comportamientos que necesitan lograr para alcanzar sus metas. El registro debe incluir comportamientos de la meta que han logrado el excedente tiempo-incluyendo las decisiones y las opciones hechas, el tiempo pasado en comportamientos de la meta, y un área de la reflexión para registrar sus opiniones de la experiencia.


Los estudiantes pueden compartir sus experiencias y sensaciones sobre cosas que han intentado. La logística de actividades que cada estudiante ha intentado puede ser compartida. Examinar como de bien los resultados indicados fueron alcanzados es la manera más común de evaluar registros. Por ejemplo, para los estudiantes que desearon aumentar su actividad fuera de la escuela, una cuenta alta iría a los jóvenes que eran activos por 30 minutos cinco días a la semana. Una cuenta aceptable iría a los estudiantes que eran tres días activos a la semana. Una cuenta inaceptable iría a las que eran un día activo o menos.
I checked the translation of this paragraph with a fluent Spanish speaker and she told me that the translation is very accurate but has some words that is not used in her dialect of Spanish, and the dialect of this Spanish is the dialect of Spain, which is the more accepted dialect of textbooks. However, both the speaker and I can see how this can cause limitations to students of different Spanish dialects in the class, because it will not completely help them to interpret the text if there are words from a different dialect they do not recognize and still have to translate. However, translation tools on the web, such as the one I used ,Worldlingo, are 98% helpful to English language development students.
Article called “Barcelona”from Google’s Spanish to English Website
En español:

Esta privilegiada situación geográfica, que hace de Barcelona en tantas ocasiones la puerta y el puerto de España, confiere a la ciudad ese especial carácter de ser, a la vez el enclave más europeo de España y quizás la presencia española que más cuenta en Europa. A caballo entre la montaña y el mar, no lejos de la raya fronteriza de los Pirineos, Barcelona parece dar la bienvenida a muchos de los visitantes que llegan a España.

Entre Las Ramblas y El Paralelo
Y ya estamos en el arranque de una de las vías más famosas del continente. Gentío afanoso que va a buen paso a sus quehaceres, vaga de escaparate en escaparate o se sienta en la terraza de algún café o en las sillas que pueden alquilarse bajo los árboles; grupos que se reúnen para discutir la actualidad taurina, en el Arco del Teatro, o la futbolística, junto a la Fuente de Canaletas; algarabía de pájaros libres o enjaulados en los puestos en que se vende la alada y leve mercancía; pregones de las floristas al pie de sus puestos de venta; cháchara de los dueños de los quioscos de libros, revistas y periódicos en las fachadas. Todo ello forma un alegre tumulto callejero y popular, lleno de colorido, luz y fuerza vital.

A la entrada de la calle del Conde del Asalto los visitantes se sorprenden las atrevidas líneas del palacio Güell, obra de Gaudí. Aquí se halla instalado el Museo del Teatro también. Cualquiera de las calles que salen en idéntica dirección de Las Ramblas llevan, tarde o temprano, directa o indirectamente, al Paralelo, mezcla curiosa de Broadway y Montmartre, bajo un signo, sin embargo, muy barcelonés, donde la vida teatral, especialmente durante la noche, encuentra adecuado escenario.



In English:
Barcelona's favorable geographic location, which makes it the gateway and the port of Spain, gives it the special role of serving as the most European enclave in Spain as well as the most influential Spanish presence in Europe. Situated between mountains and the sea, Barcelona is not far from the border formed by the Pyrenees, and welcomes many of the visitors traveling to Spain.

Between Las Ramblas and the Paralelo

Here travelers find themselves at the beginning of one of the most famous avenues on the European continent. An industrious crowd walks smartly on the way to work. Others idle about while window shopping or sitting down in the terrace of some café or on rental chairs under the trees; groups meet to discuss bullfighting news at the Arco del Teatro (Arch of the Theater) or soccer news next to the Fuente de Canaletas (Fountain of Canaletas); a racket radiates from the "free" pigeons or from the birds in their cages hanging in the stalls where aviary merchandise is sold; shouts emanate from the flower vendors standing guard by their stalls; chatter arises from the owners of the kiosks where books, magazines and newspapers are sold. All this forms a happy and lively commotion in the streets which are full of color, light and vitality.
Translation of English version of article with Worldlingo online translation resource
This privileged geographic situation, that for of Barcelona in so many occasions the door and the port of Spain, has been conferring to the city that special character of being, simultaneously the European enclave of Spain and perhaps the Spanish presence that more account in Europe. To horse between the mountain and the sea, not far from the border ray of the Pyrenees, Barcelona seems to give the welcome to many of the visitors who arrive at Spain.

Between the Boulevards and the Parallel

and already we are in the starting of one of the most famous routes of the continent. Laborious crowd that goes to good passage to its tasks, vague of showcase in showcase or feels in the terrace of some coffee or the chairs that can be rented under the trees; groups that meet to discuss the bullfighting present time, in the Arc of the Theater, or the soccer one, next to the Source of Canals; row of free or enjaulados birds in the positions in which the winged one is sold and weighs merchandise; announce of the floristas on the foot of its positions of sale; cháchara of the owners of the book kiosks, magazines and newspapers in the facades. All it forms a glad street and popular, full tumult of colorful, light and vital force.

The entrance of the street of the Count of the Assault the visitors are surprised the bold lines of the Güell palace, work of Gaudí. Here one is installed the Museum of the Theater also.


Comparing the translation of the online resource “Worldlingo” and the way it was translated in the website you can see many differences. I would say the way the article was already translated in the Spanish to English website was more accurate than the translator resource, because the translator resource seemed to translate every word for the word found in Spanish without rearranging the correct word order or subject verb order in English. This is apparent in the first sentence of the article where the way it was translated starts “The privileged situation of Barcelona…”, and in the website it was “Barcelona’s favorable geographic situation..” The second translation sounds more grammatically correct to the rules of the English language, compared to the first translation, which was just looking for similar words to fit the slot of each Spanish word. Therefore, the limitation of the online translator is it would not give students a good representation of grammatical rules of English and students will not develop proper English grammar skills this way, and may just keep the rules of their own language when translating text into English and just look for word substitutes for each word in a sentence. It seems that texts that are already translated online or in paper form would be a better translation tool for ELD students.

1 War (mis-spelling)

2 the (extra determiner)

3 tacks (wrong word)

4 on (wrong preposition)

5 , (should be comma)


6were (wrong plural tense)

7 too (infinitive marker spelled wrong)

8 taxes (wrong spelled plural form)

9 . (no double space)

10 delegates (wrong spelled word)

11 a (wrong article)

12 two (misspelled word and no space)

13 signers (wrong word)

14 Franklin (misspelled name)

15 house (wrong word for context of sentence)

16 can not (not one word)

17 Constitution (misspelled word)

18 United States (proper noun, needs capitalization)

19 precedent (no capitalization)

20 childbirth (wrong word for context of sentence)

21 ,: (wrong sentence mark before quotation mark)

22 In (word begins sentence and must be capitalized)

23 union (wrong word)



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