Midterm 2013/2014 Study Guide Accelerated Reconstruction Era



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Midterm 2013/2014 Study Guide - Accelerated

Reconstruction Era:

Reconstruction – the process of rebuilding the South after the Civil War

Study the following events. Know which events led toward full citizenship for African Americans and which events led away from full citizenship. Be able to give a brief description of each event.



Led Toward (+)

Led Away From (-)

Military Reconstruction Act – Sent troops to South to enforce fair elections

Literacy tests – had to prove you could read to be able to vote

Fourteenth Amendment – African Americans were made full citizens

Poll Taxes – a fee paid to vote

Johnson’s Impeachment – limited the negative effects he had on African American’s road to citizenship.

Jim Crow Laws – Laws that separated whites and blacks in public life

Thirteenth Amendment – Abolished Slavery

Plessy v Ferguson – ruled that separate but equal was legal

The Enforcement Acts – Congress’ efforts to prevent the South’s attempts to keep people from voting

Black codes – were made to control former slaves

Fifteenth Amendment – protected the voting rights of African American Men

Ku Klux Klan – formed to return white Democratic political power to southern states

Freedmen’s BureauProvided healthcare, legal, and financial assistance to newly freed slaves. Education was a lasting effect.

Jim Crow Laws – Passed by Southern Democrats to separate African Americans and whites in public life.




Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court decided that separate but equal public facilities are constitutional




Southern poll tax laws – Fee paid to vote, resulting in African Americans being denied voting rights



Westward Expansion

Lewis and Clark - were responsible for mapping a route to the Pacific Ocean
Mountain Men – were fur trappers
The CaliforniosBrought citrus fruits, olives, and ranching to California; Left a legacy of Spanish city names (San Diego,
San Francisco, etc.); Came as Missionaries; Put up with loneliness and abuse
The Early Missionaries to Oregonopened the West for settlers
Pioneer women – achieved the right to vote in elections before women in the East
The California Gold Rush – resulted in California achieving statehood
Chinese Immigrants to California – Had to put up with prejudice and abuse; Added cultural diversity to the USA.
Mormons – Settled in Utah to find a place to practice their religion in peace

Geographic Challenge for people going West – Rocky Mountains


Know this Chart!

Missionaries

Chinese

Mormons

Mountain Men

49ers

Pioneer Women

Moved West to convert Nat. Am. to Christianity

Came to US to Mine for Gold and return to China with $$

Moved West to find a place to practice their religion in peace

Moved West to trap for furs

Moved west for California Gold rush

Moved West to seek husbands and homesteads

Dangerous, b/c some NA did not want to convert.

Persecuted by Americans. Had to pay high mining tax.

Not accepted b/c of belief in polygamy

Dangerous, animal attack

Tough mining camps, few claims left

Hard travel and hard work on trail

Brought disease to Native Americans

Brought culture & cultural diversity to US.


Brought new irrigation methods to Salt Basin

Left behind detailed journals

California’s population grew in number to attain statehood

Civilized the west with libraries, churches, and jails.

Opened West for Settlement




Settle Great Salt Basin

Trading posts became cities




Attained the right to vote long before the rest of the country.

Tensions in the West

Railroads brought a new flood of settlers to the West

Chief JosephSurrendered saying, “From where the sun now stand, I will fight no more forever.”

Transcontinental Railroad

Built mostly by Chinese immigrants

Plains Indians were negatively affected by the Railroad

Plains Indians – were forced onto reservations because of the extermination of the buffalo

The “Long Drive – The movement of cattle to railroad lines

Sod Houses – Homes on the Great Plains built of earth and grass, due to the lack of wood.

Battle at Little Big Horn – the Last Native American victory

Homestead Act – offered farmers 160 acres of public land in the West for free. Homesteaders had to clear it and farm
it for 5 years, then they would own it. This act tripled the number of farms in US.

Pacific Railway Act – Opened the West to flood of new settlers. Between 1860 and 1900 170,000 miles of track was laid.

The Industrial Revolution

Entrepreneura businessman who takes a risk on an idea in hopes of making money.

Unique characteristic of industrialization machine-made products

Andrew Carnegie developed the US steel industry

Thomas Edisoncreated an electrical distribution system

Mass Production of Goods

More factories were built

More people were employed

Products were more affordable



John D. Rockefeller – Oil industry

Monopolieseliminate competition, increase prices

Tenements – crowded city houses where most workers lived

Labor/trade union – represent the interest of the Worker

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York –

Locked factory doors; Short fire escape; Doors opened inward, not out




Review the Costs and Benefits of industrialization

Benefits of Industrialization

Costs of Industrialization

Cities grew;
Some people became VERY rich;
Technological advances;
Larger # of consumer goods available.



Workers lived in poverty;
Immigrants faced prejudice & discrimination; Workers often lost their jobs;
Politicians became corrupt




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