Middle kingdom

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Egypt:  Life in the Middle and New Kingdoms

While reading Chapter 11 Section 3, complete the following graphic organizer.  


What happened at the end of the Old Kingdom?  At the end of the Old Kingdom, the wealth and power of the pharaohs declined. Building and maintaining pyramids cost a lot of money. Pharaohs could not collect enough taxes to keep up with their expenses. At the same time, ambitious nobles used their government positions to take power from the pharaohs. In time, nobles gained enough power to challenge Egypt’s pharaohs.
What years classify the Middle Kingdom? 2050 -1750 BC 
Who were the leaders during the Middle Kingdom? The pharaohs.


When does the New Kingdom occur? From 1550 – 1050 BC

How did the Egyptians build an empire? (Where and who did they conquer?) After battling the Hyksos, Egypt’s leaders feared future invasions. To prevent such invasions from occurring, they decided to take control of all possible invasion routes into the kingdom. Egypt’s first target was the homeland of the Hyksos. After taking over that area, the army continued north and conquered Syria. Egypt took over the east coast of the Mediterranean and the kingdom of Kush, south of Egypt.

Why was trade important to the Egyptians? Trade enabled Egypt to get valuable supplies like copper and turquoise. The money gained from trade allowed the pharaohs to support the arts and architecture.

Why was Hatshepsut important? She was the first female pharaoh. She worked to increase trade. She built many impressive monuments, which were later vandalized by her half son. The best known is her temple near Thebes.
What other groups invaded Egypt during the New Kingdom?  Were they successful? Ramses II battled the Hittites who came from Asia minor. The Tehenu invaded the Nile delta from the west. Ramses barely defeated them the first time so he built forts on western frontier to keep them away which aided in defeating them again 100 years later. Later the Sea Peoples invaded Southwest Asia, crushing the Hittites. It took 50 years for the Egyptians to turn them back.
What led to the decline of the New Kingdom? After these invasions, the empire in Asia was gone. The New Kingdom came to an end. There was a period of violence and disorder.


What kind of writing did scribes do? Scribes kept records and accounts. Scribes also wrote and copied religious and literary texts.
Why did pharaohs value talented architects? Architects designed the temples and royal tombs. Because the pharaoh was a god-king, the temples were important to him. The royal tombs would be used to bury the pharaohs, so these would also be important to him.
What did the military offer citizens in Egypt? The military offered people a chance to rise in social status. Soldiers received land as payment and could also keep any treasure they captured in war. Soldiers who excelled could be promoted to officer positions.
Who made up the majority of Egypt’s population? Farmers and other peasants made up the vast majority of Egypt’s population.
How did some people come to be enslaved in Egypt? Many slaves were convicted criminals or prisoners captured in war.

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