Michael Hardt / Antonio Negri



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9. Marx's discussions of abstraction have a double relation to this discourse of virtuality and possibility. One might do well in fact to distinguish between two Marxian notions of abstraction. On the one hand, and on the side of capital, abstraction means separation from our powers to act, and thus it is a negation of the virtual. On the other hand, however, and on the side of labor, the abstract is the general set of our powers to act, the virtual itself. See Antonio Negri, Marx Beyond Marx, trans. Harry Cleaver, Michael Ryan, and Maurizio Viano (New York: Autonomedia, 1991); and Karl Marx, Grundrisse, trans. Martin Nicolaus (New York: Vintage, 1973), pp. 83-111.
10. On the relation between the singular and the common, see Giorgio Agamben, The Coming Community, trans. Michael Hardt (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993).
11. See primarily Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, trans. Walter Kaufman and R. J. Hollingdale (New York: Vintage, 1967).
12. See Bernard Aspe and Muriel Combes, "Du vampire au parasite," Futur ant‚rieur, no. 35-36 (1996), 207-219.
13. On the priority of resistance to power, see Gilles Deleuze, Foucault, trans. Seaïn Hand (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988), p. 89: "The final word on power is that resistance comes first."
14. This dialectic of obstacle and limit, with respect to the power of the mind on the one hand and political power on the other, was well understood by that current of the phenomenology of subjectivity that (in contrast to the Heideggerian current) recognized Nazism and thus the capitalist state as the true limit of historical progress. From Husserl to Sartre we find the central effort to transform limit into threshold, and in many ways Foucault takes up this same line. See Edmund Husserl, Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, trans. David Carr (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1970); Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, trans. Quentin Hoare (London: Verso, 1990); and Deleuze, Foucault.
15. See Jacques RanciŠre, La mesentante: politique et philosophie (Paris: Galil‚e, 1995).
16. One example of such a Kantian reverie is Lucien Goldmann, Mensch, Gemeinschaft und Welt in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants (Zurich: Europa Verlag, 1945).
17. See Karl Marx, "On the Jewish Question," in Early Writings, trans. Rodney Livingstone and Gregor Benton (London: Penguin, 1975), pp. 211-241.
18. See Paul Virilio, L'insecurit‚ du territoire (Paris: Stock, 1976).
19. On the importance of the linguistic in the contemporary economy, see Christian Marazzi, Il posto dei calzini: la svolta linguistica dell'economia e i suoi effetti nella politica (Bellinzona: Casagrande, 1995).
20. See Giorgio Agamben, Homo sacer: il potere sovrano e la nuda vita (Turin: Einaudi, 1995).
21. On this conception of the machinic, see F‚lix Guattari, L'inconscient machinique: essais de schizo-analyse (Fontenay-sous-Bois: Encres/Recherches, 1979); and Gilles Deleuze and F‚lix Guattari, Anti-Oedipus, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Lane, and Helen Lane (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983).
22. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 1, trans. Ben Fowkes (New York: Vintage, 1976), pp. 554-555.
23. Obviously when we speak about a materialist telos we are speaking about a telos that is constructed by subjects, constituted by the multitude in action. This involves a materialist reading of history which recognizes that the institutions of society are formed through the encounter and conflict of social forces themselves. The telos in this case in not predetermined but constructed in the process. Materialist historians such as Thucydides and Machiavelli, like the great materialist philosophers such as Epicurus, Lucretius, and Spinoza, have never negated a telos constructed by human actions. As Marx wrote in the introduction to the Grundrisse, it is not the anatomy of the ape that explains that of humans but, vice versa, the anatomy of humans that explains that of the ape (p. 105). The telos appears only afterwards, as a result of the actions of history.
4.2 GENERATION AND CORRUPTION
1. See Charles de Secondat Montesquieu, Considerations of the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and Their Decline, trans. David Lowenthal (New York: Free Press, 1965); and Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 3 vols. (New York: Knopf, 1993).
2. See Machiavelli, Discourses, trans. Leslie Walker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1950); and Antonio Negri, Il potere costituente (Milan: Sugarco, 1992), pp. 75-96.
3. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. George Lawrence (New York: Harper and Row, 1966).
4. G. W. F. Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, trans. H. B. Nisbet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 170.
5. Massimo Cacciari provides a stimulating analysis of the fortunes and decline of the idea of Europe with his usual erudition in Geo-filosofia dell'Europa (Milan: Adelphi, 1994).
6. Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science, trans. Walter Kaufman (New York: Random House, 1974), p. 99 (sec. 24).
7. Friedrich Nietzsche, Werke, ed. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967), vol. 8, pt. 1, p. 77; cited in Cacciari, Geo-filosofia dell'Europa, p. 9. The original passage reads, "Ich habe den Geist Europas in mich genommen-nun will ich den Gegenschlag thun!"
8. See Franz Rosenzweig, The Star of Redemption, trans. William Hallo (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971).
9. Walter Benjamin, "Theses of the Philosophy of History," in Illuminations, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken, 1968), pp. 253-264; quotation p. 254 (Thesis 2).
10. On the fortunes of European irrationalism, see Georg Lukaïcs, The Destruction of Reason, trans. Peter Palmer (London: Merlin, 1980).
11. We are referring primarily to Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida.
12. See Hans Jrgen Krahl, Konstitution und Klassenkampf (Frankfurt: Neue Kritik, 1971).
13. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Notebooks, 1914-16, ed. G. H. von Wright and G. E. M. Anscombe, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), pp. 79-80 (August 1 and 2 and September 2, 1916).
14. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, trans. D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness (London: Routledge, 1961), p. 74.
15. Hannah Arendt, On Revolution (New York: Viking, 1963).
16. Gilles Deleuze often sings the praises of American literature for its nomadism and deterritorializing powers. It seems that for Deleuze, America represents a liberation from the closed confines of European consciousness. See, for example, "Whitman" and "Bartleby, ou la formule," in Critique et clinique (Paris: Minuit, 1993), pp. 75-80 and 89-114.
17. Serge Guilbaut, How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983).
18. See Antonio Gramsci, "Americanism and Fordism," in Selections from the Prison Notebooks, trans. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), pp. 279-318.
19. Hannah Arendt has become a favorite author for political theorists in the United States and Europe who want to reconceive politics. See, for example, the essays in Bonnie Honig, ed., Feminist Interpretations of Hannah Arendt (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995); and Craig Calhoun and John McGowan, eds., Hannah Arendt and the Meaning of Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997).
20. On the philosophical conceptions of generation and corruption, see Reiner Schrmann, Des h‚g‚monies bris‚es (Mouvezin: T.Efir., 1996).
4.3 THE MULTITUDE AGAINST EMPIRE
1. Saint Augustine, The City of God, trans. Henry Bettenson (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), p. 430 (Book XI, Chapter 1).
2. Plotinus, Enneads, trans. Stephen MacKenna (London: Faber and Faber, 1956), p. 63 (1.6.8).
3. On the military powers of Empire, see Manuel De Landa, War in the Age of Intelligent Machines (New York: Zone, 1991).
4. On the constitution of time, see Antonio Negri, La costituzione del tempo (Rome: Castelvecchi, 1997); and Michael Hardt, "Prison Time," Genet: In the Language of the Enemy, Yale French Studies, no. 91 (1997), 64-79. See also Eric Alliez, Capital Times, trans. Georges Van Den Abeel (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).
5. See Jrgen Habermas, Theory of Communicative Action, trans. Thomas McCarthy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984). Andr‚ Gorz similarly recognizes only a fraction of the proletariat as relating to the new communicative lines of production in Farewell to the Working Class, trans. Michael Sonenscher (Boston: South End Press, 1982).
6. Here we are following the intriguing etymology that Barbara Cassin gives for the term "philosophy."
7. On the constitutive notion of the encounter, see Louis Althuser's late works written after his confinement in the 1980s, in particular "Le courant souterrain du mat‚rialisme de la rencontre," in ‚crits philosophiques et politiques, vol. 1 (Paris: STOCK/IMEC, 1994), pp. 539-579.
INDEX
administration: modern, 88-89, 99; 364-365; command over, 60, 314, 344-346, 392 imperial, 339-343 affect. See labor, affective black nationalism, 107-109 Bodin, Jean, 84, 97-99 Agamben, Giorgio, 366 Ahmed, Akbar, 149 Bovillus, 72 Braudel, Fernand, 225, 236 AIDS pandemic, 136 Althusser, Louis, 63-64, 91 Bretton Woods accords, 244, 264-266 Bruno, Giordano, 77 American Revolution, 160-164, 381 Amin, Samir, 76-77, 334 Burke, Edmund, 104-105 Bush, George, 180 anarchists, 350 Anderson, Benedict, 95, 107 Caliban, 81-82 anthropology, 125-126, 187 Castells, Manuel, and Yuko Aoyama, antihumanism, 91-92 286 apartheid, 125, 190-191, 194 C‚line, Louis-Ferdinand, 134-136 Appadurai, Arjun, 151 C‚saire, Aim‚, 117, 130 Appiah, Anthony, 138 Chaplin, Charlie, 159 architecture, 188, 190, 337 Chatterjee, Partha, 133-134 Arendt, Hannah, 163-164, 381, 387 Chiapas uprising, 54-56 Aristotle, 201, 356, 401 Christianity, 21, 36, 373 Arrighi, Giovanni, 238-239 citizenship, global, 361, 400, 403 asystemic movements, 60 civil society, 25, 328-329; global, 7, Auerbach, Erich, 46 311 Augustine of Hippo, 207, 390, 393 Coetzee, J. M., 203-204 autonomists, 214 cold war, 178-182 autonomy of the political, 307 colonialism, 70, 76-77, 114-129, axiomatic of capital, 326-327 199-200, 305-306; struggles against, 42-43, 106, 130-134; and the Bacon, Francis, 72 Balibar, tienne, 192 United States, 170-171. See also decolonization Bandung Conference, 107, 250 barbarians, 213-218 communication, 29, 32-35, 395, 404; among struggles, 54-59; in Bauer, Otto, 111 being-against, 210-214, 361 production, 289-298, 364-365 communications industries, 33, 346-347 Benjamin, Walter, 215, 377 Bhabha, Homi, 143-145 communism, 63, 237, 294, 350, 413 biopower, 23-27, 89, 389, 405-406; as community, 45, 145, 358; and the agent of production, 29, 30, 32, nation, 95, 97, 106-108, 113 474 INDEX Conrad, Joseph, 135 Dirlik, Arif, 86, 138 disciplinary government, 242-243, constituent power, 47, 59, 63, 184-185, 358, 406, 410; in the U.S. 247-248, 250-254 disciplinary society, 22-24, 88-89, Constitution, 162, 165 cooperation, 294-296, 366-367, 329-332 discipline, 97, 158-159, 453n7; refusal 395-396, 401-402, 410-411; abstract, 296 of, 260-262, 273-279 dispositif, 23, 63, 329-330 corporate culture, 153 corporations, transnational, 31, 304-309 Duns Scotus, 71 Dutch East India Company, 305 corruption, 20-21, 201-203, 389-392; cycle of, 163, 166 East India Company, 305-306 courts, international and supra-Empire, definition of concept, xiv-xv national, 38 English Revolution, 162 Cowhey, Peter, 298 Eurocentrism, 70, 76-77, 86, 120 crisis, 385-387; of institutions, event, 26, 28, 41, 49, 61, 411. See also 196-197; of Europe, 374-380. See singularity also modernity, as crisis exception, state of, 16-17, 26, 39 cyberpunk, 216 exodus, 76, 212-214, 364, 367; cycles of struggles, 50-52, 54, 261 anthropological, 215-217 Dante Alighieri, 71, 73 expansive tendency: of Empire, Davis, Mike, 337 166-169; of capital, 222-228 Debord, Guy, 188-189, 321-323 exploitation, 43, 53, 208-210, 385 decentralization of production, 245-246, 294-297 Falk, Richard, 36 Declaration of Indepencence, 165, 169, family, 148, 197 171 Fanon, Franz, 124-125, 129, 131-132 decline and fall of Empire, 20-21, fear, 323, 339, 388 371-374 Federalist, 161 decolonization, 245-246 feminist movements, 274 deconstruction, 47-48 Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 105 Deleuze, Gilles, and F‚lix Guattari, 25, Fordism, 240, 242, 247-248, 256, 409; 28, 193-194, 206-207, 210, 302, decline of, 267-268; versus Toyota 326 model, 289-290 delinking, 206, 283-284 Foucault, Michel, 13, 22-25, 28, Descartes, Ren‚, 79-80, 390 88-89, 327-330; and humanism, desertion, 212-214 91-92; on the Enlightenment, De Sica, Vittorio, 158 183-184 deterritorialization, xii, 45, 52, 61, 124; Francis of assisi, 413 of production, 294-297; operated by Frankfurt School, 25, 143 capital, 206, 326, 346-347. See also French Revolution, 101-102, 104, 113, lines of flight 117-118, 381 development theories, 282-284. See also Fukuyama, Francis, 189 underdevelopment theories fundamentalism, 146-150, 312, 399 diagram, 329-330 dialectics, 51-52, 187-188; of identity, Galileo Galilei, 72-73 103, 115, 127-132; critique of, 140, Gates, Bill, 296 144-145, 359, 378-379 general intellect, 29, 364 INDEX 475 general will, 85, 88, 96 United States, 172, 177-179; Marxist critiques of, 221-234, 270-272, 332 Genet, Jean, 109 Gibbon, Edward, 20-21, 371-372 industrial reserve army, 447n7 Industrial Workers of the World, Gilroy, Paul, 128 Gingrich, Newt, 348 207-208, 214, 412 information infrastructure, 298-300 globalization, 3, 8-9, 32, 55, 136, 348, 362; from below, xv, 43-45, 52, 59 internationalism, 45-46, 49-50, 145 international relations, as academic governmentality, 88, 327-328 Gramsci, Antonio, 233, 383 discipline, 141-142 Internet, 299 guaranteed income, 403 Guilbaut, Serge, 382-383 intervention and sovereignty, 18, 35-38 Intifada, 54-56. See also Palestinians Italian economy, 288-289 Habermas, Jrgen, 33-34, 404 Haitian revolution, 123, 128. See also Jackson, Andrew, 168-169 L'Ouverture, Toussaint Jameson, Fredric, 154, 187, 272, 323 Harraway, Donna, 91, 218 Jefferson, Thomas, 168-169, 182, 381 Harvey, David, 154 justice, 18-19, 82, 356 Hegel, G. W. F., 42, 129, 328, 340, just war, 12, 36-37 375; on modern sovereignty, 81-84, 86-88, 90 Kant, Immanuel, 80-81, 183 Heidegger, Martin, 378 Kautsky, Karl, 229-231 Herder, J. G., 100-101 Kelsen, Hans, 5-6, 8, 15 Hilferding, Rudolf, 226, 229-230 Keynes, John Maynard, 243 historia rerum gestarum. See res gestae Keynesianism, 242 historicism, 99-100 history: end of, 64, 189, 367-368; La Bo‚tie, tienne de, 204 suspension of, 11 labor, 358; immaterial, 29, 53, history, as academic discipline, 126 290-294; abstract, 292; affective, Hobbes, Thomas, 7-8, 83-85, 87, 323, 292-293, 364-365 388; on the people, 102-103 Las Casas, Bartolom‚ de, 116 Hobson, John, 232 League of Nations, 175 homohomo, 72, 81, 204, 216 legitimation, 33-35, 38, 41, 89-90 homo tantum, 203-204 Lenin, V. I., 229-234 humanism, 77-78, 91-92, 285. See also Levy, Pierre, 289 Renaissance humanism liberal politics, 188-189 human rights, 107, 313 Lincoln, Abraham, 172 hybridity, 142-146, 216; management lines of flight, 48, 123-124 of, 172; and constitution, 316-319 local versus global, 44-46, 362 Locke, John, 7-8 ideology, 404 Los Angeles rebellion, 54-56 immanence, 64, 77, 91-92, 157, 377, L'Ouverture, Toussaint, 116-118 402; discovery of, 70-74; of modern love, 78, 186, 413 power, 82; of imperial power, 161, Lubiano, Wahneema, 108 164, 373-374; of capital, 326-329 Luhmann, Niklas, 13, 15 imperialism, 31, 265, 332; in contrast to Luxemburg, Rosa: on nationalism, Empire, xii-xiii, 9, 166-167, 374; 96-97; critique of imperialism, 224, struggles against, 42-43, 58; and the 228, 233-234, 270, 333 476 INDEX Machiavelli, Niccol•, 63-65, 90, 156, 79, 82, 87, 97; in contrast to the people, 103, 113, 194-195, 316, 344; 234, 308, 388; on ancient Rome, 15, powers of, 209-218, 357-363; 162-163, 166, 372-374; on imperial corruption of, 391-392; constituent power, 184-185 rights of, 396-407 Machiavellianism, 162-163 Musil, Robert, 69-70, 284-285, 289 mafia, 37, 342 Malcolm X, 107-108, 132 naked life, 204, 366 management and organization theory, nation, modern concept of, 93-105 152-153 nationalism, struggles against, 42-43. manifesto, 63-66 See also black nationalism; subaltern market, 86. See also world market nationalism marketing, 151-152 nationalist socialism, 111-113 Marsilius of Padua, 73 national liberation struggles. See Marx, Karl, 43, 57, 62, 185, 206, colonialism, struggles against 349-350, 363, 367; on British nation-state, xi-xii, 43, 109-110, 236, colonialism, 118-120; on the United 335-336 States, 168-169; on capitalist nation-states, system of, 40, 310-311 expansion, 221-224; the missing Native Americans, 169-171 volumes of Capital, 234-237; on natural right theories, 99 capitalist crisis, 261, 266-267; theory n‚gritude, 130-131 of value, 355. See also general network power, 161-163 intellect; subsumption, formal and network production, 294-297 real; Vogelfrei New Deal, 51, 176, 180, 381; on global Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels, level, 241-244, 265 63-65, 226, 304 New Left, 179 mass intellectuality, 29, 410 new social movements, 275 measure of value, 86, 354-359, 392 Nicholas of Cusa, 71-72 media, the, 311-312, 322-323 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 90, 213, 359, 375, 378 Melville, Herman, 203-204 Nixon, Richard, 266 militant, the, 411-413 nomadism, 76, 212-214, 362-364 miscegenation, 362-364 non-governmental organizations mobility of populations, 213, 253, 275, (NGOs), 35-37, 312-314 344: and suffering, 154-155; right to, non-place of power, 188, 190, 203, 396-400 210, 319, 353, 384; and construction modernity, 46-47, 69-74; as crisis, of a new place, 216-217, 357 74-78, 90, 109; postmodernist non-work, 273 critique of, 140-143, 155 nuclear weapons, 345-347 modernization, 249-251, 280-281, 284-286 omni-crisis, 189, 197, 201 money, 346-347 ontology, 47-48, 62, 206, 354-364; Monroe Doctrine, 177-178 absence of, 202, 391 Montesquieu, 20-21, 371-372 outside versus inside, 45, 183-190, More, Thomas, 73 353-354, 444n5; of capitalist Morris, William, 50 development, 221-228, 233-234, Moulier Boutang, Yann, 123-124 257-258 multitude, 60-66, 73-74, 90, 161, 164, overproduction and underconsumption, 353; negated by modern sovereignty, 222-225, 449n3 INDEX 477 Palestinians, 109 reproduction, social, 28, 64, 85, 273-274, 385, 465n17. See also parasitical nature of Empire, 359-361 Pascal, Blaise, 79-80 biopower republicanism, 184, 208-218 peace, 19, 75, 83, 94, 181, 189; as virtue of Empire, 10-11, 14, 60, res gestae, 47-48, 52, 61, 63, 368-369 rhizome, 299, 397 167, 353 people, the, 102-105, 194-195, Rhodes, Cecil, 228, 232 right and law, 17; international, 4, 311-314, 316; decline of, 344, 411 Persian GulfWar, 12, 13, 180, 309 9-10, 14, 33, 38; supranational, 9-10, 16, 17; imperial, 21, 62 philosophy, 48-49 Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, 72 rights. See multitude, rights of Roman Empire, 10, 20-21, 163, 166, place-based movements, 44 Pocock, J. G. A., 162 298, 314-315, 371-373 Roman Republic, 162-163 police, 12, 17-18, 20, 26, 87; and imperial intervention, 37-39, 189 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 242, 348 Roosevelt, Theodore, 174-175, 177, political theory, 63, 388 Polybius, 163, 166, 314-316, 371 242 Rosenzweig, Franz, 377 posse, 407-411 postcolonialist theories, 137-139, Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 85, 87, 303 royal prerogatives of sovereignty, 143-146 post-Fordism, 55, 409-410 38-39, 343, 360 posthuman, 215 Said, Edward, 125, 146 postmodernist theories, 137-143 Sartre, Jean-Paul, 129-131 postmodernity, 64-65, 187, 237 Schmitt, Carl, 16, 377-378, 463n6 postmodernization, 272, 280-282, Schopenhauer, Arthur, 81-82 285-289 secularism, 71-73, 91, 161 poverty, 156-159 segmentations, social, 336-339 Prakash, Gyan, 146 service economies, 286-287, 293 primitive accumulation, 94, 96, SieyŠs, Emmanuel-Joseph, 101, 104, 256-259, 300, 326 113 progressivism, 174-176 singularity, 57, 61, 73, 78, 87, 103, proletariat, 49-50, 63, 256-257, 402; 395-396, 408. See also event defined, 52-53 slavery, 120-124, 212; in the United property, private and public, 300-303, States, 170-172, 177 410 Smith, Adam, 86-87 smooth space, 190, 327, 330 racism: modern, 103, 191-195; imperial, 190-195 socialist discipine, 214 social wage, 403 Rahman, Fazlur, 148-149 Rawls, John, 13, 15 society of control, 23-27, 198, 318-319, 329-332 reappropriation, 404-407, 411 reciprocity, 131-132 sovereignty: modern, 69-70, 83-90; national, 95-105; in conflict with refusal, 203-204, 208-209 Reich, Robert, 150-151, 291-292 capital, 325-328 Soviet Revolution, 123, 133, 176-177, Renaissance humanism, 70-74, 76, 91, 115, 140, 162, 164, 356 240-241 representation, 84-85, 104-105, 125, Soviet Union, collapse of, 179, 214, 134 276-279 478 INDEX spectacle, 321-323, 347 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 163, 168-169, 375 Spinoza, Baruch, 65-66, 91-92, 185-186, 204, 359; on immanence, totalitarianism, 112-113, 278 transcendental apparatus, 78-85, 73, 77-78 Stalin, Joseph, 112 164-165; as the state, 325-329 translation, 50-51, 57 state: patrimonial and absolutist, 93-95; modern, 90, 134; capitalist; 232-233, Truman, Harry S., 249 truth, 155-156 235-237, 242, 304-309. See also transcendental apparatus ultra-imperialism, 230-231 strikes: France, 54-56; South Korea, underdevelopment theories, 283-284 54-56 United Nations, 4-6, 8, 18, 31, 40, structuralism, 28 132, 181, 309 subaltern nationalism, 105-109, U.S. constitutional history, phases of, 132-134, 335-336 167-168 subjectivity, production of, 32, 52, 195-197, 321, 331, 378; new circuits variable capital, 294, 405 of, 269, 275, 402 Versailles Conference, 241 subsumption, formal and real, 25, Vico, Giambattista, 100 255-256, 271-272, 317, 364, 386 Vietnam War, 178-179, 260, 275 superstition, 323 Virgil, 167 superstructure, 27, 30, 385-386 virtual, 357-360, 366 surplus value, realization of, 222-224 Vogelfrei, 157-158 tactics and strategy, 58-59, 63 Wallerstein, Immanuel, 334 Taylorism, 240, 242, 247-248, Weber, Max, 41, 88-90, 340, 377 255-256, 267-268, 383, 409 welfare state, 301 teleology, 51-52, 100, 165, 383; William of Occam, 73 materialist, 63-66, 368, 395-396, Wilson, Woodrow, 174-176, 180, 242 403-407, 470n25 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 378-379 temporality, 401-403 working class, industrial, 53, 256, 402 Thatcher, Margaret, 348 world market, 150-154, 190, 235-237, Third Worldism, 264 251-256, 310, 332-335; construction Third World versus First World, xiii, of, 221-222, 346. See also delinking 253-254, 263-264, 333-335, World War I, 233 362-363 World War II, 243 Thucydides, 182 Tiananmen Square events, 54, 56 Zavattini, Cesare, 158
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