MetroPolitan State university of Denver
Journey Through Our Heritage Program:
Slavery, Civil War, and KKK Study guide Final
Compiled by: Amber Russell
This study guide is to inform the reader about slavery in America and how it gave rise to the KKK and its involvement in Colorado.
Ku Klux Klan
Where and when did slavery begin?
The African export of slaves began on the West Coast of Africa during the 15th and 19th Centuries. The British, Portuguese, Spanish and the French traded with Africans along the coast of Senegambia. It wasn’t until 1670, during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade that Europeans began documenting the exports of slaves (A Concise History by: Hine).
This picture shows the Atlantic Slave Trade
Who was involved and when did they start using slaves?
The Spanish, Portuguese, French and English kidnapped slaves from the West Coast of Africa, commonly referred to as the slave coast. It has been estimated that 10 million slaves were transported out of the West region to Senegambia to Benin to Angola. Only 3888,000 of those slaves were transported to North America.
This picture depicts the Slave Coast
The Spanish-In 1510, 50 slaves are shipped to Santo Domingo(Dominican Republic).
Portuguese-In 1441, Captain Antao Gonclaves and Nuno Tristao brought 12 African slaves to portugal.
Britain-In 1544, five Africans were sent to Great Britain to become interpreters to establish trade. By the late 1500’s many black slaves were living in Britain.
British Colonies (America to be). –In 1619 African slaves arrived in the 13 British colonies and worked alongside indentured servants (European servants who worked for 5-7 years).
French-The French had begun taking slaves captives when Columbus arrived in 1492. He and his conquistadores first took Indian inhabitants as slaves then arrived from Sierra Leone.
("Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." African Slavery in Colonial British North America. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2015)
"Slavery Timeline 1400-1500." - a Chronology of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2015.
"Atlantic+slave+trade - Google Search." Atlantic+slave+trade - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2015.
When did the slave trade begin In America?
When Europeans began colonizing other countries, they tried enslaving indigenous groups as well as resorting to bringing indentured servants from their homelands. However, most Europeans and Indigenous Indian groups died due to disease and severe labor conditions. Africans were recognized for their strength and endurance and subsequently became the main source of European colonies. In 1617, the James Town settlement in Virginia became the first British Colony in North America. It would later become Virginia. The colonizers were in dire need of cheap labor force to work the land and produce goods. Lacking both natural and financial backing, there were only a few ways to engage the labor they needed.
The first of the labor force came from the Indigenous groups who almost became extinct due to European disease and warfare. Second, the colonizers turned to their own homeland and sought out indentured servitude. Often times those who could not support themselves financially gave themselves to be indentured servants. This would provide them with housing as well as food to eat. The indentured servants were forced to work for about 5-7 years. Due to the harsh labor treatment, many did not live to see freedom. Lastly, African Americans were targeted as the last resort in labor force. Later in 1619, Africans were brought to the colony as servants. Many of the African servants became chattel servants, slavery for life (A concise History by: Hine).
How did slavery affect America?
African slaves built the economic foundation of the Unites States before it even became a country. By 1770 there were 80,000 Africans in America. The majority of whites did not own slaves, most of the time it was the wealthy who did. Those in the North only owned about four to five slaves and worked side by side with their slaves and slept in the same house. As for the South, slave owners may have had from 100-500 slaves working on their plantation and they did not work alongside their slaves.
Slave states in the South such as; South Carolina, North Carolina, Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, and Texas mostly made profit from cash crops. Cash crops were Cotton, rice, and Indigo. The Northern states and territories economy was not heavily dependent upon slavery. Most northerners were known for producing cotton textiles. (A Concise History by: Hine)
What made slavery legal?
There were three major articles in the American constitution that supported slavery.
Article 1 section 9.1- “The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person”.
-This article was written in 1787. The article explained that in year 1808, trade of foreign people would have to end. From 1787 to 1808 there had been a spike in slave trade to gather all of the slaves they could before the slave trade ended. Although the slave trade had ended, that didn’t mean that slavery itself had ended.
The Heritage Guide to The Constitution." Guide to the Constitution. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2015
Article 1 section 2.3-“ Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons”.
-This article explains that slave holders can count each of their slaves as 3/5ths a person for tax representation.
The Heritage Guide to The Constitution." Guide to the Constitution. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2015
Article 4 section 2.3- “A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.”
-This article explains that if a slave were to run away into another state, his master had the right to go and retrieve his slave. Even other white men had the obligation to return the slave if they saw him.
"The Heritage Guide to The Constitution." Guide to the Constitution. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2015
With the expansion of the territories through the Louisiana Purchase In 1803, many white and black abolitionists arose. Pilgrims and Quakers did not own slaves, in fact Quakers believed it to be immoral. Their community would play an important role in helping set a foundation for black liberation. Abolitionists such as Crispus Attucks, Fredrick Douglas, Nat Turner, Quakers, and Loyd Garrison helped push for the abolition of slavery which would lead to the civil war. This war would take place from April 12, 1861 to April 9, 1865 (A Concise History by:Hine).
How and Why did the Civil War happen?
Civil War: 1861-1865
November 6, 1860 was the year that President Lincoln took office. William Lloyd Garrison, Fredrick Douglas and other abolitionists put pressure on Lincoln to abolish slavery. The Southern states that heavily depended upon slavery felt threatened by Lincoln becoming president. These states; Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, would secede from the union in the year 1860-61. Later, on April 12, 1861 Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia would join. President Lincoln would give the seceding states 100 days to come back to the Union without consequence. However, the southern states failed to comply so war was declared.
African Americans also played an important part in both sides of the wars. The 54th regiment was an all-black regiment. Black men saw the civil war as an opportunity to fight for their freedom and the abolishment of slavery. On January 1st, Governor John A. Andrew gave Robert Gould Shaw permission to let Black men enlist. More than 1,000 black soldiers were the first on the battlefield. Black slaves of the confederate soldiers were also forced to fight in the place of their masters or beside them.
"Confederate States of America." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2015.
Who were the confederate states and what did they do?
Mississippian Jefferson Davis became the president of the confederate states. Their mission was to preserve slavery. Out of the secession from the Union, the confederate flag was born. The confederate flag first stated out with 7 stars to represent each state that had seceded, then it accumulated to 11 stars for the four states that had joined later on.
" Confederate Flag. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2015.
old and new
Who won the war and what changed?
President Lincoln issued the Emancipation on January 1, 1863. This document decreed that all slaves held in rebellious states (confederate states) would be free. Two years later Robert E. Lee surrendered the confederate army to Ulysses. S. Grant on April 9, 1865. Therefor the Union won victoriously and the former rebellious states rejoined the Union.
"Emancipation_Proclamation." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
The KU KLUX KLAN
Who were the KKK?
Shortly after the Civil war, the KKK was founded in 1866 by confederate army veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee. They often gave themselves Greek mythical names such as Grand Dragon, Grand Cyclopes, and Grand Titan. The first Grand wizard was believed to have been General Nathan Bedford. The KKK was an organization that used violence and political gains to resist the reconstruction of African Americans. Marches, rallies, and parades were organized by the Klan to denounce immigrants, Blacks, Jews, and Catholics. They often affiliated themselves with the Democratic Party and opposed blacks and whites who sought Republican involvement.
"Ku Klux Klan." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
KKK convention in Colorado Springs
KKK Involvement in Colorado:
In the 1920’s, “Denver Klan members held rallies and parades in Downtown Denver and burned crosses on South Table Mesa Mountain near Golden among other high-profile locations (Colorado History Museum).”
Rally at Table Mountain
The KKK in Colorado was almost as influential as in the South. There were 17,000 Klan members in Denver not including Golden, Colorado Springs and other active locations. Where violence tactics were used in the South, Political power was used in Colorado to intimidate minority groups. In 1922, the Klan voted allies into the governor’s mansion and throughout the legislature. Their presence was so influential that Benjamin Stapleton, the mayor of Denver, consulted the Klan when making appointments. However, the KKK power within politics was weakened in 1926.
. When Colorado Was Klan Country." The Colorado Independent. N.p., 09 Jan. 2009. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 21 July 2015.
Website Title: History.com
Article Title: Reconstruction
Publisher: A&E Television Networks
Date Accessed: July 21, 201
1. "Atlantic+slave+trade - Google Search." Atlantic+slave+trade - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2015.
2. Plantations." ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2015.
3.Photo by Skye DillardGrice." Photobucket. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2015
4. "Civil+war - Google Search." Civil+war - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2015.
5. "Confederate States of America." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2015.
6. "Ku Klux Klan." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
Study Guide Questions
The 54th regiment was an all _______ regiment lead by ________.
How many states seceded from the Union in total?
When did the Civil War start and end?
The Spanish, Portuguese, French and English kidnapped slaves from the __________of Africa, commonly referred to as the Slave Coast.
Who were the five countries involved with the slave trade?
How many Klan members were in Denver?
Which states seceded from the Union?
A) Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
B) Colorado, Montanna, Wyoming, Alabama, New York, Virginia, and California.
8) What do the stars on the confederate flag represent?
A) The generals who fought in the war
B) The states that seceded from the Union
C) The years that the war lasted
9) The KKK was founded by ________________in the year _____________.
10) Does the KKK oppose affiliation with Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, Jews, and Homosexuals?
11) How many Africans were in America by 1770?
12) What year did President Lincoln take his place in office?
A) November 6, 1860
B) November 8, 1970
C) November 10, 1856
13) What are indentured servants?
A) Servants who worked for 5-7 years?
B) Servants from Europe?
C) Both A and B
14) The First Settlement in Virginia was______________.
15) The KKK leaders have names such as:
A) The Grand Dragon
B) Grand Cyclopes
C) Grand Wizard
D) All of the above