Методические рекомендации для студента по освоению дисциплины «Иностранный язык»



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РАЗДЕЛ 3 «ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ»


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Definition of Commercial Organization


The term commercial organization is general and applies to any group(s) with a particular set of skills, priorities, strategies, and resources that organize to collectively achieve the "specific aim" of making a profit. Ultimately, the first concern of commercial organizations is to make a profit for the owner, shareholders, or both, by providing products and services. 

To properly understand what a commercial organization is requires being aware of the many "for profit" activities commercial organizations participate in. Although not an exhaustive list, notable types of commercial organizations specialize in entertainment, commercial broadcasting, banking, agriculture and organized crime.

The majority of entertainment organizations produce, provide or otherwise aid in the production or creation of entertainment activities for customers in hopes of realizing a profit. Examples of commercial organizations implementing entertainment business models are nightclubs, sport activities, live music venues and movie theaters. The common theme uniting these examples are the physical locations where customers actually "go to" and "pay for" the particular type of entertainment.

Broadcasting

Commercial broadcasting involves selling advertisements (airtime) to other entities, and in so doing, making a profit. Business models for commercial broadcasting organizations may also include pay-per-view television programming and donation-based models. Although commercial broadcasting organizations contribute significantly to entertainment activities, two main factors set commercial broadcasting apart from entertainment organizations: (1) broadcasting isn't a platform strictly for entertainment purposes and (2) broadcasting is a platform where recipients of the service aren't required to go to a specific location to participate.



Banking

Commercial banking provides financial services to businesses, accepts savings and checking deposits, and provides lending services to individuals such as mortgage loans. Profit generated for commercial banks involves collecting interest from all monies loaned, fees associated with financial services, and fees associated with the secure handling of customers' money.



Agriculture

Commercial agriculture is an organization specializing in cultivating and processing crops or livestock for large-scale distribution for the purpose of making a profit. Products produced from commercial agricultural activities are sold to supermarkets or wholesalers that are often the first point of contact with consumers.



Criminal Organizations

Organized crime is also an example of a commercial organization's primary aim to make a profit by producing, distributing, selling or reselling illegal products, or performing illegal activities. For example, a criminal organization may implement business models that involve seeking out discrepancies within the marketplace, and in so doing, capitalizing on selling products (illegal drugs) where the perceived value of those products are highly unstable or otherwise controversial.


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Types of Non Profit Organizations


by Lucy Friend, Demand Media

A nonprofit organization is a business in which profits are not distributed to employees, but invested back into the business. Although profits are not distributed to employees, they are paid a salary to carry out the functions to operate the business. The Internal Revenue Service categorizes nonprofit organizations in 26 types--Section 501(c)(1) to 501(c)(26), all of which are exempt from federal taxes. These types of organizations engage in a variety of charitable services.



Educational

Nonprofit organizations that focus on education offer educational services to children and adults to assist them in learning new skills. This includes schools, day care centers, colleges and universities, as well as adult learning facilities to name a few. These organizations offer many individuals educational opportunities they may not be able to afford otherwise. Nonprofit educational organizations also create public awareness and seek out those who may benefit from these services.



Research

Some nonprofit organizations establish this business to perform research to assist the medical community, the environment, wild life and cultures. The goal of these organizations is to improve individuals or environments. These organizations may assist in finding cures for medical conditions and diseases, improve environments such as rain forests and ecosystems, assist in saving endangered species, as well as raise awareness and interest in their cause.



Community

Community nonprofit organizations develop programs and raise awareness of services in specific communities. This includes child care, recreational activities, health programs and other services designed to assist in improving the lives of individuals and families in the community. Along with specific community services, these organizations often schedule events for the community that provides services or entertainment, as well as assists the organization in raising funds for the community.



Religious

Some nonprofit organizations are owned and operated by religious organizations, and offer a variety of services to specific communities or cultures the religious organization supports. They may also provide food, housing and other services to those in need. These organizations have the ability to create awareness through their churches and religious groups to fund the nonprofit organization.



Artistic/Creative

Nonprofit organizations may also promote or support artistic and creative endeavors, such as art galleries, orchestras, symphonies, theaters and dance groups. These types of organizations may also provide youth services to teach children these arts and create interest in these areas. Fundraising is often provided by public performances and community events to support the organization financially.



http://smallbusiness.chron.com/types-non-profitorganizations-4137.html
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BANKS AND BANKING

A bank is an institution that provides financial services to consumers, businesses, and governments. One major type of bank is the commercial bank, which has fewer restrictions on its services than other types of banks. Commercial banks profit by taking deposits from customers, for which they typically pay a relatively low rate of interest, and lending the deposits to borrowers at a higher rate of interest. These borrowers may be individuals purchasing homes, cars, and other things or they may be businesses financing working capital needs, equipment purchases, etc. Banks may also generate revenue from services such as asset management, investment sales, and mortgage loan maintenance.

In addition to commercial banks, major types of banks include savings banks, trust companies, and central banks. Savings banks are similar to commercial banks but they are geared toward serving individuals rather than businesses. They take deposits primarily from individuals, and their investment activity is limited by the federal government to specific non-commercial investments, such as home mortgage loans. Trust companies act as trustees, managing assets that they transfer between two parties according to the wishes of the trustor. Trust services are often offered by departments of commercial banks. Central banks are usually government-controlled institutions that serve regulatory and monetary management roles. Among other activities, central banks may issue the nation's currency, help to determine interest rates, collect and disburse government resources, and issue and redeem government debt.

Savings banks, savings and loan associations (S&Ls), and credit unions are known as thrift institutions. Like commercial banks, thrifts are depository institutions and are distinguished from nondepository institutions such as investment banks, insurance companies, and pension funds. S&Ls traditionally have taken savings, time, and demand deposits as their primary liability, and made most of their income from loaning deposits out as mortgages. Credit unions are financial cooperatives designed exclusively for the purposes of serving their members, or "owners." Credit unions are nonprofit financial institutions and are generally as concerned with community involvement as with profits. One of the main differences between credit unions and banks relates to the fees that they charge. Banks typically charge higher fees for such items as stop-payment orders, below minimum balances, and check bouncing, as these fees help to increase the bottom line for banks. Credit unions are typically more forgiving concerning service fees. They provide a lower cost, "friendly" savings investment option, while still maintaining competitive interest rates as well as a wide variety of financial services for their members.



COMMERCIAL BANK ORGANIZATION

Most commercial banks are operated as corporate holding companies, which may own one or several banks. Because of regulatory constraints, banks that are not associated with holding companies must operate under restrictions that often put them at a disadvantage vantage compared with other financial institutions. Holding companies are often used as vehicles to circumvent legal restrictions and to raise capital by otherwise unavailable means. For instance, many banks can indirectly operate branches in other states by organizing their entity as a holding company. Banks are also able to enter, and often effectively compete in, related industries through holding company subsidiaries. In addition, holding companies are able to raise capital using methods from which banks are restricted, such as issuing commercial paper. Multi-bank holding companies may also create various economies of scale related to advertising, bookkeeping, and reporting, among other business functions.

Commercial banking in the United States has been characterized by: 1) a proliferation of competition from other financial service industries, such as mutual funds and leasing companies; 2) the growth of multibank holding companies; and 3) new technology that has changed the way that banks conduct business. The first two developments are closely related. Indeed, as new types of financial institutions have emerged to meet specialized needs, banks have increasingly turned to the holding company structure to increase their competitiveness. In addition, a number of laws passed since the 1960s have favored the multibank holding company format. As a result the U.S. banking industry had become highly concentrated in the hands of bank holding companies by the early 1990s.

Electronic information technology, the third major factor in the recent evolution of banking, is evidenced most visibly by the proliferation of electronic transactions. Electronic fund transfer systems, automated teller machines (ATMs), and computerized home-banking services all combined to transform the way that banks conduct business. Such technological gains have served to reduce labor demands and intensify the trend toward larger and more centralized banking organizations. They have also diminished the role that banks have traditionally played as personal financial service organizations. Finally, electronic systems have paved the way for national and global banking systems.



BANKS AND SMALL BUSINESSES

Small business is the fastest-growing segment of the American business economy. As a result, more and more commercial banks are creating special products and programs designed to attract small business customers. It is vitally important for entrepreneurs and small business owners to develop a comfortable, productive relationship with a bank in order to meet their current and future financing needs. Ideally, as Gibson Heath indicated in Doing Business with Banks, a banker should be part of a small business owner's team of outside advisors (along with an attorney, an accountant, an insurance agent, and other specialty consultants). The banker's role on that team is to assist with the business's overall financial needs, from savings, checking, and retirement accounts to employee benefit plans, loans, and investments.

Before selecting a bank and establishing a relationship, an entrepreneur should take steps to understand his or her current financial needs and plan for future ones. It may be helpful to examine the business's current position, immediate monetary needs, future cash flow requirements, level of credit worthiness, and ability to repay loans through a detailed review of the company's financial records and other pertinent documents (i.e., the business plan, balance sheet, income statement, cash flow projections, tax returns, and owner's personal financial information).

There are a number of factors a small business owner should consider when selecting a bank, including its accessibility, compatibility, lending limit, loan approval process, general services provided, and fees charged. Perhaps the best way to approach banks is to obtain referrals to business representatives or loan officers at three to five banks. This approach aids the small business owner by providing a recommendation or association from a known customer, and also by providing the name of a specific banker to talk to. The company's accountant, business advisors, and professional contacts will most likely be good sources of referrals.

The next step in forming a positive banking relationship is to arrange for a preliminary interview at each bank to get a feel for its particular personnel and services. It may be helpful to bring a brief summary of the business and a list of questions. The small business owner should also be prepared to answer the bankers' questions, including general information about the business, its primary goods/services, its financial condition, its banking needs, and the status of the industry in which it operates. All of these queries are designed to solicit information that will enable the institution to evaluate the small business as a potential client. After all the face-to-face meetings have taken place, the small business owner should compare each bank to the list of preferred criteria, and consult with his or her business advisors as needed. It is important to notify all the candidates once a decision has been made.

Ideally, a small business's banking relationship should feature open communication. Consultants recommend regular appointments to keep the banker updated on the business's condition, including potential problems on the horizon, as well as to give the banker an opportunity to update the small business owner on new services. The banker can be a good source of information about financing, organization, and record keeping. He or she may also be able to provide the small business owner with referrals to other business professionals, special seminars or programs, and networking opportunities.


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