May 14, 1948: The modern state of Israel is created. The new country was immediately invaded, but its armies successfully defeated the invaders.
June 5 – 11, 1967: Israel fights the Six Days’ War against neighboring Arab countries. At the conflict’s end, Israel doubled its land area by taking the Sinai, Gaza, and the Golan Heights.
1973: Egypt and Syria start what becomes the Yom Kippur War/ Ramadan War to reclaim land lost in 1967. After back and forth fighting, Israel makes small gains compared to its previous holdings.
September 5 – 17, 1978: President Carter meets with Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt at Camp David, Maryland. The Camp David Accords are signed at the end of this meeting.
March 26, 1979: Begin and Sadat sign the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty at the White House.
Camp David Accords
Explain the Carter administration’s efforts in settling the Arab-Israeli dispute via the Camp David Accords.
Schema: Recall our lesson on the OPEC oil embargo. Why were Israel’s Arab neighbors upset?
By 1978, the modern Israeli state had been in existence for 30 years – years marked by armed conflict and regional war. Following Egyptian President Sadat’s unprecedented trip to address the Israeli Knesset, President Carter invited the two parties to meet at Camp David, Maryland to discuss peaceful options that might end the conflict between the two nations. The leaders of Israel, Egypt, and the United States met at Camp David in 1978 to discuss solutions to an agreement to bring peace to Israel. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin had tense discussions which were mediated by President Carter. The negotiations were fraught with drama, but the end result was a promising chance for compromise and peace.
Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel
In order to achieve peace between then, Israel and Egypt agree to negotiate in good faith a goal of concluding within three months of the signing of this framework a peace treaty between them.
All of the principles of U.N. Resolution 242 will apply in this resolution of the dispute between Israel and Egypt.
Unless otherwise mutually agreed, terms of the peace treaty will be implemented between two and three years after the peace treaty is signed.
In the peace treaty the issue of: a) the full exercise of Egyptian sovereignty up to the internationally recognized border between Egypt and mandated Palestine; b) the time of withdrawal of Israeli personnel from the Sinai; c) the use of airfield near [Arish, Eitam, Etzion, and Ofir, for civilian purposes only; d) the right of free passage by ships of Israel and other nations through the Strait of Tiran, the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal; e) the construction of an international highway between the Sinai and Jordan near Elat; and f) the stationing of military forces listed below (will be resolved by negotiations between the parties).
Stationing of forces
Within an area lying approximately 50 kilometers east of the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal, no more than one division of Egyptian mechanized or infantry armed forces will be stationed.
Only United Nations forces and civil police equipped with light weapons to perform normal police functions will be stationed
in the area not included above, border patrol units, not to exceed three battalions, will supplement the civil police in maintaining order
The exact demarcation of the above area will be as mutually agreed during the peace negotiations.
Early warning stations may exist as mutually agreed to insure compliance with the terms of the agreement.
United Nations forces will be stationed in the Sharm el Sheikh area to insure freedom of passage through the Straits of Tiran, and will be removed only if such agreements are approved by the Security Council of the United Nations.
Normal relations will be established between Egypt and Israel, including: full recognition; [diplomatic, economic and cultural relations;] termination of economic boycotts; and mutual protection of citizens by the due process of law.
Between three months and nine months after the signing of the peace treaty, all Israeli forces will withdraw east of a line extending from a point east of El Arish to Ras Muhammed, the exact location of this line to be determined by mutual agreement
The exercise of full Egyptian sovereignty will be restored in the Sinai, up to the internationally recognized border between Egypt and mandated Palestine.
Except as otherwise agreed in the final peace treaty, all Israeli personnel will be withdrawn from Egyptian territory.
Settlement in the West Bank and Gaza
Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the representatives of the Palestinian people should participate in negotiations on the resolution of the Palestinian problem in all its aspects.
Egypt and Israel agree that, in order to ensure a peaceful and orderly transfer of authority…there should be transitional arrangements for the West Bank and Gaza for a period not exceeding 5 years. In order to provide full autonomy to the inhabitants…the Israeli military government and its civilian administration will be withdrawn as soon as a self-governing authority has been freely elected by the inhabitants to replace the existing military government.
Egypt, Israel, and Jordan will agree on the protocols for establishing elected self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza. The delegations of Egypt and Jordan may include Palestinians to define the powers and responsibilities of the self-governing authority exercised in the West Bank and Gaza. The agreement will also include arrangements for assuring internal and external security and public order. A strong local police force will be established. In addition, Israeli and Jordanian forces will participate in joint patrols and in the manning of control posts to assure the security of the borders.
When the self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza is established, the transitional period of five years will begin. No later than the three years after the beginning of the transitional period, negotiations will take place to determine the final status of the West Bank and Gaza and its relationship with its neighbors and to conclude a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan by the end of the transitional period. These negotiations will be conducted among Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. ... The negotiations shall be based on all the provisions and principles of UN Security Council Resolution 242. The negotiations will resolve the location of the boundaries and the nature of the security arrangements. The solution from the negotiations must also recognize the legitimate right of the Palestinian peoples and their just requirements.
What agreements did Pres. Carter broker between Israel and Egypt with regard to:
the Sinai Peninsula
the West Bank & Gaza