|Z. Iskander, “Desert Varnish and Mortar of the Rhomboidal Pyramid at Dahshûr,” Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte 52 271-274 (1954).
M. Lanteigne, “Comment on Age Determinations for Rock Varnish Formation Within Petroglyphs,” Rock Art Research 6 (No. 2). 145-149 (1989).
M. Lanteigne, “Comment on Age Determinations for Rock Varnish Formation Within Petroglyphs,” Rock Art Research 8 (No. 2). 127-130 (1991).
J.D. Laudermilk, “On the Origin of Desert Varnish," American Journal of Science 21 51-66 (1931).
R. Potter and G.R. Rossman, “Desert Varnish: the Importance of Clay Minerals," Science 196 1446-1448 (1976).
S. L. Reneau, T. M. Oberlander and C. D. Harrington, “Comment on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Radiocarbon Dating of Rock Varnish,” Geological society of American Bulletin 103 310-314 (1991).
S. L. Reneau and R. Raymond, “Cation Ratio Dating of Rock Varnish: Why Does it Work?,” Geology 19 937-940 (1991).
S. G. Wells and L. D. McFadden, “Comment on Isotopic Evidence for Climatic Influence on Alluvial-Fan Development in Death Valley,” Geology 15 1178 (1987).
See Also: Case Studies: Mansoor Collection.
Stone Provenance: General
G. Armiento, D. Attanasio, and R. Platania, "Electron Spin Resonance Study of White Marbles from Tharros (Sardinia): A Reappraisal of the Technique, Possibilities, and Limitations," Archaeometry 39, Part 2 309-320 August (1997).
B. Ashmole and J. Toynbee, "Ancient or Modern? The Case for and Against the St. Albans Head's Antiquity," I.L.N. 226 1062-1063 (1955).
V. Barnin, K. Ramseyer, D. Decrouez, S.J. Burns, J. Chamay, and J.L. Maier," Cathodoluminescence of White Marbles: An Overview," Archaeometry 34, Part 2 175-184 August (1992).
M.A. Bello and A. Martin, "Microchemical Characterization of Building Stone from Seville Cathedral, Spain," Archaeometry 34, Part 1 21-30 February (1992).
B.V. Bothmer, "The Head that Grew a Face: Notes on a Fine Forgery," Miscellanea Wilbouriana 1 25-31 (1972).
R. Grahmann, "Die Venus von Bautzen und ihre Fundstätte," Mannus 274 (1933); Note: cited in Rieth.
P.S. Hossfeld, "Patination or Weathering?" Mankind 6 No.6 269-274 (1965).
A. Rieth, Archaeological Fakes, Translated from the German by D. Imber, Praeger, New York (1970). 183pp.
A. Rosenfeld, "The Identification and Dating of Rocks and Minerals in Archaeology," In The Inorganic Raw Materials of Antiquity, Praeger, New York (1965). Chapter 8.
J. Schmid, M. Ambühl, D. Decrouez, S. Müller, and K. Ramseyer, "A Quantitative Fabric Analysis Approach to the Discrimination of White Marbles," ," Archaeometry 41, Part 2 239-252 August (1999).
A.F. Skinner and M.N. Rudolph, "Dating Flint Artifacts with Electron Spin Resonance: Problems and Prospects," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 37-46.
O. Williams-Thorpe and R.S. Thorpe, "Magnetic Susceptibility Used in Non-Destructive Provenancing of Roman Granite Columns," Archaeometry 35 185-195 (1993).
See Also: Marble Provenance: General
F. Antonelli, G. Nappi, and L. Lazzarini, "Roman Millstones from Orvieto (Italy): Petrographic and Geochemical Data for a New Archaeometric Contribution," Archaeometry 43, Part 2 167-190 May (2001).
D. Brotherwell, "The Study of Archaeological Materials by Means of the Scanning Electron Microscope: An Important New Field," In Science and Archaeology, D. Brotherwell and E. Higgs, Editors, Thames and Hudson, London (1969). pp.564-566.
E.D. Evens, I.F. Smith and F.S. Wallis, "The Petrological Identification of Stone Implements from Southwestern England," Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 38 No.1 235-237 (1970).
C. Gorgoni, I. Kokkinakis, L. Lazzarini and M. Mariottini, “Geochemical and Petrographic Characterization of ‘Rosso Antico’ and Other White-Grey Marbles of Mani (Greece),” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 155-166
N.H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Practical Optical Crystallography, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, New York (1969). ix + 326pp.
P.H. Kerr, Optical Mineralogy, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York (1977). xvi + 492pp.
R. Kozlowski, "Microscopic Authentication of a Slavonic Heathen Idol in Limestone," Studies in Conservation 10 27-34 (1965).
C.W. Mason, Handbook of Chemical Microscopy, Volume I, 4th Revised Edition, Wiley, New York (1983). xv + 505pp.
T. McClough and B. Green, "The Petrological Identification of Stone Implements from East Anglia," Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 38 No.1 108-155 (1972).
W.W. Moorhouse, The Study of Rocks in Thin Section, Harper, New York (1959). 514pp.
A. De Myttenaere, "Gesteinsdünnschliffe und ihre Herstellung," Mikrokosmos 50 54-60 (1961); IIC Abstracts 5 No.3 5031.
R. Newman, "Applications of Petrography and Electron Microprobe Analysis to the Study of Indian Stone Sculpture," Archaeometry 34, Part 2 163-174 August (1992).
A. Renzulli, F. Antonelli, P. Santi, P. Busdraghi, and M. Luni, "'Via Consolare Flaminia' Pavement (Central Italy) Using Petrological Investigations," Archaeometry 41, Part 2 209-226 August (1999).
A.N. Winchell, Elements of Optical Mineralogy: An Introduction to Microscopic Petrography, 3 Volumes, 5th Edition, John Wiley and Son, New York (1949-56).
A.N. Winchell and N.H. Winchell, The Microscopical Characters of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances: Optical Properties of Artificial Substances, 3rd Edition, Academic Press, New York (1964). xiii + 439pp.
Stone Provenance: Quarries
F.A. Cooper, "The Quarries of Mount Taygetos in the Peloponnesos, Greece," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 65-76.
B. C. Cullen, F. A. Cooper and M. E. Bauer, “Satellite Imaging: A Preliminary to Prospecting for Quarries and Natural Resources,” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 61-72.
E. Dolci, "Marmora Lunensia: Quarrying Technology and Archaeological Use," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 77-84.
J.A. Harrell, "Ancient Egyptian Limestone Quarries: A Petrological Study," Archaeometry 34, Part 2 195-212 August (1992).
N. Herz, "Geology of Greece and Turkey: Potential Marble Source Regions," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 7-10.
E. Kolaiti and L. G. Mendoni, “The Relation Between a Quarrying Site and City-Center. The Case of the Ancient City of Karthaia, Keos Island, Greece,” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 29-36.
T. Kozelj, "Extraction of Blocks in Antiquity: Special Methods of Analysis," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 31-40.
T. Kozelj and M. Wurch-Kozelj, “The Military Protection of the Quarries of the Aliki Area During the Byzantine Period,” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 43-60.
L.M. Mallory-Greenough, J.D. Greenough, G. Dobosi, and J.V. Owen, "Fingerprinting Ancient Egyptian Quarries: Preliminary Results Using Laser Ablation Microprobe-inductively Coupled Plasma-mass Spectometry," Archaeometry 41, Part 2 227-238 August (1999).
J. Papageorgakis and E. Kolaiti, “The Ancient Limestone Quarries of Profitis Elias Near Delfi (Greece),” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 37-42.
J. Papageorgakis, N. Mourtzas and A. Orfanoudaki, “Bronze Age Quarries on the Eastern Coastal Zone of Crete (Greece),” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 21-28.
D.P.S. Peacock, "The Roman Quarries of Mons Claudianus, Egypt: An Interim Report," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 97-102
N. Türk, S. Çakici, D. Mustafa, S. Akça and K. Geyik, "The Geology, Quarrying Technology and Use of Beylerköy Marbles in Western Turkey," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 85-90.
M. Waelkens, “Bronze Age Quarries and Quarrying Techniques in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East,” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 5-20.
M. Waelkens, P. De Paepe and L. Moens, "Quarries and the Marble Trade in Antiquity," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 11-28.
O. Williams-Thorpe, M.C. Jones, A.G. Tindle, and R.S. Thorpe, "Magnetic Susceptibility Variations at Mons Claudianus and in Roman Columns: a Method of Provenancing to Within a Single Quarry," Archaeometry 38, Part 1 15-42 February (1996).
R.J.A. Wilson, "Ancient Granite Quarries on the Bocche di Bonifacio," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp. 103-112.
M. Wurch-Kozelj, "Methods of Transporting Blocks in Antiquity," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (1988) pp.55-64.
V. Mejdahl, "Progress in TL Dating at Riso," Archaeometry 14 (Part 2) 245-256 (1972).
S. Srirath and J.H. Fremlin, "Nonuniformity in the Thermoluminescence of `Pot-Boilers'," In Thermoluminescence of Geological Materials, D.J. McDougall, Editor, Academic Press, New York (1968). pp.427-430.
A.G. Wintle and M.J. Aitken, "Thermoluminescence Dating of Burnt Flint: Application to a Lower Palaeolithic Site, Terra Amata," Archaeometry 19 (Part 2) 111-130 (1977).
F. Brommer, "Falsche Köpfe," Archäologische Anzeiger 439-450 (1963).
F. Brommer, "Auge oder Lampe," Archäologische Anzeiger 552-553 (1965).
J.A. Radley and J. Grant, Fluorescence Analysis in Ultraviolet Light, 4th Edition, Chapman and Hall, London (1959). xvi + 560pp; see p.384.
J.J. Rorimer, "Stone," In Ultraviolet Rays and Their Use in the Examination of Works of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1931). Chapter 2.
J.J. Rorimer, "Ultra-Violet Rays and a Mino da Fiesole Problem," Technical Studies 2 No.2 October (1933).
D. von Bothmer, "The Head of an Archaic Greek Kouros," Archäologische Anzeiger 615-627 (1964).
Stone Provenance: Wear Analysis
J.V. Dumont, "A Preliminary Report on the Mount Sandel Microwear Study," In P.C. Woodman, Excavations at Mount Sandel 1973-1977, Northern Ireland Archaeological Monographs No.2, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Belfast (1985). pp.61-67.
R. Grace, Interpreting the Function of Stone Tools: The Quantification and computerisation of Microwear Analysis, BAR International Series No.474, Oxford (1989). 255pp.
L.H. Keeley, Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses: A Microwear Analysis, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL (1979). xiii + 212pp.
L.H. Keeley and M.H. Newcomer, "Microwear Analysis of Experimental Flint Tools: A Test Case," Journal of Archaeological Science 4 29-62 (1977).
K. Knuttson, Making and Using Stone Tools, Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis, Uppsala Sweden (1988). 206pp.
R. Kozlowski, "Technological Examination of a Statue of `Swiatoroid' from the Archaeological Museum in Cracow," Materialy Archeologiczne (Cracow). 3 61-67 (1964).
I. Levi-Sala, "Experimental Replication of Post-Depositional Surface Modifications on Flint," In Early Man News 9-11 Part 1, R.L. Owen and G. Unrath, Editors, Tübingen, Germany (1986). pp.103-110.
H. Plisson and M. Mauger, "Chemical and Mechanical Alteration of Microwear Polishes: An Experimental Approach," Helinium 28 No.1 3-16 (1988).
M.B. Schiffer, "The Place of Use-Wear Sudies in Behavioral Archaeology," In Lithic Use-Wear, B. Hayden, Editor, Academic Press, New York (1979). pp.15-25.
A.L. van Gijn, The Wear and Tear of Flint: Principles of Functional Analysis Applied to Dutch Neolithic Assemblages, Analecta praehistorica leidensia No.22, University of Leiden, Institute of Prehistory, Leiden, Netherlands (1989). 182pp.
Technology and Culture
G.V. Beckwith, "Science, Technology, and Society: Considerations of Method," Science, Technology, and Human Values 14 No.4 323-339 (1989).
S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, Editors, In Context: History and the History of Technology: Essays in Honor of Melvin Kranzberg, Research in Technology Studies, Volume 1, Lehigh University Press, Bethlehem, and Associated University Presses, London (1989). 278pp. Review: L. Marx, Technology and Culture 32 No.2 (Part 1) 394-396 (1991).
H. Lechtman and A. Steinberg, "The History of Technology: An Anthropological Point of View," In The History and Philosophy of Technology, G. Bugliarello and D.B. Doner, Editors, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL (1977). pp.135-169.
A.J. Osborn, "Limitations of the Diffusionist Approach," In The Transfer and Transformation of Ideas and Material Culture, P.J. Hugill and D.B. Dickinson, Editors, Texas A & M University Press, College Station, TX (1988). pp.23-44.
C.S. Smith, "Art, Technology, and Science: Notes on Their Historical Interaction," Technology and Culture 11 493-549 (1970).
M.J. Aitken, "Thermoluminescent Age Evaluation and Assessment of Error Limits: Revised System" Archaeometry 18 (Part 2) 233-238 (1976).
M.J. Aitken, Thermoluminescence Dating, Academic Press, London and Orlando (1985). xi + 359pp.
M.J. Aitken, P.R.S. Moorey and P.J. Ucko, "The Authenticity of Vessels and Figurines in the Hacilar Style," Archaeometry 13 89- Princeton University Press, Princeton 142 (1971).
Anon., “Peasant in Turkey Seized as Forger of Ancient Pottery,” New York Times 6 August (1971).
K. Becker and A. Moreno y Moreno, "Applications of Thermoluminescence Measurements in Ancient Ceramics," Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Luminescence Dosimetry, (1974). pp.1021-1041.
W.T. Bell and D.W. Zimmerman, "The Effect of HF Acid Etching on the Morphology of Quartz Inclusions for Thermoluminescence Dating," Archaeometry 20 (Part 1) 63-65 (1978).
S. Bowman and D.J. Huntley, "New Proposal for the Expression of Alpha Efficiency in TL Dating," Ancient TL 2 6-11 (1984).
T. Cairns, "Archaeological Dating by Thermoluminescence," Analytical Chemistry 48 266A ff (1976). Reprint.
G.W. Carriveau, "Annealing Threshold and Thermoluminescent Dating of Ceramic Material," MASCA Newsletter 10, July (1974).
P.A. Clark and R.H. Templer, "Thermoluminescence Dating of Materials Which Exhibit Anomalous Fading," Archaeometry 30 19-36 (1988).
S.J. Fleming, "Thermoluminescent Age Studies on Mineral Inclusions Separated from Ancient Pottery," In Thermoluminescence of Geological Materials, D.J. McDougall, Editor, Academic Press, New York (1968). pp.431-439.
S.J. Fleming, "Thermoluminescent Dating: Refinement of the Quartz Inclusion Method," Archaeometry 12 133-145 (1970).
S.J. Fleming, "Thermoluminescent Authenticity Testing of Ancient Ceramics: The Effects of Sampling by Drilling," Archaeometry 13 59-69 (1971).
S.J. Fleming, "New Techniques of Thermoluminescent Dating of Ancient Pottery. II. Predose Method," Dan. A.E.C. Risoe Rep. 249 Part 3 895-929 (1971).
S.J. Fleming, "Authenticity Testing of Art Ceramics by the Thermoluminescence Method - Some Important Examples," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, W.J. Young, Editor, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA (1973). pp.206-212.
S.J. Fleming, "Thermoluminescent Testing of Pottery and Bronzes," Octagon 9 No.4 14-16 (1973).
S.J. Fleming and B.E.B. Fagg, "Thermoluminescent Dating of the Udo Bronze Head," Archaeometry 19 (Part 1) 86-88 (1977).
S.J. Fleming, H.W. Moss and A. Joseph, "Thermoluminescent Authenticity Testing of Some `Six Dynasty' Figures," Archaeometry 12 59-70 (1970).
S.J. Fleming and D. Stoneham, "New Techniques of Thermoluminescent Dating of Ancient Pottery. I. Subtraction Method," Dan. A.E.C. Risoe Rep. 249 (1971). Part 3.
S.J. Fleming, H. Tucker and J. Riederer, "Etruscan Wall Paintings on Terra-cotta: A Study in Authenticity," Archaeometry 13 143-168 (1971).
M.C. Han, "Effects of Alpha and X-ray Doses and Annealing Temperatures upon Pottery Dating by Thermoluminescence," MASCA Newsletter 11 No.1 1-3 (1975).
R.E.M. Hedges and M. McLellan, "On the Cation Exchange Capacity of Fired Clays and its Effect on the Chemical and Radiometric Analysis of Pottery," Archaeometry 18 203-207 (1976).
R.A. Johnson, J.J. Stipp and M.A. Tamers, "Archaeological Sherd Dating: Comparison of Thermoluminescence Dates with Radiocarbon Dates by Beta Counting and Accelerator Techniques," Radiocarbon 28 719-725 (1986).
B. Keisch, "Dating Pottery: Thermoluminescence and Fisssion Recoil Tracks," in Lost Worlds: Nuclear Science and Archaeology, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Office of Information Services, Oak Ridge, TN (1973).
M.J. Lynott, "Thermoluminescence Dating of Prehistoric Ceramics in Southeast Missouri: A Progress Report," In Work in Progress, Midwest Archaeological Center, National Park Service, Lincoln, NA (1986). pp.2-5.
C.L. Melcher and D.W. Zimmerman, "Thermoluminescent Determination of Prehistoric Heat Treatment of Chert Artifacts," Science 197 1359-1362 (1977).
J.W. Michels, "Thermoluminescence Dating of Pottery"
In Dating Methods in Archaeology, Seminar Press, New York (1973), Chapter 12.
P. Müller and M. Schvoerer, "Les Verres Anciens: La Question de la Databilité par Thermoluminescence," Archaeometry 32, Part 2 205-211 August (1990).
P. Müller and M. Schvoerer, "Factors Affecting the Viability of Thermoluminescence Dating of Glass," Archaeometry 35, Part 2 299-304 August (1993).
A.S. Murray and M.J. Aitken, "The Measurement and Importance of Radioactive Disequilibria in TL Samples," PACT 6 155-169 (1982)
E.K. Ralph and M.C. Han, "Dating of Pottery by Thermoluminescence," Nature 210 No.5033 245-247 (1966).
E.K. Ralph and M.C. Han, "Potential of Thermoluminescence Dating," In Science and Archaeology, R.H. Brill, Editor, MIT Press, Cambridge (1971). pp. 244-250.
J.P. Rappolt, "Analyses and Thermoluminescent Dating of a `Chung'," MASCA Newsletter 11 No.1 5 (1975).
M.L. Readhead, "Thermoluminescence Dose Rate Data and Dating Equations for the Case of Disequilibrium in the Decay Series," Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements 13 197-207 (1987).
M.L. Readhead, R.C. Dunnell and J.K. Feathers, "Recent Addition of Potassium: A Potential Source of Error in Calculating TL Age," Ancient TL 6 No.1 1-4 (1988).
F.E. Rogers, "Chemistry and Art: Thermoluminescence and Forgery," Journal of Chemical Education 50 No.6 388 (1973).
P.D. Shaplin, "Thermoluminescence and Style in the Authentication of Ceramic Sculpture from Oaxaca, Mexico," Archaeometry 20 (Part 1) 47-54 (1978).
S.R. Sutton and D.W. Zimmerman, "Thermoluminescence Dating: Radioactivity in Quartz," Archaeometry 20 (Part 1) 67-69 (1978).
R.H. Templer, "Auto-regenerative Thermoluminescence Dating Using Zircon Inclusions," Archaeometry 35, Part 1 117-136 February (1993).
H. Valladas, "On the Magnetic Separation of Quartz for the Thermoluminescent Dating of an Ancient Kiln," Archaeometry 19 (Part 1) 88-95 (1977).
P.B. Vandiver, R. Kaylor, J. Feathers, M. Gottfried, K.A. Yener, W.F. Hornyak, and A. Franklin, "Thermoluminescence Dating of a Crucible Fragment from an Early Tin Processing site in Turkey," Archaeometry 35, Part 2 295-298 August (1993).
G. A. Wagner, M. J. Aitken and V. Mejdahl, Handbooks for Archaeologists, No. 1: Thermoluminescence Dating, European Science Foundation, Strasbourg (1983). 49pp.
S.E. Warren, "Thermoluminescence Dating of Pottery: An Assessment of the Dose-Rate from Rubidium," In Archaeometry 20 (Part 1) 71-72 (1978).
J. Winter, "Thermoluminescent Dating of Pottery," In Dating Techniques for the Archaeologist, H.N. Michael and E.K. Ralph, Editors, MIT Press, Cambridge (1971). Chapter 4.
D.W. Zimmerman, "Thermoluminescence Dating Using Fine Grains from Ancient Pottery," Archaeometry 13 29-52 (1971).
D.W. Zimmerman, "Uranium Distributions in Archaeologic Ceramics: Dating of Radioactive Inclusions," Science 174 818-819 (1971).
D.W. Zimmerman, "Thermoluminescence from Fine Grains from Ancient Pottery," Archaeometry 10 26-28 (1967).
D.W. Zimmerman and J. Huxtable, "Thermoluminescent Dating of Upper Palaeolithic Fired Clay from Dolni Vestonice," Archaeometry 13 53-57 (1971).
D.W. Zimmerman and M.P. Yuhas, "Thermoluminescence Authenticity Measurements on Core Material from the Bronze Horse of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art," Archaeometry 16 19-30 (1975).
See Also: the newsletter Ancient TL.