Materials of Art and Archeology Bibliography



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Materials of Art and Archeology


Bibliography
Part VII. Dating and Provenance

Norbert S. Baer

Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

August 2003

Introduction
Part I. Inorganic Materials (1997).
Part II. Metals (1999).
Part III. Organic Materials (2003).
Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2000).
Part V. Environment (1999).
Part VI. Museology (2003).
Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).
Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (1999).
Part IX Stone (1999).
Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).

Cumulative Index

May be obtained from:
Conservation Center

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

14 East 78th Street

New York, New York 10021

August 2003

PART VII: DATING AND PROVENANCE
CONTENTS



Archaeometry: General References 1

Bone and Ivory: Provenance 2

Case Studies: Asyut Hoard 3

Case Studies: Bronze Horse (MMA) 4

Case Studies: Etruscan Warriors (MMA) 4

Case Studies: Getty Kouros 4

Case Studies: Mansoor Collection 5

Case Studies: Metallurgy in Chalcolithic Cyprus 7

Case Studies: Piltdown Man Forgery 7

Case Studies: Riace Bronzes 7

Case Studies: Schliemann and Troy 8

Case Studies: Sevso Treasure 8

Case Studies: Shroud of Turin 9

Case Studies: Thera Eruption 9

Case Studies: Tomb of Ramses II Sons 13

Case Studies: Vinland Map 13

Ceramics: Characterization 13

Ceramics: Firing Chemistry 14

Ceramics: Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis 15

Ceramics: Neutron Activation Analysis 16

Ceramics: Petrographic Analysis 16

Ceramics: X-ray Methods 17

Dendrochronology 17

DNA Profiling 18

Field Methods 19

Forensic Anthropology 19

Geochemistry: Potassium-Argon Dating 20

Glass: Dating and Provenance 20

Glass: Fission Track Dating 20

Glass: Weathering (Glass Layer Counting) 21

Ice Cores 21

Location Methods: Aerial Photography 21

Location Methods: General 21

Location Methods: Magnetic Prospecting 22

Location Methods: Radar 23

Marble Provenance: Cathodoluminescence 23

Marble Provenance: General 23

Marble Provenance: Isotope Analysis 24

Neutron Activation Analysis 25

Obsidian: Dating and Provenance 25

Paleobotany 27

Racemization Dating 27

Radiocarbon Dating: Bone 27

Radiocarbon Dating: General References 27

Radiocarbon Dating: Mortars 29

Rescue Archaeology: Temple of Dendur 29

Stone Provenance: Chemical and Isotopic Analysis 30

Stone Provenance: Desert Varnish 31

Stone Provenance: General 32

Stone Provenance: Petrographic Analysis 33

Stone Provenance: Quarries 33

Stone Provenance: Thermoluminescence Dating 34

Stone Provenance: Ultraviolet Examination 34

Stone Provenance: Wear Analysis 34

Technology and Culture 35

Thermoluminescence Dating 35



Archaeometry: General References

M.J. Aitken, Physics and Archaeology, 2nd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1974). viii + 291pp.
M.J. Aitken, Science-Based Dating in Archaeology, Longman, London and New York (1990). xix + 274pp.
T.E. Allibone, Editor, The Impact of the Natural Sciences on Archaeology, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, London (1970). vii + 185pp.
A. Aspinall, "Hard Science: Too Hard for Archaeology," In Archaeology at the Interface: Studies in Archaeology's Relationships with History, Geography, Biology, and Physical Science, J.L. Bintliff and C.F. Gaffney, Editors, BAR International Series, No.3, Oxford (1986). pp.130-132.
R. Berger, Scientific Methods in Medieval Archaeology University of California Press, Berkeley (1970). 459 pp.
S. Binford and L. Binford, Editors, New Perspectives in Archeology, Aldine, Chicago (1968). x + 373pp.
S. Bowman, Editor, Science and the Past British Museum Press, London (1991). 192pp.
R.H. Brill, Editor, Science and Archaeology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1970). xi + 288pp.
D. Brotherwell and E. Higgs, Editors, Science in Archaeology: A Comprehensive Survey of Progress and Research, Thames and Hudson, London (1969). 595pp.
D. Brotherwell and E. Higgs, Editors, Science in Archaeology: A Survey of Progress and Research, Revised and Enlarged Edition, Praeger, New York (1970). 720pp.
K. Butzer, Environment and Archeology: An Ecological Approach to Prehistory, 2nd Edition, Aldine, Chicago (1971). xxvi + 703pp.
D. Clarke, Analytical Archaeology, 2nd Edition, Revised by B. Chapman, Columbia University Press, NY (1978). xxi + 526pp.
J.S. Dean, "Independent Dating in Archaeological Analysis," Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 1 223-255 (1978).
R.C. Dunnell, "Why Archaeologists Don't Care about Archaeometry," Archaeomaterials 7 (Part 1) 161-165 (1993).
M. Ferretti, Scientific Investigations of Works of Art ICCROM, Rome (1993).
S. Fleming, "Scientific Measurement of Archaeology: Historical Review," In Archaeometry: An Australasian Perspective, W. Ambrose and P. Duerden, Editors, Australian National University, Canberra (1982). pp.7-21.
M.C. Ganorkar and N. Rama Rao, Editors, International Colloquium on the Role of Chemistry in Archaeology, Birla Institute of Scientific Research, Hyderabad, India (1991). xxiii + 147pp.
Z. Goffer, Archaeological Chemistry: A Sourcebook on the Applications of Chemistry to Archaeology Wiley, New York (1980). xvi+376pp.
J. Henderson, Editor, Scientific Analysis in Archaeology and its Interpretation, Oxford Committee for Archaeology/UCLA Institute for Archaeology, Oxford/Los Angeles (1989). xix + 311pp.

Review: D. Killick, Journal of Field Archaeology 19 117-121 (1992).


F. Hole and R.F. Heizer, An Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology, 3rd Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1973). xv + 574pp.
R. Jones, "Ions and Eons: Some Thoughts on Archaeological Science and Scientific Archaeology," In Archaeometry: An Australasian Perspective, W. Ambrose and P. Duerden, Editors, Australian National University, Canberra (1982). pp.22-35.
F.D. Neiman, An Evolutionary Approach to Archaeological Inference: Aspects of Architectural Variation in the 17th Century Chesapeake, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI (1990).
H.N. Michael and N.K. Ralph, Editors, Dating Techniques for the Archaeologist, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1971). xi + 226pp.
J.W. Michels, Dating Methods in Archaeology, Seminar Press, New York (1973). xiv + 230pp.
H. Mommsen, Archäometrie: Neuere naturwissenschaftliche Methoden und Erfolge in der Archäologie Teubner, Stuttgart (1986). 304pp.
R.M. Organ, "The Value of Analyses of Archaeological Objects," Archaeometry 13 27-28 (1971).
M.V. Orna and J.B. Lambert, "New Directions in Archaeological Chemistry," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 1-9.
H.L. Peterson, How Do You Know It's Old? A Practical Handbook on the Detection of Fakes for the Antiques Collector and Curator, Scribner, New York (1975). ix + 166pp.
F. Plog, "The Integration of Archaeometry into Archaeological

Research," In Future Direction in Archaeometry, J. Olin, Editor, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1982). pp.75-79.


A.M. Pollard, Editor, New Developments in Archaeological Science, Oxford University Press (1992). 293pp.
A.M. Pollard, Report of the Coordinator for Science-Based Archaeology, 1987-1990, Science and Engineering Research Council, Swinton (n.d)..
D. A. Scott and P. Meyers, Editors, Archaeometry of Pre –Columbian Sites and Artifacts, Getty Trust, CA (1994). 432pp.
D.H. Thomas, Predicting the Past: An Introduction to Anthropological Archaeology, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1974). x + 84pp.
M.S. Tite, Methods of Physical Examination in Archaeology, Seminar Press, New York (1972). xxx + 389pp.
M.S. Tite, "Archaeological Science: Past Achievements and Future Prospects," Archaeometry 33, Part 2 139-151 August (1991).
R.H. Tykot and S.M.M. Young, "Archaeological Implications of Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 116-130.
P. Vandiver, J. Druzik, and G.S. Wheeler, Editors, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II, Materials Research Society, Symposium Proceedings Volume 185, Pittsburgh, PA (1991). xxviii + 844pp.
M.R. Waters, Principles of Geoarchaeology, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ (1992). 398pp.
W.S. Williams, "Science and the Art Museum: The Analysis of Archaeological Materials," In Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials," S.U. Wisseman and W.S. Williams, Editors, Gordon and Breach, Langhorne, PA (1993) pp. 157-186.
S.U. Wisseman and W.S. Williams, "Why Study Artifacts? An Interdisciplinary Approach," In Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials," S.U. Wisseman and W.S. Williams, Editors, Gordon and Breach, Langhorne, PA (1993) pp. 3-16.
J.E. Yellen, "Archaeometry and the National Science Foundation," SAS Bulletin 15 (Part 2) 2-3, 16 (1992).

Bone and Ivory: Provenance



N.S. Baer, T. Jochsberger and N. Indictor, "Chemical Investigations on Ancient Near Eastern ArchaeoProtein -logical Ivory Artifacts: III. Fluorine and Nitrogen Composition," Archaeological Chemistry II, Advances in Chemistry 171, Edited by G.F. Carter, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1978). pp.139 149.
N.S. Baer and N. Indictor, "Chemical Investigations on Ancient Near Eastern Archaeological Ivory Artifacts," Archaeological Chemistry, Advances in Chemistry 138, Edited by C.W. Beck, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1974). pp.236 245.
V. Balter, J.-F. Saliège, H. Bocherens, and A. Person, "Evidence of Physico-Chemical and Isotopic Modifications in Archaeological Bones During Controlled Acid Etching," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 315-504 August (2002).
A. Balzer, G. Gleixner, G. Grupe, H-L. Schmidt, S. Schramm, and S. Turban-Just, "In Vitro Decomposition of Bone Collagen by Soil Bacteria: the Implications for Stable Isotope Analysis in Archaeometry," Archaeometry 39, Part 2 415-430 August (1997).
J.C. Barton and C.B. Stringer, "An Attempt at Dating the Swanscombe Skull Bones Using Non-Destructive Gamma-Ray Counting," Archaeometry 39, Part 1 205-216 February (1997).
A. Berzero, V. Caramella-Crespi, and P. Cavagna, "Direct Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Dating of Fossil Bones: Preliminary Results," Archaeometry 39, Part 1 189-204 February (1997).
J.H. Burton, "Trace Elements in Bone as Paleodietary Indicators," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 327-334.
M. Castellano Arroyo and E. Villanueva Canadas, "Study on the Evolution of Lipids in Bone Remains in Relation to the Date. II. Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids," Zacchia 14 No.1 61 72 (1978).
A.M. Child, "Amino Acid Racemization and the Effects of Microbial Diagenisis," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 366-377.
M. J. Collins, C. M. Nielsen-Marsh, J. Hiller, C. I. Smith, J. P. Roberts, R. V. Prigodich, T. J. Wess, J. Csapò, A. R. Millard, and G. Turner-Walker, "The Survival of Organic Matter in Bone: a Review," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 383-394 August (2002).
S. Costamagno, "Laboratory Taphonomy - Material Loss and Skeletal Part Profiles: the Example of Saint-Germain-la-Rivière (Gironde, France)," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 495-504 August (2002).
M. Del Pilar Babot and M. C. Apella, "Maize and Bone: Residues of Grinding in Northwestern Argentina," Archaeometry 45 Part 1 121-132 February (2003).
C. Denys, "Taphonomy and Experimentation," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 469-485 August (2002).
T. de Torres, J. E. Ortiz, F. J. Llamas, L. Canoira, R. Juliá, and M. J. García-Martínez, "Bear Dentine Aspartic Acid Racemization Analysis: a Proxy for the Dating of Pleistocene Cave Infills," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 417-426 August (2002).
Y. Fernández-Jalvo, B. Sánchez-Chillón, and Luis Alcalá, "The Fourth International Meeting on Bone Diagenesis," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 315-319 August (2002).
Y. Fernández-Jalvo, B. Sánchez-Chillón, P. Andrews, S. Fernández-López, and L. Alcalá Martínez, "Morphological Taphonomic Transformations of Fossil Bones in Continental Environments, and Repercussions on Their Chemical Composition," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 353-362 August (2002).
E.-M. Geigl, "On the Circumstances Surrounding the Preservation and Analysis of Very Old DNA," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 337-343 August (2002).
A. Götherström, M. J. Collins, A. Angerbjörn, and K. Lidén, "Bone Preservation and DNA Amplification," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 395-404 August (2002).
D.M. Greenlee, "An Electron Microprobe Evaluation of Diagenetic Alteration in Archaeological Bone," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 334-354.
R. E. M. Hedges, "Bone Diagenesis: an Overview of Processes," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 319-328 August (2002).
M. M. E. Jans, H. Kars, C. M. Nielsen-Marsh, C. I. Smith, A. G. Nord, P. Arthur, and N. Earl, "In situ Preservation of Archaeological Bone: a Histological Study Within a Multidisciplinary Approach," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 343-352 August (2002).
J.B. Lambert and J.M. Weydert-Homeyer, "The Fundamental Relationship Between Ancient Diet and the Inorganic Constituents of Bone as Derived from Feeding Experiments," Archaeometry 35, Part 2 279-294 August (1993).
A.G. Latham, "Uranium-Series Dating of Bone by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry: Comment," Archaeometry 39, Part 1 217-220 February (1997).
J. Lee-Thorp, "Two Decades of Progress Towards Understanding Fossilization Processes and Isotopic Signals in Calcified Tissue Minerals," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 435-446 August (2002).
E. Leitner-Wild and I. Steffan, "Uranium-series Dating of Fossil Bones from Alpine Caves," Archaeometry 35, Part 1 137-146 February (1993).
T. Matthews, "South African Micromammals and Predators: Some Comparative Results," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 363-370 August (2002).
P.T. McCutcheon, "Thermoluminescent Analysis of Burned Bone: Assessing the Problems," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 311-326.
D.E. Nelson and K.N. Slessor, "Stable Carbon Isotope Measurements of the Carboxyl Carbons in Bone Collagen," Archaeometry 41, Part 1 151-164 February (1999).
A. Nicholls, E. Matisoo-Smith, and M. S. Allen, "A Novel Application of Molecular Techniques to Pacific Archaeofish Remains," Archaeometry 45 Part 1 133-148 February (2003).
C.M. Nielsen-Marsh and R.E.M. Hedges, "Bone Porosity and the Use of Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry in Bone Diagenesis Studies," Archaeometry 41, Part 1 165-174 February (1999).
T. C. O'Connell and R. E. M. Hedges, "Isolation and Isotopic Analysis of Individual Amino Acids from Archaeological Bone Collagen: A New Method Using Rp-hplc," Archaeometry 43 Part 3 421-438 August (2001).
D.J. Ortner, D.W. Von Endt and M.S. Robinson, "The Effect of Temperature on Decay in Bone: Its Significance in Nitrogen Dating of Archaeological Specimens," American Antiquity 37 No.4 514 520 (1972).
T. D. Price, J. H. Burton and R. A. Bentley, "The Characterization of Biologically Available Strontium Isotope Ratios for the Study of Prehistoric Migration," Archaeometry 44 Part 1 117-136 February (2002).
I. Reiche, C. Vignaud, and M. Menu, "The Crystallinity of Ancient Bone and Dentine: New Insights by Transmission Electron Microscopy," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 447-460 August (2002).
S. J. Roberts, C. I. Smith, A. Millard, and M. J. Collins, "The Taphonomy of Cooked Bone: Characterizing Boiling and Its Physico-Chemical Effects," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 485-495 August (2002).
M. Shimoyama, H. Maeda, H. Sato, T. Ninomiya and Y. Ozaki, “Nondestructive Discrimination of Biological Materials by Near-Infrared Fourier Transform Raman Spectrascopy and Chemometrics: Discrimination among Hard and Soft Ivories of African Elephants and Mammoth Tusks and Prediction of Specific Gravity of the Ivories,” Applied Spectroscopy 51 No. 8 1154-1158 (1997).
C. I. Smith, C. M. Nielsen-Marsh, M. M. E. Jans, P. Arthur, A. G. Nord, and M. J. Collins, "The Strange Case of Apigliano: Early 'Fossilization' of Medieval Bone in Southern Italy," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 405-416 August (2002).
B.J. Szabo, "Dating Fossil Bone from Cornelia Orange Free State, South Africa," Journal of Archaeological Science 6 201 203 (1979).
I. Taufer and J. Tauferová, "The Design of Evaluation of Assays of Trace Elements in a Fossil Bone," Archaeometry 36, Part 1 93-114 February (1994).
H. S. Taylor, “Part VII, Chemical Investigations on Ivory,” In Mycenne 1939-1954 (1955). pp. 248-250.
C. N. Trueman and D. M. Martill, "The Long-Term Survival of Bone: The Role of Bioerosion," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 371-382 August (2002).
G. Turner-Walker and U. Syversen, "Quantifying Histological Changes in Archaeological Bones Using BSE-SEM Image Analysis," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 461-469 August (2002).
N. Tuross, "Alterations in Fossil Collagen," Archaeometry 44 Part 3 315-504 August (2002).
G. Wessen, F.H. Ruddy, C.E. Gustafson and H. Irwin, "Characterization of Archaeological Bone by Neutron Activation Analysis," Archaeometry 19 (Part 2) 200 205 (1977).
See Also: Amino Acids and Proteins (Part 3); Paleobotany; Racemization Dating (Part 3); Case Studies: Piltdown Man Forgery; and Radiocarbon Dating.

Case Studies: Asyut Hoard

H.A. Cahn, "Dating the Early Coinages of Athens," In Kleine Schriften zur Münzkunde und Archäologie, Archäologischer Verlag, Basel (1975). pp.81-97.
N.H. Gale, W. Gentner, and G.A. Wagner, "Mineralogical and Geographical Silver Sources of Archaic Greek Silver," In Metallurgy and Numismatics, vol.1, W.A. Oddy, Editor, The Royal Numismatic Society, London (1980). pp.3-49.
W. Gentner, O. Müller, G.A. Wagner and N.H. Gale, "Silver Sources of Archaic Greek Coinage," Naturwissenschaften 65 278-284 (1978).
C.M. Kraay, "The Asyut Hoard: Some Comments on Chronology," The Numismatic Chronicle 17 189-198 (1977).
C.M. Kraay, "Hoards, Small Change and the Origin of Coinage," Journal of Hellenic Studies 84 76-91 (1964).
O. Müller and W. Gentner, "On the Composition of the Aeginetan Coins from the Asyut Hoard,"
M.J. Price, "The Uses of Metal Analysis in the Study of Archaic Greek Coinage: Some Comments," Metallurgy in Numismatics, vol.1, D.M. Metcalf and W.A. Oddy, Editors, The Royal Numismatic Society, London (1980).
M. Price and N. Waggoner, Archaic Greek Coinage: The Asyut Hoard, V.C. Vecchi and Sons, London (1975).
M. Thompson, "Hoards and Overstrikes: The Numismatic Evidence," Expedition 21 No.4 40-46 (1979).

Case Studies: Bronze Horse (MMA)

L. Brown, “Two Small Bronze Horses,” Curator 263-292 (1969).
C. Brumel, “Das Bronzepferd in New York ist keine Fälschung,” Die Weltkust Heft 12, p. 568 (1968). (As summarized and translated in New York Times, August 10, 1968).
E.R. Caley, Analysis of Ancient Metals, Macmillan Company, New York, N.Y. (1964). pp. 116-117.
E.R. Caley, “Chemical Composition of Greek and Roman Statuary Bronzes,” In Art and Technology, M.I.T., Cambridge (1970). pp.37-49.
P.T. Craddock, “The Composition of Copper Alloys Used By the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations: 1. The Greeks Before the Archaic Period," Journal of Archaeological Science 3 93-113 (1976); 2. “The Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greeks," Journal of Archaeological Science 4 103-123 (1977); 3. “Origins and Early Use of Brass," Journal of Archaeological Science 5 1-16 (1978).
S. Hemingway, “How Bronze Statues Were Made in Antiquity," The Fire of Hephaistos, Harvard University Art Museums Gallery Series, No. 19, p.2-5.
K.C. Lefferts, L.J. Majewski, E.V. Sayre and P. Meyers, “Technical Examination of the Classical Bronze Horse From the Metropolitan Museum of Art," Journal of American Institute For Conservation 21 1-42 (1981).
S.Z. Lewin, “A New Approach to Establishing the Authenticity of Patinas on Copper-base Artifacts," In Applications of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970). pp. 62-66.
C.C. Mattusch, Greek Bronze Statuary, Cornell (1988). pp. 16-30.
J.V. Noble, “The Forgery of Our Greek Bronze Horse,” MMA Journal 26 253-256 (1968).
D.W. Zimmerman, M.P. Yuhas, and P. Meyers, “Thermoluminescent Authenticity Measurements on Core Material From the Bronze Horse of the Metropolitan Museum,” Archaeometry 16 19-30 (1974).
D. von Bothmer, Re: Dating of Greek Bronze Horse, Interdepartmental Letter of Metropolitan Museum of Art, p.1-3.

Case Studies: Etruscan Warriors (MMA)

Anon, “Museum Visitors Smile as They Pass Three Fake Etruscans," New York Times 20 February (1961).
Anon, “Roman Admits Forging Etruscan Sculptures," New York Times 22 February (1961).
Anon, “Fallen Warriors," Time p. 60 24 February (1961).
P. Cellini, “Review," Paragone 65 46-47 (1955).
S.J. Fleming, Authenticity in Art: The Scientific Discovery of Forgery, New York, (1976). p.73.
D.L. Goodrich, Art Fakes in America, New York (1973). pp. 169-175.
S. Knox, “Art Museum Finds it Owns Three Fakes," New York Times February (1961). p. 1.
S. Knox, “3 ‘Old Etruscan’ Soldiers Fade into a ‘Morgue’ at Metropolitan: Frauds Now Accessible Only to Students or Scholars," New York Times 22 January (1962). p. 25.
I.C. Love, “A Stylistic Discussion Concerning the Authenticity of the Three Etruscan Warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art," Marsyas IX 14-35 (1961).
A. Muñoz, “Editorial," L’Urbe 2 No. 12 pp. 48 (1937).
H.W. Parsons, “The Art of Fake Etruscan Art," Art News 34-37, 68 (1962).
M. Pollotino, “Editorial," Roma 473-474 (1937).
G.M.A. Richter, Etruscan Terracotta Warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Museum: Papers No. 6 5-18 (1937).
G. Savage, Forgeries, Fakes and Reproductions: A Handbook For the Art Dealer and Collector New York (1964). pp. 141-143.
D. von Bothmer and J.V. Noble, An Inquiry Into the Forgery of the Etruscan terracotta Warrors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Museum Papers No. 2 7-28 (1962).

Case Studies: Getty Kouros



Anon., "The Truth about Fakes," The Burlington Magazine 132 615 (1990).
E. Doehne, The Weathering of Dolomite Marble on Thasos, Greece Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis (1994). 213pp. UMI, Ann Arbor.
E. Doehne, “Analysis of Weathered Dolomite Marble from Thasos, Greece,” In Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens, Editors, Leuven University Press (1992). pp. 179-190
J. Paul Getty Museum, "Getty Museum to Undertake Detailed Comparative Study of Kouros Statues," J. Paul Getty Museum Press Release, Malibu, CA (6 July 1990).
E. Harrison, "Making and Faking Greek Sculpture," Third Richard Hubbard Howland Lecture, Washington Archaeological Society (7 March 1990). Typescript.
J.J. Herrmann, Jr., "Thasos and the Ancient Marble Trade," In Marble: Art Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Ancient Sculpture, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA (1990). pp.73-100.
S. Hochfield, "Ancient Greek of Modern Roman?" Art News 90 No.8 41 (October 1991).
T. Hoving, "The Getty Kouros: Sixth Century B.C. or Twentieth Century A.D.?" Connoisseur 216 100 (September 1986).
T. Hoving, "That Getty Kouros: More Unanswered Questions," Connoisseur 220 170-171 (October 1990).
M. Kimmelman, "Absolutely Real? Absolutely Fake?" The New York Times, 4 August (1991).
S. Margolis, "Authenticating Ancient Marble Sculpture," Scientific American 260 104-110 (June 1989).
S. Margolis and W. Showers, "Weathering Characteristics, Age, and Provenance Determinations on Ancient Greek and Roman Marble Artifacts," In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade: , NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Marble in Ancient Greece and Rome, Editors, N. Herz and M. Waelkens, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands (1988). pp.233-242.
S. Margolis and W. Showers, "Ancient Greek and Roman Marble Sculptures: Authentication, Weathering, and Provenance Determination," In Marble: Art Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Ancient Sculpture, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA (1990). pp.283-299.
S. Margolis, F. Preusser and D. Dietrich, "Evidence for Dedolomitization in an Archaic Greek (6th Century B.C).. Kouros Statue," Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 19 760 (1987).
S. Margolis, F. Preusser and W. Showers, "Ancient Marble Sculpture: Geochemical Characterization of Surficial Weathering Products," In Material Issues in Art and Archaeology, Editors, E. Sayre, P. Vandiver, J. Druzik, and C. Stevenson, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA (1988). pp.53-58.
G. Norman and T. Hoving, "The Getty Scandals," Connoisseur 217 99-109 (May 1987).
G. Norman and T. Hoving, "It Was Bigger Than They Know," Connoisseur 217 73-81 (August 1987).
J.C. Podany, "Advances in the Reassembly of Large Stone Sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum," In Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, Editor, J. Black, University of London, London (1987). pp.375-382.
G. Richter, Kouroi: Archaic Greek Youths: A Study of the Development of the Kouros Type in Greek Sculpture, 3rd Edition, Hacker Art Books, New York (1988). xvii + 365pp.
J. Spier, "Blinded with Science: The Abuse of Science in the Detection of False Antiquities," The Burlington Magazine 132 623-631 (September 1990).
M. True, "A Kouros at the Getty Museum," Connoisseur 129 3-11 (January 1987).
M. Westerman, "The Last Snowball? Was the Getty's $7 Million Ancient Greek Kouros a Notorious Fake and Simply Revolting?" Art and Antiques 62 (16 February 1987).

Case Studies: Mansoor Collection



C. Aldred, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Exhibition Catalogue, Brooklyn Museum, New York (1973). 231pp.
C. Aldred, The Beginning of the El-Amarna Period,” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 45 19-33 (1959).
R. Anthes, The Head of Queen Nofretete Verlag Gebr. Mann, Berlin (1958).
R.E. Arnal, "Examination of Sculptures in the Collection of Mr. E. Mansoor," San Jose State College, San Jose, CA (7 March 1959).
J.C. Bard, F. Asaro, and R.F. Heizer, “Perspectives on the Dating of Great Basin Petroglyphs by Neutron Activation Analysis," Archaeometry 20 85-88 (1978).
A.L. Becker-Colonna, Ancient Egypt: An Exhibition of El-Amarna Sculptures and Reliefs of the Mansoor Collection, Exhibition Catalogue, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA (1975). 55pp.
A.L. Becker-Colonna, Akhenaton: La Caduta degli dei. Edizioni C.I.R.U.A., Rome (1990).
A.L. Becker-Colonna, Ancient Egypt Mansoor - El Amarna Collection San Francisco State University, California (1991).
R. Berger, "The Mansoor Amarna Collection: An Evaluation," The University of California, Los Angeles (7 February 1976).
E. Blackwelder, "Comments on the Authenticity of Certain Egyptian Sculptures Submitted by Mr. E.R. Mansoor," Stanford University, Stanford, CA (6 February 1959).
L. Borchardt, Porträts der Königin Nofret-ete J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung (1923).
L. Borchardt and H. Ricke. Die Wohnhäuser in Tell el-Amarna Berlin (1980).
S.M. Bradley and A.P. Middleton, "A Study of the Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Sculpture," Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 27 No.2 64-86 (1988).
J. Capart, “Dans Le Studio D’un Artiste," Chronique d’Égypte 33 199-217, (January 1957).
R.R. Compton, "Petrologic Study of Amarna Sculptures in the Collection of M.A. Mansoor Sons," Stanford University, Stanford, CA (18 December 1958).
N.G. Davies, The Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part 3: Tombs of Huya and Ahmes London: Egypt Exploration Fund (1905).
J. DeMent, "A Report of the Examination of Three Mansoor Sculpturings," DeMent Laboratories, Portland, Oregon (17 June 1959).
T. De Putter and C. Karlshausen, Les Pierres Utilisées dans la Sculpture et L’Architecture de L’Égypt Pharaonique Connaissance de L’Égypte (1992).
C. De Wit, La Statuaire de Tell el Amarna Standaard-Boekhandel S.A., Anvers (1950).
P. Dorman, “Une Révolution dans L’art Égyptien,” Connaissance des Arts 344 66-73 (October 1980).
H. Frankfort (Editor), The Mural Painting of El-’Amarneh The Egypt Exploration Society, London (1929).
H. Frankfort and J.D.S. Pendlebury, The City of Akhenaten. Part 2: The North Suburb and the Desert Altars Oxford University Press, London (1933).
J.W. Graner, Personal Correspondence to Mr. Edgar Mansoor (11 October 1960).
R. Hari, New Kingdom Amarna Period: The Great Hymn to Aten, E.J. Brill, Leiden (1985). ix + 28pp.
R.L. Hay, "Report on Two Sculptures from El Amarna," (10 February 1975).
W.C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt. Part 2: The Hyksos Period and the New Kingdom (1675-1080). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1959).
S. Hochfield, "The Mansoor Collection: An Insoluble Controvery?" Art News 50-57 (Summer 1978).
G.O. Hutton, "Review of Reports Submitted by Mr. Edgard Mansoor," Mineralogy Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (21 February 1960).
Z. Iskander and Z. Mustafa, "Examination of Sculpture Pieces of El Amarna Type (Including a Summary of Mr. A. Lucas' Report)," (28 November 1950).
T.G.H. James (editor), Excavating in Egypt British Museum Publications, Ltd., London (1982).
B. Kemp, Anatomy of a Civilization Routledge, London (1991).
P.L. Kirk, "Examination of Sculptures in the Collection of Mr. E.R. Mansoor," Investigative Consultation, Berkeley, CA (16 March 1959).
R. Klemm and D. Klemm, Die Steine der Pharaonen, Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, Munich (1981).
R. Klemm and D. Klemm, Steine und Steinbrüche im Alten Ägypten Springer Verlag, Berlin (1993).
F. Konstandt, "Report on Limestone Sculpture from the Mansoor Collection," Konstandt Laboratories, New York (22 November 1960).
R. Krauss, “Der Bildhauer Thutmose in Amarna,” Jahrbuch Preusischer Kulturbesitz Band XX (1983). pp. 119-133.
K. Lange, König Echnaton und die Amarna-Zeit München: Gesellschaft für Wissenschaft-liches Lichtbild (1951).
C. Mansoor, The Scandal of a Century: The Mansoor Amarna Exposé Carleton Press Corp., New York (1995).
A.P. Middleton and S.M. Bradley, "Provenancing of Egyptian Limestone Sculpture," Journal of Archaeological Science 16 No.6 475-488 (1989).
H.W. Muller, "Expert Opinion," University of Munich (15 February 1960).
G. Nolli, In Defense of the Mansoor Amarna Collection, Rome (1986).
B.H. Parker, Personal Correspondence to Mr. H. Medill Sarkisian (2 February 1959).
T.E. Peet and C.L. Woolley, The City of Akenhaten Part I Egypt Exploration Society, London (1923).
W.M.F. Petrie, Tell el Amarna Aris and Phillips Ltd., England (1974).
H.J. Plenderleith, "Memo on Specimens from the Mansoor Collection of Limestone Figurines," International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (1961).
R.R.R. Protsch, Personal Correspondence to Mr. E.R. Mansoor, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany (2 January 1976).
D. Redford, “Studies on Akenaten at Thebes," Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt pp. 77-94 (1973).
D. Redford, “Studies on Akenaten at Thebes II," Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt pp. 9-14 (1975).
D. Redford, Akhenaten, The Heretic King, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1984). xxvi + 255pp.
E.A. Russmann, Egyptian Sculpture: Cairo and Luxor University of Texas Press, Austin (1989).
M. Saleh and H. Sourouzian, The Egyptian Museum Cairo Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz (1987).
J. Samson, Amarna: City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti University College, London (1972).
L.T. Silver, "Petrological and Geochemical Study of Three Pieces of Sculpture in the Collection of M.A. Mansoor and Sons," Geochemistry Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (27 March 1959).
F.H. Stross, "Authentication of Antique Stone Objects by Physical and Chemical Methods," Analytical Chemistry 32 17A-36A (1960).
F.H. Stross and W.J. Eisenlord, A Report on a Group of Limestone Carvings by M.A. Mansoor and Sons, Privately Printed (1965).
F.J. Turner, Personal Correspondence to Mr. E. Mansoor (23 February 1960).
W.J. Young, "Technical Examination of Nine Tel El-Amarna Objects, Property of Mr. W. Mansoor," (14 April 1949).
See Also: World Wide Web: Mansoor Amarna Collection http://www.amarna.com/history.html; Stone Provenance: Desert Varnish.

Case Studies: Metallurgy in Chalcolithic Cyprus

P. Budd, A.M. Pollard and B. Scafe, “The Possible Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Ancient Metallurgical Processes,” Archaeometry 37 1 143-149 (1995).
D. Frankel, "Inter- and Intrasite Variability and Social Interaction in Prehistoric Bronze Age Cyprus: Types, Ranges and Trends," BASOR 292 59-71 (1993).
N.H. Gale, "Metals and Metallurgy in the Chalcolithic Period," BASOR 282/283 37-61 (1991).
S. Held, "Insularity as a Modifier of Cultural Change: The Case of Prehistoric Cyprus," BASOR 292 25-33 (1993).
P.S. Keswani, " Models of Local Exchange in Late Bronze Age Cyprus," BASOR 292 73-83 (1993).
A. Kingsworth, "Complexities of Complexity: An Anthropological Concern," BASOR 292 107-119 (1993).
B. Knapp, "Social Complexity: Incipience, Emergence, and Development on Prehistoric Cyprus," BASOR 292 85-105 (1993).
S.W. Manning, "Prestige, Distinction, and Competition: The Anatomy of Socioeconomic Complexity in the Fourth to Second Millennium B.C.E.," BASOR 292 35-57 (1993).
J.D. Muhly, "Beyond Typology: Aegean Metallurgy in its Historical Context," In Contributions to Aegean Archaeology: Studies in Honour of William A. McDonald University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis (1985).
G. Nakou, "The Cutting Edge: A New Look at Early Aegean Metallurgy," JMA 8 2 1-32 (1995).
E. Peltenburg, "Local Exchange in Prehistoric Cyprus: An Initial Assessment of Picrolite," BASOR 292 107-120 (1993).
E. Peltenburg, " Settlement Discontinuity and Resistance to Complexity in Cyprus, ca. 4500-2500 B.C.E.," BASOR 293 9-23 (1993).
Z. Stos-Gale, N. Gale, J. Houghton and R. Speakman, "Lead Isotope Data from the Isotrace Laboratory, Oxford," Archaeometry 37 2 407-417 (1995).

Case Studies: Piltdown Man Forgery

Anon., “Arthur Conan Doyle is Piltdown Suspect,” New York Times 2 August (1983).
J. Collins, "Piltdown Man is Termed a Trap Set by One Geologist for Another," The New York Times, 7 November (1978).
M. T. Kaufman, “Frank Spencer is Dead at 58; Anthropologist Studied a Hoax,” The New York Times, 3 June (1999). p. B11.
F. Spencer, Piltdown A Scientific Forgery, Oxford University Press, London (1990). 272pp.

Case Studies: Riace Bronzes

J. Alsop, "Warriors From A Watery Grave," National Geographic 163 820-827 (1983).
J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period London (1991).
L.V. Borelli and P. Pelagatti, "Due Bronzi di Riace," Bolletino D'Arte. Serie Speciale 3 (1984).
A. Busignani, The Bronzes of Riace Firenze (1981).
B. Cohen, "Kresilas' Perikles and the Riace Bronzes: New Evidence for Schinokephaly," AJA 90 207-208 (1986).
D. Finn, Greek Monumental Bronze Sculpture New York (1983).
E. Formigli, "La tecnicadi constrzione delle statue di Riace," In Borelli and Pelagatti 107-143 (1984).
F. Garbassi and E. Mello, "Surface Spectroscopic Studies on Patinas of Ancient Metal Objects," Studies in Conservation 29 172-180 (1984).
E.B. Harrison, "Early Classical Sculpture: The Bold Style," Greek Art: Archaic into Classical Cincinnati (1985).
C.M. Houser, Greek Monumental Bronze Sculpture of the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BC Boston (1979).
C. Mattusch, Greek Bronze Statuary Ithaca (1988).
A. Pearce,"Heroic Bronzes of the Fifth Century B.C. Regain Old Splendor," The Smithsonian 12.8 124-131 (1981).
B.S. Ridgway The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture Princeton University Press, Princeton (1970). 155pp.
B.S. Ridgway, Fifth Century Styles in Greek Sculpture Princeton University Press, Princeton (1981). 256 pp.
B.S. Ridgway, "The Riace Bronzes: A Minority Viewpoint," In Borelli and Pelagatti 313-326 (1984).
C. Rolley, Greek Bronzes, Soetheby's Publications, London (1986). 267pp.

G. Schneider, "Investigations of Crucibles and Moulds from Bronze Foundies in Olympia and Athens and Determination of Provenances of Bronze Statues," Archaeometry (Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium. Amsterdam: 1989).

Case Studies: Schliemann and Troy

K. Akinsha and G. Kozlov, Stolen Treasure: The Hunt for Lost Treasures Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London (1995).


R. Bernstein, “Facts and Myths About the Man Who Found Troy,” New York Times 5 January (1996).
C. Blegen, Troy and Trojans Praeger, Inc., New York (1963).
W. Calder and D. Traill, Editors Myth, Scandal and History: The Heinrich Schliemann Controversy Wayne State University Press, Detroit (1986). 273pp.
D.F. Easton, "The Troy Treasures in Russia," Antiquity 69 11-14 (1995).
D.F. Easton, "Priam's Treasure" Anatolian Studies 34 141-169 (1984).
B. Hoffman, "The Spoils of War," Archaeology 46 6 37-40 (1993).
E. Ludwig, Schliemann: The Story of a Gold-seeker Little, Brown and Company, Boston (1931).
K.E. Meyer, "The Hunt for Priam's Treasure," Archaeology 46 6 26-32 (1993).
C. Moorehead, The Lost Treasures of Troy Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London (1994). 307pp.
J. Ottaway, Jr., “Troy Today: The Ruins are Real, the Horse Isn’t,” Wall Street Journal 27 December (1990).
R. Payne, The Gold of Troy: The Story of Heinrich Schliemann and the Buried Cities of Ancient Greece, Funk and Wagnalls Co., New York (1959). 273pp.
M. Rose, "What Did Schliemann Find?" Archaeology 46 6 33-36 (1993).
Studia Troica Volume 1 (1991). Mainz au Rhein: Philipp Von Zabern, 1991. Volume 2 (1992). Mainz au Rhein: Philipp Von Zabern, 1992. Volume 3 (1993). Mainz au Rhein: Philipp Von Zabern, 1993. Volume 4 (1994). Mainz au Rhein: Philipp Von Zabern, 1994.
C. Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations: An Archaeological and Historical Study Benjamin Blom, Inc., New York (1971). 363pp.
D.A. Traill, "Schliemann's Discovery of Priam's Treasure: A Re-examination of the Evidence" Journal of Hellenic Studies 104 96-115 (1984).
D.A. Traill, Schliemann of Troy: Treasure and Deceit St. Martin's Press, New York (1995). 365pp.

Case Studies: Sevso Treasure



Anon., New York Supplement, 2nd, Vol. 561, p. 566 (Law Journal).
Anon., New York Supplement, 2nd, Vol. 610, p. 263 (Law Journal).
Anon., "Sotheby's is Restrained from Exporting Silver," The New York Times p. 14 7 May (1990).
Anon., "Trial Ordered in Suit Over Silver at Sotheby's," The New York Times 9 November (1990). p. 30.
Anon., "Sotheby's Tries to Leave Oman-Silver Dispute," The New York Times 28 May (1992). p. 18.
Anon., "Court Rules That Silver May Go Back to Owner," The New York Times 22 April (1994). p. 20.
Anon., "2 Nations Lose Claim to Old Silver," The New York Times 23 September (1994).
W. Carley, "In the Art World: Was Silver Horde Smuggled?" The Wall Street Journal 19 March (1991). p. 1.
W. Carley, "They are Lebanese, If You Please," The Wall Street Journal 2 January (1991). p. 7.
C. Chippendale, Editorial, Antiquity 64 204-207 (1990).
J.E. Conklin, Art Crime, Praeger, Westport, CT (1994). 322pp.
D. D'Arcy, "Lord Northampton Wins By Default - For the Moment," The Art Newspaper 4 4 (1993).
D. Darcy, "Shadow of the of the Sevso Treasure," Vanity Fair 56 150-168 (1993).
J. Healy, "Sevso Treasure Dispute," Archaeology 46 24 (1993).
E. Herscher, "International Control Efforts: Are There Any Good Solutions?," The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property Albuquerque, NM (1989).
B. Hoffman, "Sevso Follies of 1994," Archaeology 47 42-43 (1994).
R. Kenner, "Risky Business," Art & Antiques 19 Apr (1990).
R. Kenner, "Risky Business: Sotheby's Takes a Chance on the Sevso Treasure," Art & Antiques 7 19 (1990).
R. Lay, “Marquess Hails £50m Silver Hoard Victory,” Evening Standard 5 November (1993). p. 5.
C. Lowenthal, "Rugs Back, Picassos Restolen," The Wall Street Journal 30 December (1994). p. 1.
B. Macintyre, "Peer Celebrates Sevso Ruling," The Times 6 November (1993). p. 5.
M. Mango and A. Bennett, "The Sevso Treasure," Journal of Roman Archaeology 12 21 (1994).
J.H. Merryman, " The Protection of Artistic National Patrimony Against Pillaging and Theft," Art law: Domestic and International Hackensack, NJ (1975). pp. 241-246.
L.V. Prott, Law and Cultural Heritage 3 London 726-755 (1989).
R. Reif., "Ancient Roman Silver to be Sold," The New York Times 10 February (1990). p. 13.
R. Reif., "Antiques: Roman Silver Fit For the Baths," The New York Times 18 February (1990). p. 38.
R. Reif., "Court Forbids Removal of Disputed Silver," The New York Times 22 February (1990). p. 19.
R. Reif., "Scotland Yard Studies Sotheby'd Silver Offeering," The New York Times 3 July (1990). p. 14.
R. Reif., "Antiques 1990," The New York Times 30 December (1990). p. 38.
Reuters Service, "Hungary to Appeal for the Sevso Silver," The New York Times 11 July (1994). p. 16.
A.M. Sullivan, "Law and Diplomacy in Cultural Property Matters," Museum Management and Curatorship 10 219-143 (1991).
J. Tully, "Battle Over Royal Silver," The Washington Post 30 July (1990). p. 5.
S. Vincent and G. Norman, “Witness in £40 m Treasure Trial Accused of Lying,” The Independent 25 October (1993).
C. Vogel, "The Art Market," The New York Times 26 June (1992). p. 19.
P. Watson, "The Case of the Silver Treasure," The New York Times 28 June (1992). p. 1.

Case Studies: Shroud of Turin

A.D. Adler, "Updating Recent Studies on the Shroud of Turin," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 223-228.
Anon., “The Earliest Photograph?,” Art Newspaper Issue 80, March (1998).
M. W. Browne, “Tests Show Shroud of Turin To Be Fraud, Scientist Hints,” New York Times 22 September (1988). p. A28.
J. H. Heller, Report on the Shroud of Turin, Houghton Mifflin, Boston (1983). 225pp.
D.A. Kouznetsov, A.A. Ivanoff, and P.R. Veletsky, "A Re-evaluation of the Radiocarbon Date of the Shroud of Turin Based on Biofractionation of Carbon Isotopes and a Fire-Stimulating Model," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 229-247.
J. Nickell, Inquest on the Shroud of Turin, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY (1983). 178pp.
A. Stanley, “Power to Fascinate Intact, Turin Shroud is Unfurled,” New York Times 19 April (1998).
P. S. Zurer, “Science Probes a Religious Mystery: Scientists Clash Over Whether Current Data Show the Shroud of Turin to be an Artist’s Creation,” C & E News 38 20 February (1984).

Case Studies: Thera Eruption



Anon., "Talking about Earth," Earth Science 43 No. 1 11 (1990).
M.J. Aitken, "The Minoan Eruption of Thera, Santorini: A Re-assessment of the Radiocarbon Dates, " In New Aspects of Archaeological Science in Greece, R.E. Jones and H.W. Catling, Editors, British School at Athens, Athens (1988) pp. 19-24.
M.J. Aitken, "The Thera Eruption: Continuing Discussion of the Dating I -- Resume of Dating," Archaeometry 30 (Part 1) 165-169 (1988).
M.A. Aston and P.G. Hardy, "The Pre-Minoan Landscape of Thera: a Preliminary Statement," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Ancient World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.348-361.
P. Astrom, "Three Tel el Yahudiyeh Juglets in the Thera Museum," In A. Kaloyeropoyloy, Editor, Acta of the First International Scientific Congress on the Volcano of Thera, Archaeological Service of Greece, Athens (1971). pp.231-234.
M.G.L. Baillie, "Irish Tree Rings and an Event in 1628 B.C." In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Ancient World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.160-166.
M.G.L. Baillie and M.A.R. Munro, "Irish Tree Rings, Santorini and Volcanic Dust Veils," Nature 332 344-346 (1988).
P.P. Betancourt, The History of Minoan Pottery, Princeton University Press, Princeton (1985). xxi + 226pp.
P.P. Betancourt, "High Chronology or Low Chronology: The Archaeological Evidence," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.19-23.
P.P. Betancourt, P. Goldberg, R.H. Simpson and C.J. Vitaliano, "Excavations at Pseira: The Evidence for the Theran Eruption," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.96-99.
P.P. Betancourt and H.N. Michael, "Dating the Aegean Late Bronze Age with Radiocarbon: Addendum," Archaeometry 29 (Part 2) 212-213 (1987).
P.P. Betancourt, H.N. Michael and G.A. Weinstein, "Calibration and the Radiocarbon Chronology of Late Minoan IB," Archaeometry 20 (Part 2) 200-203 (1978).
P.P. Betancourt and G.A. Weinstein, "Carbon-14 and the Beginning of the Late Bronze Age in the Aegean," American Journal of Archaeology 80 329-348 (1976).
G.W. Bergern, "Dating Volcanic Ash by Use of Thermoluminiescence," Geology 20 11-14 (1992).
M. Biddle and E.K. Ralph, "Radiocarbon Dates from Akrotiri: Problems and a Strategy," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1978). pp.247-252.
R.J. Blong, "The Possible Effects of Santorini Tephra Fall on Minoan Crete," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1978). pp.247-252.
G. Cadogan, "Dating the Aegean Bronze Age without Radiocarbon," Archaeometry 20 (Part 2) 209-214 (1978).
G. Cadogan and R.K. Harrison, "Evidence of Tephra in Soil Samples from Pyrgos, Crete" In Thera and the Ancient World, Volume 1, The Thera Foundation, London (1978). pp.235-256.
G. Cadogan, R.K. Harrison and E. Strong, "Volcanic Glass Shards in Late Minoan I Crete," Antiquity 46 310-313 (1972).
E.N. Davis, "A Storm in Egypt during the Reign of Ahmose," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.232-235.
C. Doumas, "The Minoan Eruption of the Santorini Volcano," Antiquity 48 110-115 (1978).
C. Doumas, ""The Stratigraphy of Akrotiri," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 1, Thera and the Aegean World, London (1978). pp.777-782.
C. Doumas, Thera: Pompeii of the Ancient Aegean, Thames and Hudson, London (1983). 168pp.
C. Doumas, "Archaeological Observations at Akrotiri Relating to the Volcanic Destruction," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.48-50.
C. Doumas and L. Papazoglou, "Santorini Tephra from Rhodes," Nature 287 322-324 (1980).
T.H. Druitt and V. Francaviglia, "An Ancient Calder Cliff Line at Phira, and Its Significance for the Topography and Geology of Pre-Minoan Santorini," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.139-150.
U. Erikson, W.L. Friedrich, B. Buchhardt, H. Tauber and M.S. Thomsen, "The Stronghyle Caldera: Geological, Paleontological and Stable Isotope Evidence from Radiocarbon Dated Stromatolites from Santorini," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.139-150.
V. Francaviglia, "Sea-borne Pumice Deposits of Archaeological Interest on Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Beaches," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.127-134.
W.L. Friedrich, R. Friborg and H. Tauber, "Two Radiocarbon Dates of the Minoan Eruption on Santorini (Greece)," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 2, Thera and the Aegean World, London (1978). pp241-244.
W.L Friedrich, P. Wagner and H. Tauber, "Radiocarbon Date Plant Remains from the Akrotiri Excavation on Santorini, Greece," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.188-196.
A. Furumark, "Thera Catastrophe: Consequences for European Civilization," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 1, Thera and the Aegean World, London (1978). pp.667-674.
A.G. Galanpoulos, "The Easter Mediterranean Trilogy in the Bronze Age," In Acta of the First International Scientific Congress on the Volcano of Thera, Archaeological Service of Greece, Athens (1971). pp.170-183.
R.B. Galloway, Y. Liritzis, A. Sampson and T. Marketou, "Radio-isotope Analyses of Aegean Tephras: Contribution to the Dating of Santorini Volcano," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.135-145.
General Discussion In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.236-241.
F. Guichard, S. Carey, M.A. Arthur, H. Sigurdsson, and M. Arnold, "Tephra from the Minoan Eruption of Santorini in Sediments of the Black Sea," Nature 363 610-612 (1993).
C.U. Hammer, H.B. Clausen, W.L. Friedrich and H. Tauber, "The Minoan Eruption of Santorini in Greece Dated to 1645 B.C.?" Nature 328 517-519 (1987).
J. Healy, "The Tempo of Rhyolitic Volcanism in New Zealand," In Acta of the First International Conference on the Volcano of Thera, Archaeological Service of Greece, Athens (1971). pp.64-72.
G. Heiken and F. McCoy, "Precursory Activity to the Minoan Eruption, Thera, Greece," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.79-88.
G. Heiken, F. McCoy and F. Sheridan, "Paleotopographic and Paleogeologic Reconstruction of Minoan Thera," In Aegean D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.370-376.
S. Hiller, "Minoan QE - RA - SI - JA. The Religious Impact of the Thera Volcano on Minoan Crete," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 1, Thera and the Aegean World, London (1978). pp.675-680.
O. Hockmann, "Theran Floral Style in Relation to That of Crete," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 1, Thera and the Aegean World, London (1978). pp.605-616.
S. Hood, The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age, Thames & Hudson, London (1971). 239pp.
S. Hood, "Late Bronze Age Destructions of Knossos," In Acta of the First International Scientific Congress on the Volcano of Thera, Archaeological Service of Greece, Athens (1971). pp.377-383.
S. Hood, "Traces of the Eruption outside Thera," In Thera and the Aegean World, Volume 1, Thera and the Aegean World, London (1978). pp.681-690.
R.A. Housley, R.E.M. Hedges, I.A. Law and C.R. Bronk, "Radiocarbon Dating by AMS of the Destruction of Akrotiri," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.207-215.
H.W. Hubberten, M. Bruns, M. Calamiotou, C. Apostolakis, S. Filippakis, and A. Grimanis, "Radiocarbon Dates from the Akrotiri Excavations," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.179-187.
J. Keller, "The Major Volcanic Events in Recent Eastern Mediterranean Volcanism and Their Bearing on the Problem of Santorini Ash Layers," In Acta of the First International Scientific Congress n the Volcano of Thera, Archaeological Service of Greece, Athens (1971). pp.152-169.
B.J. Kemp and R.S. Merrillees, Minoan Pottery in Second Millennium Egypt, Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rheim (1980). 340pp.
P.I. Kuniholm, "Overview and Assessment of the Evidence for the Date of the Eruption of Thera," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 2, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.179-187.
V.C. LaMarche, Jr. and K.K. Hirschboeck, "Frost Rings in Trees as Records of Major Volcanic Eruptions," Nature 307 121-126 (1984).
Y.G. Lolos, "On the Late Halladic I of Akrotiri, Thera," In D.A. Hardy and H.C. Renfrow, Editors, Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume 3, The Thera Foundation, London (1990). pp.51-56.
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G.A. Zielinski, P.A. Mayewski, L.D. Meeker, S. Whitlow, M.S. Twickler, M. Morrison, D.A. Messe, A.J. Gow, R.B. Alley, "Record of Volcanism Since 7000 B.C. from the GISP2 Greenland Ice Core and Implications for the Volcano-Climate System," Science 264 948-952 (13 May 1994).
See also: Ice Cores.

Case Studies: Tomb of Ramses II Sons

C. Fenyvesi, "Tales From the Crypt: The Secrets of a Pharaoh's Sons Could Lie in the Tomb that Sheltered them for Three Millenniums," U.S. News 29 May (1995). pp. 52-58.
M.D. Lemonick, "Secrets of the Lost Tomb," Time 29 May (1995). pp. 48-54.
J.N. Wilford, "Tomb of Ramses II's Many Sons is Found in Egypt," New York Times 16 May (1995). pp. A1, C5.

Case Studies: Vinland Map

M. Knight, “Yale Says Prized Vinland Map of North America is a Forgery,” New York Times 26 January (1974). p. 38.
G. D. Painter, “A Trace of Titanium,” TLS 29 November (1991).

Ceramics: Characterization



V. Argyropoulos, "A Characterization of the Compostitional Variations of Roman Samian Pottery Manufactured at the Lezoux Production Centre," Archaeometry 37, Part 2 271-286 August (1995).
N.J. Brodie and L. Steel, "Cypriot Black-on-Red Ware: Towards a Characterization," Archaeometry 38, Part 2 263-278 August (1996).
J. Buxeda i Garrigós, M. A. Cau Ontiveros, and V. Kilikoglou, "Chemical Variability in Clays and Pottery from a Traditional Cooking Pot Production Village: Testing Assumptions in Pereruela," Archaeometry 45 Part 1 1-18 February (2003).
J. Buxeda i Garrigós, V. Kilikoglou, and P. M. Day, "Chemical and Mineralogical Alteration of Ceramics from A Late Bronze Age Kiln At Kommos, Crete: the Effect On the Formation of A Reference Group," Archaeometry 43 Part 3 349-372 August (2001).
J. Buxeda i Garrigós, H. Mommsen, and A. Tsolakidou, "Alterations of Na, K and Rb Concentrations in Mycenaean Pottery and a Proposed Explanation Using X-ray Diffraction," Archaeometry
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