Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Body; Disability; Work.
Hollenbeck, K., & Kimmel, J. (2008). Differences in the returns to education for males by disability status and age of disability onset. Southern Economic Journal, 74(3), 707-724.
This study explores the relationships between disability and the returns to education for males and the role that age of disability onset may play in these returns. Analyses are based on the 1993 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and exploit detailed information regarding productivity-related functional limitations. The estimates vary by disability status--early-onset disability, late-onset disability and non-disabled. This study shows that males who experience disability onset after reaching adulthood, experience substantial wage returns to education, larger than the returns for the non-disabled population.
KEY WORDS: Disability; Elderly; Health Inequalities; Longitudinal; Self-rated Health.

Howard, M. (Ed.). (2002). Not just the job. Report of a working group on disabled people using personal assistance and work incentives. York; North Yorkshire: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

This book involves an examination of the issues around work incentives for disabled people using personal assistance and around charging for support packages. This book examines issues around work incentives and charging for support packages in the light of new guidance to social services authorities. Drawing on the experience of a working group, set up by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the National Centre for Independent Living and the Disability Rights Commission, the author examines the context within which organisations like the Independent Living Fund and social services departments calculate an individual’s financial contribution towards their support package. The book looks at the impact on the individual, as well as specific barriers to work faced by personal assistance users, including negative assumptions about disability and work. A key objective considered by the working group was a ‘level playing field’ between those who use assistance and those who do not. The book explores the principles that the group felt flowed from this objective and against which policy options could be measured.
KEY WORDS: Disabled Workers; "At Risk".

Jolly, D. (2000). A critical evaluation of the contradictions for disabled workers arising from the emergence of the flexible labour market in Britain. Disability & Society, 15(5), 795-810.

In Britain, as in all industrialized countries 'paid work' or employment is central to the economy of the state. This perspective raises important implications for theories of disability and work and for further research in this area. This paper attempts to provide a critical evaluation of the contradictions arising from the flexible labour market for disabled workers and how the concept of the Disabled State has been eroded along with notions of disabled people as the 'deserving poor'. Policies now demonstrate a commitment to a labour market free from restrictive practices and regulation. It appears that new technologies and specific personal communication skills, initiative, flexibility and adaptability will play an increasing part in new labour working trends. In short, theories of disability and work must change focus from 'production' to 'process'.
KEY WORDS: Workers with Disabilities; Labour Market; Britain; 'Deserving Poor'; New Technologies.
Jones, M. K. (2007). Does part-time employment provide a way of accommodating a disability? Manchester School, 75(6), 695-716.
This study explores reasons for high part-time employment among disabled workers in the UK. According to this study, evidence from the Labour Force Survey suggests that part-time employment provides an important way of accommodating a work-limiting disability rather than reflecting marginalization of the disabled by employers.
KEY WORDS: Disability, Part-time employment, Labour Market; Health; Work; Discrimination.

Jongbloed, L. (2003). Disability policy in Canada: An overview. Journal of Policy Studies, 13(4), 203-209.

Over the last century there has been a shift from conceptualizing disability as a challenge to law and order to viewing disability as a medical and/or economic deficit and then as a socio-political issue. In Canada, these changing conceptualizations of disability have been reflected in the development of disability policies, which form part of general Canadian social policies. Each model of disability captures a particular aspect of disability and focuses on particular goals and each depicts a different account of what society owes people with disabilities. However, the lack of linkages between the models and their conceptual bases means that no one model can be used to guide disability policy development. Decision making about the goals of disability policy and the rights of people with disabilities requires the development of a normative foundation.
KEY WORDS: Disability; Social Policies; Canada; People with Disabilities.

Kerka, S. (2002). Learning disabilities and career development. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).

The lifelong process of career development poses special challenges for people with learning disabilities (LD). Literature on employment issues for adults with LD frames on-the-job problems in terms of individual deficits or recasts the issues as a function of the significant societal barriers faced by those who do not fit the norm. Research on high school and college students with LD shows a multifaceted career development program is needed. Many lacked clear understanding of their disability and its impact on career choices and ability to perform a job; many youth with LD had unrealistic or no career ambitions; and a large number were not actively engaged in career development and believed they had little control over career decision making. A model for career success of adults with LD is comprised of these seven factors: internal decisions (powerful desire to succeed, clear sense of goal orientation, reframing the LD experience) and external manifestations (persistence, goodness of fit, learned creativity, social network providing support). Practices to assist persons with LD gain and maintain employment are accurate self knowledge; world-of-work knowledge; self-efficacy enhancement; self-advocacy skills; job search skills; and development of personal qualities. Programs illustrating them are Pathways to Satisfaction; Fashion Institute of Technology career development support for students with LD; and Life Development Institute's SCANS-based transition-to-postsecondary program.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Career Choice; Career Development; Colleges; Demonstration Programs; Education Work Relationship; Employment; Goal Orientation; High Schools; Higher Education; Learning Disabilities; Models; Occupational Aspiration; Program Descriptions; Program Development; Self Concept; Self Evaluation; Self Management; Social Support Groups; Tenure.

Kilsby, M. S., & Beyer, S. (2002). Enhancing self-determination in job matching in supported employment for people with learning disabilities: An intervention study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 17(2), 125-135.

The study examines effectiveness of interventions aimed to assist job seekers with mental retardation to increase vocational choices. Results indicate possibility for increased vocational choices through short, even a 1-day training sessions.
KEY WORDS: Job Search; Learning Disabilities; Mental Retardation; Self Determination; Supported Employment; Coaches; Occupational Choice; "At Risk".

Klinger, M. G. M. (2002). Organizational culture and people with disabilities. Disability Studies Quarterly, 22(1), 21-25.

Klinger's article applies identifies two reasons why we have not solved the problem of diversity in the workplace specifically to people with disabilities: perceptual and attitudinal barriers (stereotyping, fear), and employers perceive a legal barrier (does hiring a person with a disability mean she can never be fired?). According to Klinger, in the workplace people with disabilities often need better qualifications than people without disabilities to achieve comparable employment. Klinger offers recommendations for how to counteract perceptual barriers. She suggests educational internships as a way to produce cultural change. More broadly she calls for employers to accept the burden of "fitting in," rather than the new employee.
KEY WORDS: Disability; Diversity; Organizational Culture.

Kreider, B., & Pepper, J. V. (2007). Disability and employment: Reevaluating the evidence in light of reporting errors. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102(478), 432-441.

Measurement error in health and disability status has been widely accepted as a central problem in social science research. Long-standing debates about the prevalence of disability, the role of health in labor market outcomes and the influence of federal disability policy on declining employment rates have all emphasized issues regarding the reliability of self-reported disability. In addition to random error, a host of economic, social, and psychological factors that can lead respondents to misreport work capacity may produce inaccuracy in survey data sets. Empirical results from this study suggest that conclusions derived from conventional latent variable reporting error models may be driven largely by ad hoc distributional and functional form restrictions and likelihood for over-report disability among unemployed.
KEY WORDS: Model Construction and Estimation; Economics; USA; Northern America; Disability.

Lee, C. M. (2005). Evolution. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 182.

In this article the author shares his personal experiences beginning in early childhood with his own learning disabilities. As an adult with learning disabilities, he describes how he has learned to manage his language and memory barriers through assistive technology and outside support, and he nourishes himself through therapy or simply surrounding himself with family and friends who understand his innovative use of language. Shortly after graduating from college, he developed a personal action plan that came to include standard tools, modifications and accommodations of task and expectations, and assistive technology. Today, individuals with disabilities have access to assistive technology through legislation, including the Assistive Technology Act of 1998. This law affirms that technology is a valuable tool for improving the lives of Americans with disabilities. It also affirms the federal role in funding and promoting access to assistive technology devices and services for individuals with disabilities. Neuropsychologists today are helping to provide answers to cognition. Over time, this information will slowly funnel its way into academic and employment settings. The landscape of the brain is one of the most important areas of training for individuals with learning disabilities, parents, service providers, and employers. Through such newfound research and understanding, the field of learning disabilities will evolve to new heights in providing services and teaching students and employees. As more specifics on the workings of the brain emerge, a shift in education will occur, which will help define and unify the voices of individuals with learning disabilities.
KEY WORDS: Coping; Assistive Technology; Special Education; Personal Narratives; Learning Disabilities; Federal Aid; Brain; Cognitive Processes; Memory; Federal Legislation; Education for All Handicapped Children Act; "At Risk".

Madous, J. W., Foley, T. E., McGuire, J. M., & Ruban, L. M. (2002). Employment self-disclosure of postsecondary graduates with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 364-369.

One hundred and thirty-two graduates with learning disabilities (LD) of a large public competitive postsecondary institution were surveyed to determine if they had self-disclosed their LD to their current employer and to provide the reasons for choosing to self-disclose or not to self-disclose. Based on a response rate of 67.4%, the results indicated that 86.5% of the respondents were employed full-time. While nearly 90% of the respondents stated that their LD affected their work in some way, only 30.3% self-disclosed to their employer. Of those who had not self-disclosed, the majority reported that there was no reason or need to self-disclose. However, 46.1% reported not self-disclosing due to fear of a potentially negative impact in the workplace or due to a concern for job security. The results indicate that specific rationales for disclosure and the use of accommodations and strategies are used by disabled workers.
KEY WORDS: Post-secondary Graduates; Learning Disabilities; Self-disclosure; Job Security; Workplace Discrimination; Accommodations.

Magee, W. (2004). Effects of illness and disability on job separation. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1121-1135.

Effects of illness and disability on job separation result from both voluntary and involuntary processes. Voluntary processes range from the reasoned actions of workers who weigh illness and disability in their decision-making, to reactive stress-avoidance responses. Involuntary processes include employer discrimination against ill or disabled workers. Analyses of the effects of illness and disability that differentiate reasons for job separation can illuminate the processes involved. This paper reports on an evaluation of effects of illness and disability on job separation predicted by theories of reasoned action, stress and employer discrimination against ill and disabled workers. Effects of four illness/disability conditions on the rate of job separation for 12 reasons are estimated using data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the Canadian population - the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). Two of the four effects that are statistically significant (under conservative Bayesian criteria for statistical significance) are consistent with the idea that workers weigh illness and disability as costs and calculate the costs and benefits of continuing to work with an illness or disability: (1) disabling illness increases the hazard of leaving a job in order to engage in caregiving, and (2) work-related disability increases the hazard of leaving a job due to poor pay. The other two significant effects indicate that: (3) disabling illness decreases the hazard of layoff, and (4) non-work disability increases the hazard of leaving one job to take a different job. This last effect is consistent with a stress-interruption process. Other effects are statistically significant under conventional criteria for statistical significance, and most of these effects are also consistent with cost-benefit and stress theories. Some effects of illness and disability are sex and age-specific and reasons for the specificity of these effects are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Health Selection; Canada; Employer Discrimination; Job Separation; Labour Force Participation; Disability; Illness Behaviour; Stress.

Mason, M. G. (2004). Working against odds: Stories of disabled women's work lives. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Mason conducts an ethnographic study of 18 disabled women's relationships with work. She organizes the narratives under three chapter headings: the way we see ourselves, containing stories about integration, body image, identity and dependency; the way the world sees us, with stories about marginalization, "passing", and social constructions of disability; and the way we work, with stories about discrimination and strategies for self-sufficiency. Other themes addressed include confronting social marginalization, integration, claiming disability, coming to terms with the need for having caregivers, dealing with discrimination, and living in two worlds.
KEY WORDS: Accommodation; Attitudes; Disability; Organizational Culture; Work.

McAlpine, D., D., & Warner, L. (2002). Barriers to employment among persons with mental illness: A review of the literature. Minneapolis: Rutgers State University.

There is a strong relationship between mental illness and work-related disability. Psychiatric illnesses comprise the largest diagnostic category among working-aged adults who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). Moreover, many persons with disabilities related to other general medical conditions also have psychiatric co-morbidities that complicate return to work. Yet, while it is clear that mental illness is associated with difficulties in vocational preparation, work entry, and continued employment, many persons with such conditions are able to secure and maintain employment. This review seeks to summarize what is known about barriers to work that may explain why some persons with mental illness and significant symptoms experience a work-related disability, while others do not. Additionally, characteristics of vocational programs that are associated with return to work among persons with psychiatric conditions are examined. The review summarizes what is known about barriers to employment in four areas: a) illness characteristics; b) client characteristics; c) access to services and mental health treatment; and d) characteristics of workplace and labour market. It is argued that there is a need for more general population studies considering how these barriers shape work-disability among persons with primary and co-morbid psychiatric conditions.
KEY WORDS: Work-related Barriers; United States; Employment; Persons with Mental Illness; Literature Review.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2006). Sickness, disability and work: Breaking the barriers. Paris: OECD.

Disability policy has become a key policy area in most OECD countries. Disabling medical conditions are on the rise, causing problems not only for individuals but also for the labour market and social policies. More and more people are relying on disability and sickness benefits as their main source of income, and employment rates of persons with disabilities are low. Close monitoring of disability policy outcomes and reforms are crucial. Volume 1 (published Nov 2006) covering Norway, Poland and Switzerland published. Volume 2 (published Dec 2007) covering Australia, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom.
KEY WORDS: People with Disabilities; Chronically Ill; Sick Leave; Employment; Government Policy; OECD Countries.

Perry, D. A. (Ed.). (2004). Moving forward: Toward decent work for people with disabilities examples of good practices in vocational training and employment from Asia and the Pacific. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

This volume offers policymakers, people with disabilities and especially service providers in Asia and the Pacific with examples of good practices related to various aspects of vocational training and employment. While each country needs to and should adopt policies based on equal opportunities and inclusion, this book primarily addresses practices. However, several of the examples demonstrate how national legislation, policies and government funding are needed to create an environment in which effective practices can flourish.
KEY WORDS: Disability Studies; Asia; Vocational Education; Government Policy; "At Risk".

Price, L., Gerber, P. J., & Mulligan, R. (2003). The Americans with Disabilities Act and adults with learning disabilities employees: The realities of the workplace. Remedial and Special Education, 24(6), 350-358.

Twenty-five adults with learning disabilities were queried to examine their employment experiences at job entry and in job advancement vis-a-vis the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Results suggest that Title 1 of the ADA is underutilized by individuals with learning disabilities in the workplace. Self-disclosure about disability was rare and reasonable accommodations were infrequently used.
KEY WORDS: Adults; Civil Rights Legislation; Compliance; Employee Attitudes; Employees; Learning Disabilities; Self Disclosure; Work Environment; Americans with Disabilities Act 1990.

Riddell, S., Baron, S., & Wilson, A. (2001). The significance of the learning society for women and men with learning difficulties. Gender and Education, 13(1), 57-73.

The project, "The Meaning of the Learning Society for Adults with Learning Difficulties," focused on lifelong learning opportunities available to people with learning difficulties & experiences of these services. The article begins by examining theories of late modernity, their use by feminist & disability studies theorists, & their relationship to ideas of a learning society. Using case study material, it is argued that the identities of people with learning difficulties are not chosen freely from a range of options but are socially ascribed. The status of learning difficulties is used as a dominant category to justify deprivation of basic political & economic rights. In addition, the lives of people with learning difficulties are structured by gender & class, & these intersect with the category of learning difficulties. For women & men, advantages of middle-class social & economic capital are overridden by the negative category of learning difficulties. In relation to gender, men with learning difficulties are more likely to receive post-school training, but in inappropriate areas of the labor market. Their domestic needs are also likely to be attended to by others, but in the absence of employment, they find themselves without any valued social role. Women with learning difficulties are also likely to be excluded from the labor market, but are more likely to be involved in reciprocal, albeit limited, social relationships. It is concluded that postmodernist theories are inadequate to describe the structuring of the lives of people with learning difficulties.
KEY WORDS: Learning Disabilities; Social Class; Social Identity; Disadvantaged; Sex Differences; Social Closure; Social Inequality; Postmodernism; Theoretical Problems; Scotland; "At Risk".
Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2002). Sociocultural contexts of learning among adults with disabilities. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education(96), 47-57.
The sociocultural constructs of race, class, and gender combined with disability create a powerful influence on education and work for adults with disabilities. The emergence of disability studies, rights, and culture challenges adult educators to consider the sociocultural implications of disability.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Civil Rights; Cultural Context; Disabilities; Race; Sex; Social Class; Sociocultural Patterns.

Roulstone, A. (2002). Disabling pasts, enabling futures? How does the changing nature of capitalism impact on the disabled worker and job seeker? Disability & Society, 17(6), 627-642.

Disability scholars have invested much in a stage theory of capitalism, which affords little scope for disabled workers and job seekers this side of Socialism. Parallel discussions of choices and empowerment rarely penetrates the world of paid employment. Mainstream policy writers meanwhile have been concerned with an atheoretical appraisal of enhancing access to an retention of employment. Neither approach has entered into an examination of the changing nature of employment and the impact of wider relationship between state and capitalism. In this way, the important shift to new social movements in progressing identity and social rights may have overlooked the monumental, but not irreversible loss of power in the enabling state and of old social movements. The article offers a starting point in our understanding of the changing nature of employment, its likely impact on disabled people, whilst asking for a reappraisal of the possible links between old and new social movements.
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