Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Time Allocation; Labor Supply; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Australia; Part-Time; Underemployment.

Wilkins, R. (2007). The consequences of underemployment for the underemployed. Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(2), 247-275.

Based on information collected by the 2001 Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, this study examines the effects of underemployment on income, welfare and subjective well-being. Results indicate that, while unemployment clearly has greater adverse consequences, underemployment is nonetheless associated with significant detrimental effects. Negative effects are found for both part-time employed and full-time employed workers who would prefer to work more hours. Effects are greater for underemployed part-time workers and greater yet for part-time workers who would like to work full-time. Part-time workers seeking full-time employment experience adverse effects attributable to underemployment with some outcomes similar to those caused by unemployment.
KEY WORDS: Financial Federations; Social Service; Corporate Income Taxes; Management.

Wolbers, M. (2003). Job mismatches and their labour market effect among school-leavers in Europe. European Sociological Review, 19, 249-266.

In this article, we investigate the determinants of job mismatches with regard to the field of education among school-leavers in Europe. We also examine the effects of job mismatches on the labour-market position of school-leavers. Special attention is paid to cross-national differences in this respect. The data used are from the EU LFS 2000 ad hoc module on school-to-work transitions. The empirical results show that a number of individual, structural and job characteristics affect the likelihood of having a job mismatch. Moreover, in countries in which the education system is vocationally oriented, the incidence of job mismatches among school-leavers is higher than in countries in which the education system is mainly general. With respect to the labour-market effects of job mismatches, it is found that school-leavers with a non-matching job achieve a lower occupational status, more frequently look for another job, and more often participate in continuing vocational training than those with a matching one. These labour-market effects of job mismatches are smaller in countries in which the vocational orientation of the education system is stronger.
KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; European Union; Dropouts; Occupational Status; Crosscultural Differences; Vocational Education; Educational Programs.

Wonacott, M. E. (2002). The impact of work-based learning on students. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Recent educational approaches that have career and technical education (CTE) components have integrated work-based learning (WBL) with traditional academics. Among positive effects of the association between WBL and secondary students' educational outcomes are: (1) increased attendance, (2) decreased dropout rates, (3) increased number of academic courses; and (4) higher grade point averages. The longer-term effect in students' postsecondary experiences has been too little investigated. Additional positive effects of WBL are seen in students' attitudes toward such programs and in some employment statistics. Researchers are cautious about isolating the effects of WBL, but acknowledge that it may play a crucial indirect role in improving outcomes for at-risk students.
KEY WORDS: Academic Achievement; Academic Education; Career Academies; Career Education; College Students; Curriculum Design; Effective Schools Research; Employment Level; Employment Potential; Experiential Learning; Grades (Scholastic); High Risk Students; High School Students; Integrated Curriculum; Job Skills; Learning Motivation; Literature Reviews; Longitudinal Studies; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Program Effectiveness; Qualitative Research; Secondary Education; Socioeconomic Status; Student Attitudes; Student Employment; Student Motivation; Student Needs; Tech Prep; Vocational Education; Work Experience Programs.

Ylijoki, O.-H., & Mantyla, H. (2003). Conflicting time perspectives in academic work. Time & Society, 12(1), 55-78.

This article explores the diversity of time perspectives in academic work. The background of the study stems from recent changes in university management and funding, which impose new demands for academic work, including its temporal order. Drawing on focused interviews with 52 academics, we discern four core time perspectives according to which academics experience their work: scheduled time, timeless time, contracted time and personal time. Scheduled time refers to the accelerating pace of work, timeless time to transcending time through immersion in work, contracted time to short-term employment with limited future prospects and finally, personal time to one’s temporality and the role of work in it. In addition, we discuss the relationships between the different time perspectives, focusing on dilemmas and tensions between them.
KEY WORDS: Academic Work; Autonomy; Dilemmas; Higher education; Time.

Zhao, J. J., & Alexander, M. W. (2002). Information technology skills recommended for business students by fortune 500 executives. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 44(3), 175-189.

Responses from 51 Fortune 500 training and development executives identified 28 information technology skills strongly recommended for business graduates. A similar 1995 survey identified only 11 skills. The largest increase occurred in Internet/Web telecommunications and discipline-specific information systems.
KEY WORDS: Corporations; Employer Attitudes; Employment Qualifications; Information Systems; Information Technology; Job Skills; Telecommunications.

Section 4.6 Power Relations and Social Inequality in

Work and Learning (Class, Gender,

Race, Generation, Disability Dimensionss)

Abbiss, J. (2008). Rethinking the 'problem' of gender and IT schooling: Discourses in literature. Gender and Education, 20(2), 153-165.
A review of the international research literature pertaining to gender and information technology (IT) schooling reveals changing ideas about what constitutes a gender problem. Much of the literature is concerned with gender differences in computer uses and interests and perceived disadvantages accruing to females as a result of these differences. This reflects and contributes to a dominant liberal equity discourse. Growing awareness of the limitations of earlier research, the changing nature of IT schooling, contradictions in students' computer interests and dissatisfaction with simplistic explanations has led, however, to post-structural rethinking and the emergence of a critical discourse. Assumptions of essential differences and deficit ways of thinking are challenged. Persistent gender differences in IT use are explored in their social complexity and the very notion that there is a gender problem is problematised. This presents a different and ultimately more satisfying way of thinking about the problem of gender and IT schooling.
KEY WORDS: Academic Discourse; Gender; Gender Issues; Information Science Education; Information Technology

Ahmed, Z. N. (2000, Mar). Mapping rural women's perspectives on nonformal education experiences. APS conceptual mapping project research report. Occasional paper series. Retrieved July, 2006, from

This study explores how rural women in the village of Srefultoli, Bangladesh describe, from their own point of view, their experiences with nonformal education (NFE). Feminist research has revealed that existing NFE programs in developing countries give women traditional knowledge of family planning, nutrition, and health care, but they do not deal with the need to increase women's understanding of their oppression and exploitation. This study examines whether current NFE programs in this village in Bangladesh give women new knowledge about their present situation in society and in the family and whether these women are aware of their strategic and practical needs.
KEY WORDS: Developing Nations; Educational Research; Empowerment; Foreign Countries; Nonformal Education; Perspective Taking; Research Methodology; Rural Women; Social Science Research; Social Mapping.

Anyon, J. (2005). Radical possibilities. New York: Routledge.

This book reveals the influence of federal and metropolitan policies and practices on the poverty that plagues schools and communities in American cities and segregated, low-income suburbs. Public policies--such as those regulating the minimum wage, job availability, tax rates, federal transit, and affordable housing--all create conditions in urban areas that no education policy as currently conceived can transcend. In this first book since her best-selling Ghetto Schooling, the author argues that we must replace these federal and metro-area policies with more equitable ones, so that urban school reform can have positive life consequences for students. The author provides a much-needed new paradigm for understanding and combating educational injustice. Radical Possibilities reminds us that historically, equitable public policies have typically been created as a result of the political pressure brought to bear by social movements. Basing her analysis on new research in civil rights history and social movement theory, Anyon skillfully explains how the current moment offers serious possibilities for the creation of such a force. The book powerfully describes five social movements already under way in U.S. cities, and offers readers interested in building this new social movement a set of practical and theoretical insights into securing economic and educational justice for the many millions of America's poor families and students.
KEY WORDS: Poverty; United States; Public Policy; Social Movements.

Apple, M. (2001). Comparing neo-liberal projects and inequality in education. Comparative Education, 37(4), 409-423.

Neoliberalism claims that privatization, marketization, uniform standards, and accountability--some important dynamics surrounding globalization in education--increase choices and quality in education. However, numerous studies show that the market has consistently devalued alternatives; increased the power of dominant models; and exacerbated racial, gender, and class differences in access and outcome. Context-specific effects are emphasized.
KEY WORDS: Accountability; Comparative Education; Educational Change; Educational Discrimination; Educational Philosophy; Equal Education; Free Enterprise System; Middle Class Standards; National Standards; Politics of Education; Power Structure; Privatization; Role of Education; School Choice; Social Bias; Work and Learning.

Apple, M. (2002). Does education have independent power? Bernstein and the question of relative autonomy. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(4), 607-616.

This paper focuses on the ways Basil Bernstein's positions can help understand questions of the autonomy of schools and of the 'class belongingness' of its cultural dynamics. The article demonstrates how differences of various social fields of power & of the complex ways in which class relations work within them enabling a considerably more subtle perspective on 'who controls what' & on what that 'what' actually is. An example of the pedagogic device in one specific nation is used to demonstrate how we can employ it to more rigorously focus our attention on the possible effects education itself has.
KEY WORDS: Class Relations; Power; Sociological Theory; Educational Systems; Social Reproduction; Work and Learning.

Baines, D. (2008). Race, resistance, and restructuring: Emerging skills in the new social services. Social Work, 53(2), 123-131.

Since the introduction of the first neoliberal budgets in the mid-1980s, Canadian social service workers have had ample reason to resist changes in their work lives. Drawing on literature as well as on themes emerging from an intentionally diverse subset of data collected as part of a multiyear study, this article explores the resistance strategies of female, First Nations social workers and social workers of color in relation to changing work structures and power relations in their workplaces. Given their location in ethnically specific services and programs, racialized workers have been affected differently by restructuring and have, in turn, resisted these changes with different outcomes. Indeed, rather than the deskilling common to the sector, First Nations workers and workers of color have generated new, culturally sensitive practice skills. This article analyzes how the marginalized position of many workers of color and Aboriginal workers has shaped the kinds of resistance strategies they use within their paid and unpaid work in the restructured social services arena. The article explores the issue of unpaid work as an important but contradictory form of resistance among social workers. It concludes with suggestions for teaching and practicing in the new social services.
KEY WORDS: Social Work; Caseworkers; Social Services; Foreign Countries; Data Collection; Females; Race; Budgets; Longitudinal Studies; Resistance.

Ball, S. J., Davies, J., David, M., & Reay, D. (2002). "Classification" and "judgment": Social class and the "cognitive structures" of choice of higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(1), 51-72.

The issue of social class-related patterns of access to higher education (HE) has become a matter of public debate in the UK recently, but is on the whole portrayed one-sidedly in terms of issues of selection (elitism) and the social dimensions of choice are neglected. Drawing on an Economic and Social Research Council research study, examines choice of HE using Bourdieu's concepts of 'classification' and 'judgment'. HE is viewed in terms of its internal status differentiations. Students' positive and negative choices are addressed using qualitative and quantitative data, and the 'accuracy' of status perceptions is also tested. Argues that choices are infused with class and ethnic meanings and that choice-making plays a crucial role in the reproduction of divisions and hierarchies in HE, but also that the very idea of choice assumes a kind of formal equality that obscures 'the effects of real inequality'. HE choices are embedded in different kinds of biographies and institutional habituses, and different 'opportunity structures'.
KEY WORDS: Higher Education; Access; Inequalities; Social Class; UK; Social Change; Change.

Balser, D. B., & Stern, R. N. (1999). Resistance and cooperation: A response to conflict over job performance. Human Relations, 52(8), 1029-1053.

Research literature on job performance from both management-oriented and industrial relations/sociology of work models is synthesized to produce a more comprehensive understanding of how supervisors manage employee performance problems. Two assumptions are derived from the synthesis: (1) employees are active in accepting and resisting definitions of performance issues made by supervisors; (2) informal interactions regarding the interpretation of performance issues are pivotal in understanding how performance problems are resolved. This study of university library supervisors focuses on the informal exchanges and characterize them as negotiations over the definition of job performance. Results are reported from a qualitative study of supervisors' interactions with employees identified as having performance problems. Three types of interactions in informal negotiations were found among 15 supervisor-employee dyads. The supervisors' interpretations of their interactions with employees are labeled as conformist, confrontational, or rebellious, designating how supervisors enact their role as agents of the organization.
KEY WORDS: Conflict; Cooperation; Job Performance; Resistance; Supervisor Employee Interaction; Librarians; Changes in Paid Work.

Behar, M. C. (2000). Women weaving webs: Will women rule the Internet? Houston, TX: CBM Press.

This book is a resource for women who want a role in shaping this new technology, as well as for those who want to use the Internet to reach women. Although the Internet is still male-dominated, communication in cyberspace is particularly suited to a woman's way of acting using cooperation, collaboration, sharing and constant communication. The author addresses how women are using the Internet today, and how they can take charge of the "virtual global village". It includes stories of women around the world from Silicon Valley to Eastern Europe, from urban Japan to rural Australia who are discovering the power of the Internet and helping to shape its future.
KEY WORDS: Work and Learning; Women.

Bierema, L. (2001). Women, work, and learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 92(Winter), 53-63.

Women are disadvantaged when it comes to opportunity and learning. Adult educators can take steps to begin changing women's secondary status in the workplace.
KEY WORDS: Women; Adult Education; Workplace; Inequity.

Black, D. H., Amelia; Sanders, Seth; Taylor, Lowell. (2006). Why do minority men earn less? A study of wage differential among the highly educated. The Review of Economics and Statistics [Cambridge], 88(2), 300-313.

Wage gaps using nonparametric matching methods and detailed measures of field of study are estimated for university graduates. Found was a modest portion of the wage gap that is the consequence of measurement error in the Census education measure. Hispanic and Asian men, the remaining gap is attributable to premarket factors -- primarily differences in formal education and English language proficiency. Black men, only about one-quarter of the wage gap is explained by these same factors. A subsample of black men born outside the South, these factors do not account for the entire wage gap.
KEY WORDS: Studies; Wage Differential; Education; Regression Analysis; Minority; Ethnic Groups; Labor market.

Bowl, M. (2001). Experiencing the barriers: Non-traditional students entering higher education. Research Papers in Education: Policy and Practice, 16(2), 141-160.

Examined the educational experiences of nontraditional, ethnic minority, women students in the United Kingdom who were involved in a community-based, flexible access to higher education project in the inner city, highlighting financial and institutional barriers they experienced. Students were frustrated participants in an unresponsive institutional context, struggling against poverty, lack of time, tutor indifference, and institutional marginalization.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Students; College Students; Females; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Inner City; Minority Groups; Nontraditional Students; Poverty; Time Factors (Learning); Barriers to Participation; United Kingdom.

Breen, R., & Goldthorpe, J. H. (2001). Class, mobility and merit: The experience of two British birth cohorts. European Sociological Review, 17(2), 81-119.

The controversial issue of 'meritocracy' can be most productively addressed if it is treated as one of direction of change over time: i.e. whether individual merit, understood in terms of ability, effort, or educational attainment, is growing in importance in processes of social selection. To test the thesis of 'increasing merit selection', the authors analyse data from two British cohort studies relating to children born in 1958 and 1970 respectively. They find that, from the later to the earlier cohort, the pattern of relative rates of class mobility changed little; and that individual merit, as they are able to measure it, did not play a greater part in mediating the association between class origins and destinations. In fact, the effects of ability and educational attainment on individuals' relative mobility chances diminished somewhat. These findings, the authors argue, are less surprising than they may at first appear if viewed in the context of the problematic relationship between the idea of meritocracy and the operation of a free-market economy.
KEY WORDS: Class; Class Mobility.

Brine, J., Beck, V., Fuller, A., Unwin, L., Parker, A., Appleby, Y., et al. (2006). Gender, class and 'race' in lifelong learning. British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 649-750.

This article is based on a textual analysis of European Commission documents that, from 1993 to 2006, construct the discourses of lifelong learning and the knowledge economy. Exploring an apparent conceptual laxity, it finds consistency in the construction of two categories of learners, the high knowledge, skilled learner and the low knowledge skilled learner. According to this paper, the low knowledge skilled learners are not only those at risk but are increasingly constructed as the risk. The article advocates further studies of lifelong learning practices and labour market data based on sophisticated analyses of social class, poverty, age and race.
KEY WORDS: Gender; Class; Race; Continuing Education; Access to Education; Labour Market; Discourse Analysis; Education Policy; Masculinity; Skills; Human Capital; Educational Research; Lifelong Learning.

Buckingham, S., Marandet, E., Smith, F., Wainwright, E., & Diosi, M. (2006). The liminality of training spaces: Places of private/public transitions. Geoforum, 37(6), 895-905.

This paper uses research conducted for the London West Learning and Skills Council exploring the training experiences of women with dependent children. The research indicates that the way in which training spaces are used and perceived by women are often at odds with government intentions. The authors utilise the concept of `liminality' and the private/public imbrication to explain the ways in which women use, or are discouraged from using, training spaces. The varied and multiple uses women put training to in their own lives encouraged the authors to rethink the relationship between the private and the public more generally. They suggest that training and the places in which training take place, have been neglected processes and spaces within feminist geography and might usefully be explored further to add to an extensive literature on women's caring and domestic roles and their role in the paid workplace.
KEY WORDS: Women; Feminist Geography; Training Space; Liminality; Government; Domestic Work; Care Work; Job Training; Private/Public.

Burns, G. E. (2001). Discursive power and problems of native inclusiveness in the public education system: A study of mandated school councils. NALL Working Paper No. 23. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

This study investigated Ontario school council inclusiveness pertaining to Aboriginal peoples. A case study was conducted with a cross section of Native and non-Native Canadians who were directly or indirectly involved in school council-related activities. Researchers audiotaped interviews and focus group discussions with participants and analyzed archival materials (newspaper articles, school council minutes, journal articles, books, and school council materials). Overall, school councils were an externally imposed mandated reform that was not necessarily widely supported by trustees, administrators, and teachers, all of whom appeared threatened by parent and community participation. Council members were not necessarily knowledgeable about their roles and responsibilities. Principals tended to dominate the school council process but lacked the skills to advocate for change, share power, provide appropriate leadership, and develop a vision of school governance. School councils were not inclusive of Native Canadians, so the education, social interests, needs, and expectations of Native parents and community members were not being considered. Results revealed the need for a school council system involving Aboriginal parental, elder, and community participation in order to improve inclusiveness and educational relevancy, excellence, and equity in public education for Aboriginal peoples. (Contains bibliographic references.) (SM)

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