Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Occupational Training; Youth; Apprenticeship Programs; Germany; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Deissinger, T. (2001). Vocational training in small firms in Germany: The contribution of the craft sector. Education and Training, 43(8-9), 426-436.

The dual system of vocational education and apprenticeship in Germany began in the crafts sector. As the services sector develops rapidly, the question arises whether small businesses in this sector are willing to follow the dual system.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeships; Economic Change; Foreign Countries; Handicrafts; Service Occupations; Small Businesses; Tables (Data); Vocational Education; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Department for Education Skills. (2003). 21st century skills: Realising our potential: individuals, employers, nation. London: Stationery Office.

This White Paper describes the Government's national skills strategy to guarantee the sustainable employment and personal fulfillment of individuals in their working life. It also discusses the availability of the required skills for businesses to promote a competitive, productive economy. It focuses on managing the supply of training, skills and qualifications by colleges and training providers to be more responsive to the needs of employers through promoting learning opportunities for all ages, and by encouraging more efficient partnerships across government and the public sector, employers and unions.
KEY WORDS: Education; Great Britain; Training needs; Skills; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Dumbrell, T. (2003). Pathways to apprenticeships. Leabrook, Australia: The National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

Initially the authors of this report aimed, in part at least, to map the establishment and development of pre-apprenticeships in Australia. They discovered, however, a paucity of existing literature on this topic and have been unable to meet this aim in full. This report has achieved, nonetheless, a descriptive analysis of recent pre-apprenticeship provision across Australia. It contains the findings from interviews with participants in, and providers of, pre-apprenticeship programs and identifies the role that such programs might usefully play as a component of overall VET provision. The report findings are based on an analysis of National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) VET statistical data, supplemented by information obtained through focus groups with students and interviews with trainers and training experts and representatives from industry. The VET data were derived from a special series developed by NCVER from national VET statistical data for the period 1994 to 2000. The data were further refined by the researchers by discarding courses that were clearly not pre-apprenticeship. An important finding from this activity is that, at present, there is no fail-safe method for accurate determination of the total number of enrolments in pre-apprenticeship courses; they are one of many pathways into apprenticeships. For this reason the data presented here should be treated with caution.
KEY WORDS: Access to Information; Apprenticeships; Career Development; Developed Nations; Employer Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Introductory Courses; Job Training; Postsecondary Education; Prevocational Education; Secondary Education; Student Attitudes; Student Financial Aid; Teacher Attitudes; Vocational Education; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Euwals, R., & Winkelmann, R. (2001). Why do firms train? Empirical evidence on the first labour market outcomes of graduated apprentices. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Germany's apprenticeship system is the most important source of formal post-secondary training. This paper investigates why firms are willing to invest in such training even though many apprentices will leave the training firm soon after completion the apprenticeship program. Using German register data - the IAB Employment Sample - we find that apprentices staying with their training firm after graduation have (1) higher wages and (2) longer first-job durations than apprentices leaving the training firm. These findings support the theory that firms use the apprenticeship system to select and retain the more able apprentices, thereby recouping the costs of investing in skills that are portable in principle.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeship Programs; Germany; Employees; Apprentices; Employment; Labor Turnover; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Euwals, R. W., Rainer. (2004). Training intensity and first labor market outcomes of apprenticeship graduates. International Journal of Manpower, 25(5), 447-462.

The most important source of formal post-secondary training in Germany is the apprenticeship system. Using German register data--the IAB Employment Sample--it is found that apprentices staying with their training firm after graduation have longer first-job durations but not higher wages than apprentices leaving the training firm. Retention rates, first job durations, and post-apprenticeship wages are increasing functions of training intensity. Implications for the ongoing debate as to why firms are willing to invest in general training are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs; On-the-Job Training; Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill; Training; Occupation; Industry; Schooling; Experience; Tenure; Cohort; Personnel Economics; Training; Germany; Apprenticeship; Training; Wage; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Farrell, L. (2004). Workplace education and corporate control in global networks of interaction. Journal of Education and Work, 17(4), 479-493.

On the one hand, contemporary corporations want people who are geographically, culturally and temporally remote to work together to generate new knowledge and accomplish routine work--they want to generate multi-disciplinary, globally dispersed communities of practice. On the other hand, they need to exert some control over this divergent, dispersed, innovative and creative workforce. Here I explore the role that workplace education plays in mediating individual and group autonomy, and central control, in global networks of interaction. I consider the ways that three workplace educators (working in government training institutions, commercial organisations, in-house human resource departments and unions) intervene in work practice at local (but not necessarily geographically local) worksites in unexamined ways. I argue that their stories offer us insights into the ways workplace educators help create new (face-to-face and virtual) learning communities, certainly, but they also help to exert centralised corporate control over work practice, work relationships and work identities, in unobtrusive ways.
KEY WORDS: Workplace Literacy; Workplace Education; Globalization; Work and Learning; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2003). Creating a "modern apprenticeship": A critique of the UK's multi-sector, social inclusion approach. Journal of Education and Work, 16(1), 5-25.

Analysis of the United Kingdom's Modern Apprenticeship program, designed to increase intermediate job skills, shows that in many sectors, apprentices leave without completing qualifications, especially in sectors with no history of apprenticeship. A key problem is lack of employer demand conflicting with the government's focus on improving social inclusion.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeships; Employer Attitudes; Federal Programs; Foreign Countries; Job Skills; Labor Needs; Program Effectiveness; Social Integration; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Gabbard, D. (Ed.). (2000). Knowledge and power in the global economy: Politics and the rhetoric of school reform. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

This book advances a threefold political agenda: First, it demonstrates how the meanings assigned to a whole vocabulary of words and phrases frequently used to discuss the role and reform of U.S. public schools reflect an essentially economic view of the world. Second, it contends that education or educational reform conducted under an economized worldview will only intensify the nefarious effects of the colonial relations of political, cultural, and economic domination that it breeds at home and abroad. Finally, it offers a set of alternative concepts and meanings for reformulating the role of U.S. public schools and for considering the implications of such a reformulation more generally for the underlying premises of all human relationships and activities.
KEY WORDS: Education; Economic Aspects; United States; Politics and Education; Educational Change; Curriculum Change; Critical Pedagogy; Work and Learning; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Gallacher, J. (2004). Modern apprenticeships: Improving completion rates. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research.

This research was commissioned by the Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department to assist them in developing policies and practices for Modern Apprenticeships. The research applies only to those aged 16-24 at the time of registering for the MA, and who were registered for a MA through a Local Enterprise Company. As there were over 25,000 modern apprentices in training in the Scottish Enterprise Network at the end of March 2003 and over 1,500 in the Highlands and Islands Enterprise Network, with 75 different frameworks available, the report describes the development and structure of Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeship Programs; Scotland; Evaluation; Youth; Training; Scotland; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Gallo, M. L. (2004). Reading the world of work: A learner-centred approach to workplace literacy and ESL. Malabar: Krieger.

This book describes the ways in which workplace literacy programs can use a creative learner-centered approach to facilitate language learning through problem posing and critical thinking. By using learners' own experiences as the basis for the curriculum in a critical approach to literacy, educators can present a common ground for adults of differing language backgrounds and learning styles to better use their literacy skills in a workplace culture. As well, the book details the ways in which educators can help workers learn to negotiate the environment of their workplace and to use their communicative skills outside of work.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Workplace Environment; Work and Learning; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Gaskell, J., & Rubenson, K. (Eds.). (2004). Educational outcomes for the Canadian workplace. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Educational Outcomes for the Canadian Workplace explores how educational programs are changing, which skills matter in the economy, and how policy has responded to the educational and economic pressures of the 1990s. In this book, Jane Gaskell and Kjell Rubenson have brought together a distinguished group of scholars from economics, commerce, sociology of education, adult education, and educational administration to discuss a broad range of issues related to education and the economy in Canada. The implications of their discussions are far-reaching: educational policy not only affects the development of skills and knowledge for a competitive labour market, but also has an impact on social equality, economic growth, and civic engagement. Presenting in-depth research and analysis, this volume makes a significant contribution to Canadian and international debate on the meaning of the new global economy for educational policy and practice.
KEY WORDS: Labour Supply; Education; Economic Aspects; Statistics; Work and Learning; Equity; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Gospel, H. F., & Foreman, J. (2002). The provision of training in Britain: Case-studies of inter-firm coordination. London: Centre for Economic Performance London School of Economics and Political Science.

This Report examines how and why employers cooperate in the provision of training. This cooperation exists in the German-speaking countries where employers' organisations and chambers of commerce are a fundamental part of training. It is argued that such training is more prevalent than originally thought and can have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of training in the UK. Case studies indicate that such cooperation exists when the following exists: an industry-wide body; local multi-industry body; a traditional group training association; a local consortium of big employers; and a network of firms in a large company's supply chain. In the UK, though such forms of organisation do exist the coverage is uneven and stability is fragile.
KEY WORDS: Employees; Training; Great Britain; Case Studies; Apprenticeship Programs; Employer; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Graham, P., & Stacey, N. (Eds.). (2002). The knowledge economy and postsecondary education: Report of a workshop. Washington: National Academy Press.

The Committee on the Impact of the Changing Economy on the Education System of the Center for Education, National Research Council, held a workshop to discuss changes in postsecondary education practices in response to economic factors. The report results from the Committees deliberations, the discussions at the workshop, and the papers prepared for the workshop. Part 1 of this document, the Workshop Report, identifies the central questions that emerged from the workshop discussion. Part 2 presents the following conference papers: (1) Demographic and Attainment Trends in Postsecondary Education (Lisa Hudson); (2) Community Colleges in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities (Thomas Bailey); (3) The Impact of the Changing Economy on Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education: The Importance of the Internet (Carol A. Twigg); (4) Higher Education, the Emerging Market, and the Public Good (Brian Pusser); (5) A Role for the Internet in American Education? Lessons from Cisco Networking Academies (Richard Murnane, Nancy Sharkey, and Frank Levy); and (6) Creating High Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn (John Bransford, Nancy Vye, and Helen Bateman). One appendix contains the workshop agenda, and the other lists workshop participants. Each paper contains references.
KEY WORDS: United States; Higher Education; Internet; Work and Learning; Formal Training; Employment and Education.
Hall, R., Bretherton, T., & Buchanan, J. (2000). "It's not my problem": The growth of non-standard work and its impact on vocational education and training in Australia. Leabrook: Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Australian National Training Authority.
This study investigated implications of the increase in non-standard forms of employment for vocational education and training (VET) in Australia. Data were generated through published statistics on growth of non-standard work, research on business and training practices of organizations that use non-standard labor, case studies of 8 organizations in New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland using non-standard labor, and individual life histories of 16 non-standard workers. Findings indicated that 58.8 % of the work force are permanent employees; most growth has occurred in casual and contractor forms of employment; and employer investment in training is related to cost. Case studies and life histories revealed that many non-standard workers prefer more ongoing, certain employment; non-standard employment levels were rising; and employers who employ labor hire or outsourcing have attempted to shift the burden of training to the labor-hire firm or outsourced service provider. The authors propose stimulating employer expenditure on training. Evidence pointed to the need for the VET sector to target the non-standard work force.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Biographies; Case Studies; Corporate Support; Developed Nations; Educational Finance; Employment Patterns; Employment Practices; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Australia; Employee Leasing; Outsourcing.

Hamilton, G. (2000). The decline of apprenticeship in North America. The journal of economic history, 60(3), 627-664.

Apprenticeship was the foremost means of acquiring skill in North America and Europe but this began to decline around 1815 and is not the case presently in North America. Reasons for this decline are not well understood. This paper draws on a population of apprentice contracts signed in Montreal over a 50-year period. Results indicate that during the first phase of this decline masters responded to greater difficulties in contract enforcement. Later, direct effect of the rise of larger establishments on the market for apprentices appears (late 1820s and 1830s).
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeship programs; History; Industries; Training; Quebec; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Harkins, A. M. (2002). The future of career and technical education in a continuous innovation society. Washington, DC: Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Career and technical education (CTE) is the appropriate and preferred channel for leading a software-supported experiential mission shift to prepare, support, and evolve flexible, information-producing, high-performance knowledge workers for a continuous innovation society. Knowledge management attempts to capture human knowledge in the form of units or objects that can be networked to other people or to software/machines. Five learning approaches share this common purpose: human capital development and application. Heuristic scenarios of work forces using these learning approaches and their supporting technologies convey a profound shift away from learning and performance as ends in themselves, in favor of continuous innovation as a process of working, living, and learning. Deconstruction of repetitious tasks frees human and other resources for continuous innovation. Information-based skill-concentrated distributed competence (DC) software is at the same time a direct threat to all repetitive human functions at work, in learning, or in community and the most hopeful and compatible equalizer for the ignorant, unskilled, slow, blind-sided, and unimaginative. Performance-based learning can effectively create learning in the context of tasks supported by DC software. CTE, with its technical focus and performance innovation outcomes mandates, is ideally positioned to lead the rest of education into new leadership and prominence.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Competency Based Education; Computer Managed Instruction; Experiential Learning; Futures (of Society); Human Capital; Informal Education; Knowledge Management; Knowledge Utilization; Learning Organizations; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Hartkamp, J. (2001). Apprenticeship in France, Ireland, the Netherlands and Scotland: Comparisons and trends. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research (Lille, France, September, 5-8, 2001).

A study compared developments in size of apprenticeship programs and changes in the distribution of apprentices over occupational categories in Ireland, Scotland, and the Netherlands during the last 2 decades. Data were from the "time-series" school leavers' surveys database. Findings indicated, toward the late 1990s, Irish apprenticeship was almost exclusively limited to skilled manual occupations and to crafts and related trades. The Scottish apprenticeship system was also rather "focused," but to a lesser extent. The Dutch apprenticeship system covered a broad array of occupations; only one-third of all apprentices were in skilled manual jobs. Occupational differences were smaller in the early 1980s. Apprenticeship became somewhat more limited to crafts or skilled manual jobs in Ireland and significantly less limited in Scotland, where apprentices appeared in service and market sales occupations in the early 1980s and in clerk jobs in the early 1990s. In Ireland, apprenticeship ceased to be the main route to skilled blue collar jobs. The structure of the Scottish youth labor market was very stable in comparison with Ireland, but the division of labor among apprentices, trainees, and "normal workers" fluctuated heavily in Scotland from 1979-95. The percentage of missing values for Dutch apprentices on the EGP variable was too high and too fluctuating over time to permit data analysis.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeships; Comparative Analysis; Developed Nations; Dropouts; Education Work Relationship; Employment Patterns; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Labor Market; Longitudinal Studies; Occupations; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Youth Employment; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Heidemann, W. (2000). Lifelong learning and employability: Is the European model of vocational training in crisis? Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.

This paper explores the traditional European model of vocational training in light of a new focus on employability and lifelong learning that is becoming more common in Europe. It includes the following four sections: (1) an overview of some examples of vocational training systems in Europe and the proposal that they share enough to be considered a European model that includes a consensus that all young people should be given a basic vocational qualification, the involvement of all companies in vocational training, and social dialogue and a tripartite (trade unions, employer associations, government) approach to regulation of the system; (2) a description of some European trends in industries and companies that are of importance for vocational training; (3) discussion about the question of lifelong access to vocational training provisions; and (4) suggestions about the need for change in the European model of vocational training.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Educational Philosophy; Student Certification; Unions; Vocational Education; Denmark; Europe; France; Germany; Great Britain; Information Society; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Holland, C. E., Frank, F. E., & Caunt, J. C. E. (2001). Breaking down barriers: Certificate in workplace language, literacy and numeracy training. (2nd ed.). London: Department for Education and Skills.

This document is the course book of an accredited 3-day professional development course for qualified basic skills tutors in the United Kingdom who are interested in working in workplace settings. The course materials are organized into 17 sections grouped into 4 units as follows: (1) general concepts of workplace language, literacy, and numeracy training and organizational culture (provision in the context of the workplace; a whole-organizational approach; organizational culture; cultural models; new developments affecting workplace language, literacy, and numeracy); (2) making it happen (keeping the organization with you; the organizational needs analysis; negotiating with an organization; employers' checklists; steering groups); (3) setting it up (publicity; the program outline; delivery options); and (4) developing the learning program (developing objectives and learning outcomes; accreditation in the workplace context; program expectations; evaluation). Accreditation information is presented for use with tutors who are taking the course to earn a certificate in workplace language, literacy, and numeracy training. Two suggested assignments are presented for each of the four course units. Each suggested assignment includes a brief description of the assignment, a behavioral objective, performance criteria, evidence indicators, and evidence requirements. A bibliography listing 38 references and list of 30 useful organizations are included. A progression pathways map and Basic Skills Initiative diagram are appended.
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