Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making



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KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; At Risk Persons; Economically Disadvantaged; Education Work Relationship; Educational Finance; Employed Women; Flexible Working Hours; Foreign Countries; Employed Women; Flexible Working Hours; Job Training; School Business Relationship; Technological Literacy; Temporary Employment; Transitional Programs; Vocational Education; Women Education; Working Poor; Youth Employment.

Tuijnman, A. (2003). Measuring lifelong learning for the new economy. Compare, 33(4), 471-482.


Describes the challenges that research and statistical systems are faced with in the education sector. Argues these consequences are the result of decisions made for economically advanced countries to adopt a lifelong learning framework and strategy in response to the move toward the new global economy.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Capital; Community Resources; Comparative Education; Developed Nations; Global Approach; Human Resources; Information Needs; Input Output Analysis; Labor Market; Lifelong Learning; International Adult Literacy Survey; International Standard; Classification of Education.

Unwin, L., & Fuller, A. (2003). Expanding learning in the workplace: Making more of individual and organizational potential. A NIACE Policy discussion paper. Leicester, England: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.


Expanding workplace learning in the United Kingdom by making better use of individual and organizational potential were examined. Focusing on the following issues: ways of fostering, improving, and increasing learning in the workplace; ways of enhancing access to & participation in workplace learning; ways of making workplace learning opportunities accessible to people who are currently outside paid employment; and ways of helping workplaces play a more central role in the UK's plans for greater learning participation. Workplace learning was made an expansive approach to workplace learning was outlined. The issue of creating the institutional capacity for supporting the approach was discussed. Among the twelve recommendations offered to policymakers are: (1) establish greater coherence between the responsibilities of the organizations currently charged with improving workplace learning; (2) restrict public funding for workplace learning to organizations that are prepared to commit to moving toward becoming expansive learning environments; (3) place equal focus on adults and young people; (4) establish learning champions within & outside the workplace; (5) provide incentives to organizations to increase training for managers to enable then to foster and maintain expansive learning environments; and (6) set the standard by the public sector & reward exemplary private sector organizations.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Students; Corporate Education; Definitions; Education Work Relationship; Educational Environment; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education; Student Recruitment; Vocational Education.

Venter, K. (2004). One country, two systems, multiple skill demands: The dilemmas facing the education system in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Education and Work, 17(3), 283-300.


This article argues that China's education system is facing unprecedented pressures to provide appropriately skilled individuals to meet the demands of the rapidly growing economy. In China this is a uniquely complex situation owing to the coexistence of a diminishing command and control economy and a growing market economy. Within this context we find that there are at least three sets of employers placing different demands on the education system. These demands come from three groups of organisations operating under different forms of ownership who prioritise skills differently based on different ideological and historical approaches to organisation, management and learning. Consequently they relate differently to the education system, placing varying demands on the system and using the education and training system to serve rather different functions in their skill supply strategies.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Free Enterprise System; Education Work Relationship; Adult Education; Economic Change; Adults; Formal Education; Schooling.

Watson, E. (2007). Who or what creates? A conceptual framework for social creativity. Human Resource Development Review, 6(4), 419-441.


Creativity, according to Watson, is increasingly understood as a social phenomenon, especially within organizations. The article offers a conceptual framework for social creativity that integrates dominant perspectives from the literature. Central questions that structure the literature review along two lies. First, because both individuals and entities, such as teams, can be agents of creativity, who or what creates? Second, through what sites of action or contexts does creative engagement by individuals, groups, and organizations occur? An integrative review of the literature reveals that the engagement occurs in individuals, in individuals interacting, in group work, and in complex multilevel systems.
KEY WORDS: Creativity; Organizational Studies; Human Resources; Discretion.

Winch, C. (2000). Education, work and social capital: Towards a new conception of vocational education. New York: Routledge.


This book examines the relationship among education, work, and social capital at the beginning of the 21st century. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 15 chapters: (1) necessity, work, effort, and leisure; (2) the economic and work-related aims of education, including liberal, vocational, and civic education; (3) the conceptualization of economic life and the consumptionist tradition inherited from Adam Smith and also found in the work of Marx; (4) the conceptualization of economic life and the political economy as discussed by List; (5) moral education and work (with special emphasis on paid employment and the continuing of education through the social demands and relationships arising in the workplace); (6) vocational education and vocational training (the misconception of vocational education as training, differences between training and conditioning, the importance of assessment in vocational education); (7) learning in the workplace; (8) two rival conceptions of vocational education; (9) education and labor markets; (10) education, well-being, and economic growth (vocational education as a process of formation); (11) the social value of work; (12) education and the "end-of-work" thesis; (13) education and work in a social capital perspective; and (14) policy issues related to schooling, qualifications, and the transition to work.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizenship Education; Skilled Occupations; Social Capital; Social Values; Trend Analysis; Values Education; Vocational Education; Well Being; Work Attitudes; Work Environment; Work Ethic.




Section 4.2 Employment and Education-Formal
Training, Apprenticeships

Anderson, T., & Metcalf, H. (2003). Modern apprenticeship employers: Evaluation study. Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills.


This survey of 1500 Modern Apprenticeship (MA) employers was designed to update information on employers' perspectives and experiences of MAs and to identify items that may allow expansion of MAs among participating employers, quantity and quality of training, the significance of qualification attainment and completion and investigate issues related to current changes in MAs.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeship Programs; Great Britain; Evaluation; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Askilden, J. E., & Nilsen, O. A. (2005). Apprentices and young workers: A study of the Norwegian youth labour market. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 52(1), 1-17.


Many countries have apprenticeship programmes that are important stepping stones into the labour market. Recruitment of apprentices seem to follow the business cycle. This pattern may be caused by firms' contemporaneous demand for labour, but may also be consistent with an investment hypothesis. A model, in which the tightness in the labour market is taken into account, is tested on a sample of Norwegian quarterly firm-specific data. Results give some support to an investment hypothesis. The apprentices replace some skilled labour but are recruited primarily based on the labour market situation. The wage level plays a minor role for recruitment of apprentices.
KEY WORDS: Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs; On-the-Job Training; Labor Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs; Norway; Apprenticeship; Youth; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Bailey, M. W. (1998). Early legal education in the United States: Natural law theory and law as a moral science. Journal of Legal Education, 48(3), 311-328.


An examination of the history of legal education covers the long period of law-office apprenticeship as the principal method of legal education in the United States and reviews trends in the period of formal education, the relationship between formal education and professional practice, the philosophical context for legal education, instruction in moral philosophy, and evolution of natural law theory.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeships; Educational History; Educational Philosophy; Higher Education; Job Skills; Legal Education (Professions); Moral Values; Philosophy; Professional Education; Relevance (Education); Skill Development; United States History; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Becker, A., Horn, L., & Carroll, C. D. (2003). Work first, study second: Adult undergraduates who combine employment and post secondary enrollment. Post secondary educational descriptive analysis reports. Washington: DC: National Center for Education Statistics.


Working adult undergraduates can be broken into two groups: employees who study (those who work full-time and pursue post secondary education to obtain skills necessary to advance in their careers) and students who work (those who work part-time and attend school full-time). In 1999-2000 roughly two-thirds of working undergraduates aged 24 or older reported that work was their primary activity, and among these nearly 70% combined full-time work with part-time attendance. these working adults make up a large percentage of the undergraduate population and nearly one-half received some sort of financial aid. including one-quarter who received aid from their employers. However, full-time work and part-time attendance combined with family responsibilities appeared to be barriers to completing a credential. Despite the fact that most employees who study thought it was important to earn a formal credential, 62% had not done so within 6 years. Moreover, among those who left, most did so in their first year. In contrast, their counterparts whose focus was on postsecondary enrollment students who work experience more positive educational outcomes. These students, who were more likely to have fewer family responsibilities, were more likely to earn post secondary credentials, especially bachelor's degrees.
KEY WORDS: Academic Persistence; Adult Students; Bachelors Degrees; Educational Certificates; Fringe Benefits; Full Time Students; Nontraditional Students; Outcomes of Education; Part Time Employment; Part Time Students; Post Secondary Education; Student Employment; Student Financial Aid; Undergraduate Students; Withdrawal; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Bilginsoy, C. (2005). Registered apprenticeship training in the US construction industry. Education & Training, 47(4-5), 337-349.


This paper aims to compare the performance of building trades apprenticeship programs in the USA, sponsored jointly by employers and unions, with those sponsored unilaterally by employers. It reviews enrolment and graduation rates, including participation of women and minorities. The article also looks behind the numbers to examine the operation of apprenticeship. It reviews the evolution of joint programs, including institutional arrangements and recent innovations to cope with the challenging characteristics of construction labor markets. Design/methodology/approach - Statistical comparisons by type of program sponsor are carried out using individual-level data on registered apprenticeship for the period 1996-2003. Evolution of apprenticeship programs is discussed in a historical perspective. Findings - Joint programs with union participation were found to have much higher enrolments and greater participation of women and ethnic/racial minorities. Joint programs also exhibit markedly better performance for all groups on rates of attrition and completion. Joint programs have developed various innovations, including college credit for training and scholarship loans to expand apprenticeship and improve quality and retention, although there are no quantitative evaluations of the effectiveness of many of these specific measures. Research limitations/implications - Statistical information includes about 65 percent of all registered apprentices in the USA. Practical implications - The paper shows that alternative forms of training sponsorship have substantially different effects on enrolment and graduation. Identification of the practices, that improve enrolment and retention, and their widespread adoption would enhance the effectiveness of training programs. Originality/value - The dataset used in this paper has not yet been used in any publications. The findings regarding joint programs are notable, in view of the skilled labor shortages facing the construction industry in the USA.
KEY WORDS: Program Effectiveness; Females; Graduation Rate; Construction Industry; College Credits; Building Trades; Apprenticeships; Unions; Minority Groups; School Holding Power; Enrollment Rate; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Billett, S., & Hayes, S. (2000). Meeting the demand: The needs of vocational education and training clients. Brisbane: Australian National Training Authority.


The needs of the clients of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined in this report. Case studies of client groups in rural, urban, and metropolitan areas were also conducted. The client groups studied included: (1) enterprises (4 owners/managers or workplace experts/delegates per region); (2) industry (at least 1 industry training advisory board or technical and further education curriculum officer per state and one national officer); (3) individuals (at least 50 past students, approximately 50 current students, and 30 prospective VET students per industry); and (4) members of regional/community boards or governments. The study indicated that shifting to an enterprise focus when planning VET may be responsive to enterprises' needs but could potentially result in highly localized skill development rather than achievement of longer-term industry and individual goals. A model was proposed for determining the need for and implementation of VET that seeks to reconcile differences among industry, regions, and individuals and achieve mutuality of interests. The model called for focusing VET planning on occupations rather than industry. The bibliography lists 44 references. Appendixes constituting approximately 50% of the document contain case studies from the provincial center, rural region, and metropolitan region.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Administrator Attitudes; Decision Making; Education Work Relationship; Educational Demand; Educational Needs; Educational Planning; School Business Relationship; Secondary Education; Student Needs; Urban Areas; Vocational Education; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Bougheas, S. G., Yannis. (2004). Early career mobility and earnings profiles of German apprentices: Theory and empirical evidence. Labour, 18(2), 233-263.


How apprenticeship training affects the early career mobility and earnings profiles of young apprentices in Germany. The heterogeneous quality and nature (whether general or firm specific) of training across firms is anticipated to be reflected in the post-apprenticeship mobility and earning patterns of young workers. We argue that a simple model of training and labour turnover can explain such patterns. Assuming that job changes are associated with a loss of accumulated firm-specific skills, the model predicts that although movers initially experience a productivity loss, earnings grow at a faster rate than those of stayers. Later movers experience a larger reduction in their earnings compared with direct movers. Estimated selectivity-corrected earnings equations for movers and stayers, based on data from the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP), support the predictions of the model and highlight important differences in earnings profiles and mobility patterns with size of firm.
KEY WORDS: Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs; On-the-Job Training; Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill; Training; Occupation; Industry; Schooling; Experience; Tenure; Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility, Promotion; Germany; Apprenticeship; Earnings; Training; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Bourner, T., Katz, T. E., & Watson, D. (Eds.). (2000). New directions in professional higher education. Buckingham: Open University Press / Society for Research into Higher Education.


This collection contains a series of analytical case studies of developing practices that respond to the challenges to higher education in the United Kingdom at the start of the new millennium.
KEY WORDS: Case Studies; Educational Practices; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Lifelong Learning; Partnerships in Education; Professional Development; Teacher Certification; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Brauns, H. (1999). Vocational education in Germany and France. International Journal of Sociology, 28(4), 57-98.


This article compares the vocational training systems in the Federal Republic of Germany and France. Using previously collected data, the structure and reform of each country's system over the past 20 years are examined separately. Germany's vocational training system is largely independent from the school system, while France's system is included in the secondary school system. The French system is also more stratified than the German system and includes hierarchical qualification levels. Data indicate that, in contrast to France, the German system privileges the workplace over school as the place of vocational training and emphasizes immediately useful skills. However, analysis also exposes convergent tendencies in the two systems. Following the French model, Germany has expanded full-time schooling facilities, and France has adopted elements of the German dual training system by modernizing its apprenticeship training and implementing forms of alternative training.
KEY WORDS: Vocational Education; Educational Systems; Educational Reform; Federal Republic of Germany; France; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Brown, P. (2003). The opportunity trap: Education and employment in a global economy. European Educational Research Journal, 2(1), 141-179.


The possibility to make a better life is enshrined in democratic societies. In recent decades the growth in personal freedom and the rhetoric of the knowledge economy have led many to believe that we have more opportunities than ever before. We are told that the trade-off between efficiency and justice no longer holds in a global knowledge-driven economy, as the opportunity to exploit the talents of all, at least in the developed world, is now a realistic goal. This paper will challenge such accounts of education, opportunity and global labour market. It points to enduring social inequalities in the competition for a livelihood and an intensification of "positional" conflict. Our "opportunities" are becoming harder to cash in. The opportunity-cost is increasing because the pay-off depends on getting ahead in the competition for tough-entry jobs. Middle-class families in competitive hotspots are adopting increasingly desperate measures to win a positional advantage. But the opportunity trap is not only a problem for individuals or families. It exposes an inherent tension, if not contradiction, in the relationship between capitalism and democracy. It will be argued that the legitimate foundations of opportunity, based on education, jobs and rewards, are unravelling. Within education, this not only represents further symptoms of the "diploma disease" but a social revolution that fundamentally challenges our understanding of education, efficiency and social justice.
KEY WORDS: Knowledge Economy; Global Economy; Labor Market; Capitalism; Democracy; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Campbell, J. M., Ailsa; Thomson, Emily. (2005). How 'modern' is the modern apprenticeship? Local Economy, 20(3), 294-304.


Some sectors of industry are facing major skills shortages, the Scottish labour market continues to be characterised by occupational segregation and a large disparity between the wages of both women and men. The concentration of people in occupations and training based on gender effectively restricts the pool of potential recruits to industry and is unlikely to make the best use of human capital. It obstructs the pursuit of gender equality by reinforcing the gender pay gap and restricting individual career choices. Reported on is government's flagship training policy, the Modern Apprenticeship programme, from a gender perspective. In conclusion, 10 years on from its introduction, the scheme represents something of a "missed opportunity" to tackle occupational segregation and its deleterious effects in the wider economy and in society at large. Recommended is that government and organisations involved in the development and delivery of Modern Apprenticeships adopt a more conscious and cohesive approach to promoting non-traditional choices at the vocational level.
KEY WORDS: Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs; Training; Occupation; Regional Economics; Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population; UK; Apprenticeship; Training; Wage; Women; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Canadian Labour and Business Centre. (2003). Accessing and completing apprenticeship in Canada perceptions of barriers: Canadian Apprenticeship Forum/Forum Canadien sur l'apprentissage.


The 'Accessing and Completing Apprenticeship Training in Canada' report highlights some of the perceived barriers that apprentices may face when accessing and completing apprenticeship training in Canada. It attempts to identify and explore the perspectives of individuals, unions, employers, governments and education concerning barriers to accessing, maintaining and completing apprenticeships. The reports attempts to determine which barriers are systemic and which may be specific to certain groups. It recommends bringing consulting with the apprenticeship community and specific groups to discuss the findings and examine recommendations.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeship Training; Canada; Barriers to Access; Formal Training; Employment and Education.

Clark, D., & Fahr, R. (2002). The promise of workplace training for non-college bound youth: theory and evidence from German apprenticeship. London: Centre for Economic Performance London School of Economics and Political Science.


Using a large administrative dataset, this discussion paper assesses the potential of "workplace training" with reference to German Apprenticeship. When job-skill matching is important, we draw from conditions under which firms provide "optimal" training. The German system broadly meets these conditions. We find returns to apprenticeship for the lowest ability school-leavers comparable to standard estimates of return to school. In addition, training is transferable across a wide range of occupations. In conclusion, the positive experience with German Apprenticeship Training may guide the design of similar policies in various countries.
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