Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making



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KEY WORDS: Educational Surveys; Canada; Adult Education; Occupational Training; Employees Training; Employer-Supported Education; Vocational Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Level; Postsecondary Education; Education; Age; Sex; Statistics Databases.

Rubenson, K. (2007). Determinants of formal and informal Canadian adult learning: Insights from the adult education and training surveys. Gatineau, Québec: Human Resources and Social Development Canada.


This study examines the trends and patterns in participation in formal and informal job-related training in Canada. Adult Education and Training Surveys (AETS) conducted in 1993, 1997 and 2002 show that the increased participation in adult education and training does not reflect all the policies that emphasize the critical role of knowledge and skills Canada's economic competitiveness and prosperity. The findings from this study demonstrate a need for development of a Canadian strategy on lifelong learning and work.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Formal Job-related Training; Informal Job-related Training; Lifelong Learning; Participation Rate; Surveys; Canada.

Canadian Census


Statistics Canada. (2000). Education indicators in Canada: Report of the pan-Canadian education indicators program 1999. Ottawa: Statistics Canada & Council of Ministers of Education Canada.
Education, at all levels, from pre-primary to postsecondary through to adult education and training, plays a crucial role in the development of individuals and society. An educated work force, capable of using knowledge to generate innovation, is vital to a strong and prosperous economy. Education empowers people to be involved in the issues and debates affecting them and society. Indeed, in the Joint Ministerial Declaration of 1999, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for education and training affirmed that the future of our society depends on informed and educated citizens. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has adopted the principle of lifelong learning to reflect the diversity of education and training that individuals will engage in over their lifetimes. This report provides a comprehensive set of statistical measures, or indicators, describing the education systems in Canada in terms of students, teachers, finances and outcomes. It is the publication of the Canadian Education Statistics Council and was produced by Statistics Canada and the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, in collaboration with the provinces and territories.
KEY WORDS: Educational indicators; Statistics; Elementary Education; Secondary Education; Postsecondary Education; Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2001). National occupational classification 2001. Ottawa: Ministery of Supply and Services, Statistics Canada.


Developed in co-operation with Statistics Canada, this report is the standard framework for collecting and analyzing labour market information. The revised NOC 2001 provides accurate and up-to-date descriptions of over 500 occupational groups that cover approximately 30,000 job titles. The Canadian labour market has changed significantly since the 1992 release of the NOC. Technological advancements have created a number of emerging occupations and have transformed many others. The revised NOC 2001 now includes eight new occupational groups for work in the information technology industry. The new skills required in Canada's knowledge-based economy are reflected throughout the NOC 2001. This report is seen as being an indispensable tool for those who use labour market information, plan human resources, conduct labour market research and analysis, assist with career planning and vocational rehabilitation, and provide career information services.
KEY WORDS: Occupations Classification; Occupations Dictionaries; Occupations Terminology; Occupations Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2002). Census handbook, 2001. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Census operations division.


The 2001 Census Handbook is a reference document covering every aspect of the 2001 Census of Population and Census of Agriculture. It provides an overview of every phase of the census, from content determination to data dissemination. It traces the history of the census from the early days of New France to the present. It also contains information about the protection of confidential information in census questions and variables, along with information about data quality and the possible uses of census data. Also covered are census geography and the range of products and services available from the 2001 Census database.
URL: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/home/index.cfm
KEY WORDS: Population Surveys; Educational Surveys; Employment Surveys; Agricultural Surveys; Canada; Census, 2001; Handbooks, Manuals; Methodology; Population Statistical Methods; Methodology.

Statistics Canada. (2002). Census dictionary, 2001. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Census operations division.


The 2001 Census Dictionary provides detailed information on all of the concepts, universes, variables and geographic terms of the 2001 Census. The information provided for each variable includes a definition, the associated census question(s), the applicable response categories or classifications and special notes The Census Dictionary also includes supplemental plain language definitions for certain variables, without census or Statistics Canada jargon, to help users better understand the meaning of the definitions.

The Dictionary is divided into five sections. These sections are:

i) Population Universe - Provides information on the characteristics of Canada's population, such as demography, language, mobility, immigration, labour force activity and income.

ii) Family Universe - Pertains to the characteristics of family units. Both census and economic families are included.

iii) Household Universe - Covers the characteristics of a person or a group of persons who occupy a private dwelling.

iv) Dwelling Universe - Describes the characteristics of dwelling units in Canada.

v) Geography - Describes terms related to geographic areas, census cartography and census geographic products and services.
URL: http://www.statcan.ca/english/census2001/dict/appendices/e_dictionary_2001.pdf
KEY WORDS: Population Surveys; Educational Surveys; Employment Surveys; Agricultural Surveys; Canada; Census, 2001; Handbooks, Manuals; Methodology; Population Statistical Methods; Methodology.

Statistics Canada. (2002). Profile of the Canadian population by age and sex: Canada ages. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


New census data on age and sex show that as of May 15, 2001, the median age of Canada's population reached an all-time high of 37.6 years, an increase of 2.3 years from 35.3 in 1996. This was the biggest census-to-census increase in a century. Median age is the point where exactly one-half of the population is older, and the other half is younger. The decline in the number of births that occurred since 1991 is a major factor behind both the record-low growth in population between 1996 and 2001, and the record increase in median age.
URL: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/Products/Analytic/companion/age/images/96F0030XIE2001002.pdf
KEY WORDS: Demographic Surveys; Age; Sex; Population Surveys; Employment Surveys; Immigrants; Educational Surveys; Canada; Census.

Statistics Canada. (2002). Profile of Canadian families and households: Diversification continues. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


A family portrait taken by the census at the outset of the 21st Century shows a continuation of many of the changes in families over the last 20 years. The proportion of "traditional" families- mom, dad and the kids-continues to decline, while families with no children at home are on the increase. Behind this shift in living arrangements are diverse factors, such as lower fertility rates, couples who are delaying having children or who are childless. In addition, life expectancy is increasing, with one result being that couples have more of their lives to spend together as "empty-nesters" after their children have grown up and left home.
URL: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/Products/Analytic/companion/fam/pdf/ 96F0030XIE2001003.pdf
KEY WORDS: Demographic Surveys; Age; Sex; Population Surveys; Employment Surveys; Immigrants; Educational Surveys; Canada; Census.

Statistics Canada. (2003). Census: Analysis series. Education in Canada: Raising the standard. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


Canada entered the 21st century with a population better educated than ever, according to new data from the 2001 Census. The hallmark of the 1990s was the tremendous growth in the number of Canadians with a college or university education. The increases in education were dramatically apparent for those in the age group 25 to 34. This generation was in the age range 15 to 24 when the recession of the 1990s hit. Many of them may have opted to stay in school rather than face uncertain prospects in the labour market. This growth has shifted the education profile of the adult population as a whole, that is, of Canadians aged 25 and over.
KEY WORDS: Population Surveys; Employment Surveys; Demographic Surveys; Immigrants; Educational Surveys; Agricultural Surveys; Canada; Census.

Statistics Canada. (2003). The changing profile of Canada's labour force. 2001 Census: Analysis series. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


During the past decade, three key factors have shaped the nation's workforce: A demand for skills in the face of advancing technologies and the 'knowledge based economy'; a working-age population that is increasingly made up of older people; and a growing reliance on immigration as a source of skills and labour force growth. The demand for skills has been clearly evident in new data from the 2001 Census.

URL: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/Products/Analytic/companion/paid/pdf/ 96F0030XIE2001009.pdf


KEY WORDS: Population Surveys; Employment Surveys; Demographic Surveys; Immigrants; Educational Surveys; Agricultural Surveys; Canada; Census.

Statistics Canada. (2006). Education Indicators in Canada: Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program. 2005. Ottawa: Statistics Canada & Council of Ministers of Education Canada.


These statistical indicators of education cover various aspects of the elementary, secondary and postsecondary education systems in Canada, such as enrolment, graduation and human resources, as well as financing. Furthermore, the first chapter provides a statistical portrait of the school-age population while the last one shows measures of transitions from secondary to postsecondary education and to the labour market. Labour market outcomes are also included.

The Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program (PCEIP) is a joint venture of Statistics Canada and the Canadian Council of Ministers of Education. The report was prepared jointly by the two organizations in collaboration with the provincial and territorial departments and ministries responsible for education and training. It is aimed at policy makers, practitioners and the general public.


KEY WORDS: Educational indicators; Statistics; Elementary Education; Secondary Education; Postsecondary Education; Canada.

General Social Survey (GSS)


Statistics Canada. (1995). General social survey, 1994. Cycle 9: Education, work and retirement. Public use microdata file documentation and user's guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
Since the 1993 GSS data for Cycle 9 were collected using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). With CATI, the survey questions appeared on a computer monitor. The interviewer asked the respondent the questions, and entered the responses into the computer as the interview progressed. Built-in edits and fewer processing steps resulted in better quality data. CATI methodology also eliminated the need for paper and pencil questionnaires. As a result, the forms in Appendix C were produced as reference documents only. In Cycle 9, the CATI system provided the interviewer with two main "components" which can be imagined to represent two paper questionnaires.
URL: http://prod.library.utoronto.ca/datalib/codebooks/cstdli/gss/gss9/c9doce.pdf
KEY WORDS: Employment Surveys; Canada; Social Surveys; Employment; Self-employment; Unemployment; Retirement; Underemployment; Education-Job Match; Occupations; Industries; Handbooks; Manuals,; Survey methodology; Educational Attainment; Household Income; Social Networks; Support Educational Attainment.

Statistics Canada. (1996). General social survey, 1996. Cycle 11: Social and community support. Public use microdata file documentation and user's guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


The GSS is a continuing program with a single survey cycle each year. To meet the stated objectives, the data collected by the GSS are made up of three components: Classification, Core and Focus. Classification content consists of variables which provide the means of delineating population groups and for use in the analysis of Core and Focus data. Examples of classification variables are age, sex, marital status, language, place of birth, and income. Core content is designed to obtain information which monitors social trends or measures changes in society related to living conditions or well-being.

Data for Cycle 11 of the GSS were collected monthly from February 1996 to December 1996. An additional sample was added of approximately 1,250 seniors aged 65 and over (sponsored by the Senior's Directorate of Health Canada) and 700 seniors over-sampled from the province of Quebec (sponsored by the Quebec Bureau of Statistics). These interviews were drawn from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) rotate-outs. Approximately 25% of the regular sample was also drawn from the LFS rotate-outs and was restricted to seniors aged 65 and over, thereby obtaining more reliable estimates from this group. Cycle 11 marks the first GSS with social support as the core content. The focus content of Cycle 11 collected information on tobacco use and was sponsored by Health Canada. The objectives and scope of Cycle 11 were: to determine the nature of the help received and provided; to understand the dynamic between an individual's social network and help received and provided; and to identify unmet needs, as well as the reasons these needs exist. As in the 1994 and 1995 General Social Surveys, data for Cycle 11 was collected using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) using Computer-Assisted Survey Execution System software (CASES).


URL: http://www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/4502.htm
KEY WORDS: Social Surveys; Canada; Time Management; Handbooks; Manuals,; Survey methodology; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Origin; Personal Satisfaction; Religion; Type of Dwelling; Household Income; Children; Lone Parent Families; Self-employment; Occupations; Industries; Job Search; Unemployment; Social Networks; Social Support; Child Care; Community Services; Support Services; Housework; Health; Activity Limitations; Personal Care; Health care; Educational Attainment; Mother Tongue; Tobacco Use; Income.

Statistics Canada. (1998). General social survey, 1998. Cycle 12: Time use survey. User guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


Cycle 12 of the General Social Survey was the third cycle to return to previous core content: time use. Most of the core content of Cycle 12 repeated Cycles 7 and 2, conducted in 1992 and 1986, respectively. Focus content is aimed at the second survey objective of GSS. This component obtains information on specific policy issues which are of particular interest to certain federal departments or other user groups. In general, focus content is not expected to be repeated on a periodic basis. The focus content for Cycle 12 was participation in sport and cultural activities sponsored by Heritage Canada. Information on media use was also collected for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
URL: http://info.library.yorku.ca/depts/lds/docs/gss12/gssc1298userguide.pdf
KEY WORDS: Social Surveys; Canada; Time Management; Internet Use; Occupations; Employment; Personal and family Responsibilities; Hobbies; Housing; Housework; Hours worked; Hours of Work; Income; Leisure Time; Maintenance and Repairs; Marital Status; Commuting; Courses; Economic Conditions; Educational Attainment; Education; Employment; Entertainment; Ethnic Origin; Survey methodology; Television Viewing; Time Use; Travel; Type of Work; Unpaid Work; Additions and Renovations; Children; Child Care; Urban Transit; Volunteer Work; Work at Home; Shift Work; Social Activities; Sports.

Statistics Canada. (2001). General social survey, 2000. Cycle 14: Access to and use of information communication technology: Public use microdata file documentation and user's guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


This cycle of the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS) is designed to enable interested users to access and manipulate the microdata file for the fourteenth cycle of the GSS, conducted from January through December 2000. It contains information on the objectives, methodology and estimation procedures as well as guidelines for releasing estimates based on the survey. It also gives a description of how to correctly use the microdata files. The GSS program, established in 1985, conducts telephone surveys across the 10 provinces. The GSS is recognized for its regular collection of cross-sectional data that allows for trend analysis, and its capacity to test and develop new concepts that address emerging issues.

To meet the objectives of the GSS, the data collected is made up of three components: Classification, Core and Focus. Classification content consists of variables used to delineate population groups and for use in the analysis of Core and Focus data. Examples of classification variables are age, sex, education, and income. Core content, such as technology use, is designed to obtain information that monitors social trends or measures changes in society related to living conditions or well-being. Focus content, aimed at the second survey objective of the GSS, is not part of the 2000 GSS because the core content will supply data to inform specific policy issues.


URL: http://prod.library.utoronto.ca/datalib/codebooks/cstdli/gss/gss14/ gssc14gid_v2.pdf
KEY WORDS: Social Surveys; Canada; Information Technology; Information Superhighway; Internet; Telecommunication; Social Aspects; Economic Aspects.

Statistics Canada. (2001). General social survey, 2000. Cycle 14: Access to and use of information communication technology. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


Data for Cycle 14 of the GSS was administered in 12 independent monthly samples from January to December 2000. The target sample sizes for each month were initially the same but were adjusted slightly during the year to try to achieve a final overall sample size of 25,000 respondents. These samples were all selected using the random digit dialing (RDD), and, as in previous Cycles, data for Cycle 14 was collected using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Cycle 14 of the GSS is the first cycle to collect detailed information on access to and use of technology in Canada. Because much of the content on work and education is now being covered by other surveys (particularly the Workplace and Employee Survey) and there is considerable interest in measuring the impact of technology on society, Cycle 14 has a specific focus on computer and Internet use. Examples of the poled content of Cycle 14 include the general use of technology and computers, the work and education background of respondents, and use of computer technology in the workplace.
URL: http://www.statcan.ca/cgi-bin/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey& SDDS=4505 &lang=en&db=IMDB&dbg=f&adm=8&dis=2
KEY WORDS: Social Surveys; Canada; Information Technology; Information Superhighway; Internet; Telecommunication; Social Aspects; Economic Aspects.

Statistics Canada. (2003). General social survey 2003, Cycle 17: Social engagement: Public use microdata file documentation and user guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division.


Data collection for Cycle 17 began in February 2003 and continued through December 2003. As with previous Cycles, data for Cycle 17 was collected using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Cycle 17 of the GSS is the first cycle dedicated to the topic of social engagement, including social participation, civic participation, trust and reciprocity. Data from this cycle complements other Statistics Canada surveys, particularly the National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (NSGVP); the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and National Population Health Survey (NPHS); the Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS); and the Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS).
URL: http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/030902/d030902a.htm

URL: http://www.statcan.ca:8096/bsolc/english/bsolc?catno=89-598-XIE


KEY WORDS: Social Surveys; Canada; Social Engagement; Social Participation, Civic Participation; Trust; Reciprocity; Methodology.

Labour Force Survey (LFS)


Statistics Canada. (1998). Methodology of the Canadian Labour Force Survey. Catalogue no. 71-526-XPB. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a source of monthly estimates of employment and unemployment. Following each decennial census, the LFS has undergone a sample redesign to reflect changes in population characteristics and to respond to changes in the information needs to be satisfied by the survey. The redesign program following the 1991 census culminated with the introduction of a new sample at the beginning of 1995. This report is a reference on the methodological and operational aspects of the LFS, covering stratification, sampling, survey operations, weighting, estimation and data quality.
URL: http://www.statcan.ca/cgi-bin/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3701& lang =en&db=IMDB&dbg=f&adm=8&dis=2
KEY WORDS: Data Capture; Data Collection; Data Editing; Data Processing; Data Quality; Dictionaries; Handbooks; Industries; Interviews; Labour Force Survey; Provincial Differences; Questionnaires; Sampling and Weighting; Survey Methodology; Survey Sampling; Surveys.

Bowlby, G. (2005). Use of the Canadian labour force survey for collecting additional labour-related information. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


The Canadian Labour Force Survey (CLFS) is a household survey carried out monthly by Statistics Canada. Since its inception in late 19451, the basic objectives of the LFS have been to divide the working-age population into three mutually exclusive classifications - employed, unemployed, and not in the labour force. The CLFS is the "official" source of employment and unemployment data in Canada. … aside from the broad employment and unemployment measures, there is plenty of "other" labour-related information provided by the Canadian Labour Force Survey. This paper has focused on key questions and the concepts upon which they are based. By showing how the CLFS measures industry, occupation, class of worker, hours of work, employee wages, union coverage and job permanency, it is hoped that this information will assist Canadians using our data, as well as members of National Statistical Offices who wish to learn from our experience.
URL: http://www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/document/3701_D3_T9_V1_E.pdf
KEY WORDS: Labour-related Information; Data Collection; Data Processing; Data Quality; Dictionaries; Handbooks; Industries; Interviews; Labour Force Survey; Survey Methodology; Survey Sampling; Surveys.

Statistics Canada. (2006). Guide to the Labour Force Survey. Catalogue no 71-543-GIE. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.


The Guide to the Labour Force Survey contains a dictionary of concepts and definitions and covers topics such as survey methodology, data collection, data processing and data quality. It also contains information on products and services, sub-provincial geography descriptions as well as the survey questionnaire.

Employment estimates include detailed breakdowns by demographic characteristics, industry and occupation, job tenure, and usual and actual hours worked. The survey incorporates questions permitting analyses of many topical issues, such as involuntary part-time employment, multiple job-holding, and absence from work. Since January 1997, it also provides monthly information on the wages and union status of employees, as well as the number of employees at their workplace and the temporary or permanent nature of their job.

Unemployment estimates are produced by demographic group, duration of unemployment, and activity before looking for work. Information on industry and occupation, and reason for leaving last job is also available for persons currently unemployed or not in the labour market with recent labour market involvement. In addition to providing national and provincial estimates, the LFS also releases estimates of labour force status for sub-provincial areas such as Economic Regions and Census Metropolitan Areas.
URL : http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/71-543-GIE/71-543-GIE2006001.pdf



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