Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Annotated Bibliographies; Basic Skills; Career Education; Developed Nations; Educational Certificates; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Industrial Training; Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Market; Out of School Youth; Prior Learning; Staff Development; Student Certification; Vocational Education.

Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning: Theory and practice (3 ed.). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

In this book, the author has made extensive revisions and included substantial additional material to take account of the many changes, which have occurred, in the field of adult education. The book starts with a rationale for the provision of education for adults and analyses contemporary theory before going on to give practical advice on the curriculum development and the teaching of adults. Adult education students will find it an invaluable course companion, whilst practitioners in the field of adult and continuing education and lifelong learning will find much in this book that is relevant to their day-to-day work.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Continuing Education; Curriculum Development; Work.

Jarvis, P. E. (2001). Twentieth century thinkers in adult & continuing education (2 ed.). London: Stylus.

This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Adult Education - An Ideal for Modernity?" (Peter Jarvis); "Albert Mansbridge" (David Alfred); "Basil Yeaxlee and the Origins of Lifelong Education" (Angela Cross-Durrant); "R. H. Tawney - Patron Saint of Adult Education" (Barry Elsey); "John Dewey and Lifelong Education" (Angela Cross-Durrant); "E. L. Thorndike" (W. A. Smith); "Eduard Lindeman" (Stephen Brookfield); "Robert Peers" (Stella Parker); "Cyril O. Houle" (William S. Griffith [updated by Peter Jarvis]); "Malcolm S. Knowles" (Peter Jarvis); "Roby Kidd - Intellectual Voyager" (Alan M. Thomas); "K. Patricia Cross" (Carol E. Kasworm); "Chris Argyris - The Reluctant Adult Educator" (Karen E. Watkins and Jacqueline A. Wilson); "Donald Schon" (Ron Cervero); "Moses Coady and Antigonish" (John M. Crane); "Horton of Highlander" (John M. Peters and Brenda Bell); "Paulo Freire" (Peter Jarvis); "Ettore Gelpi" (Colin Griffin); "Women in Adult Education - Second Rate or Second Class?" (Mal Leicester); and "Conclusion: Adult Education at the End of the Twentieth-Century" (Peter Jarvis).
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Educators; Adult Learning; Adult Literacy; Adult Programs; Adult Students; Colleges; Continuing Education; Corporate Education; Disadvantaged; Distance Education; Education Work Relationship; Educational Change; Educational History; Educational Objectives; Educational Psychology; Educational Theories; Foreign Countries; Intelligence; Labor Force Development; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Motivation Techniques; Nonformal Education; Nontraditional Students; Open Education; Postsecondary Education; Reflective Teaching; Social Change; Student Characteristics; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Trend Analysis; Universities; Vocational Education; Womens Education; Antigonish Movement; United Kingdom; United States.

Kim, K., Hagedorn, M., Williamson, J., & Chapman, C. (2004). National household education surveys of 2001: Participation in adult education and lifelong learning, 2000-01. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from

Adults participate in various types of educational activities in order to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the workforce, to earn a college or advanced degree, to learn basic skills or English language skills, or to enrich their lives. Taken as a whole, these activities constitute adult education. Traditionally, full-time enrollment in postsecondary degree or diploma programs is not considered to be adult education participation. This report holds to that convention. A recent study indicates that participation in adult education has grown steadily over the past three decades (Kim and Creighton 2000; Creighton and Hudson 2002). Many societal factors influence participation in adult education activities. Changing demographics, including the aging of the population, reentry of women into the workplace, and an influx of immigrants, alter the base of potential participants. The effect of the global economy and technological advances on the nature of adult education has been significant.
KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Housework; Adult Education; United States of America.

Kinser, K., & Deitchman, J. (2007). Tenacious persisters: Returning adult students in higher education. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 9(1), 75-94.

The authors identify "tenacious persisters" as returning students who have dropped out of college or who delayed their entry into college for more than three years after high school. The mixed-method study compares the experiences of tenacious persisters enrolled in a community college to students who followed more standard routes. Both groups share similar motivations and expectations for achieving their goals. Tenacious persisters, however, are much more likely to identify barriers and personal deficiencies in explaining their past attendance patterns.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Continuing Education; Barriers; Higher Education.

Knowles, M. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic. In E. Holton & D. Swanson (Eds.), Adult education and human resource development. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

This foundational text in the field of adult education has been updated to incorporate the latest advances in the field by Holton and Swanson. Keeping to the practical format of the last edition, this book is divided into three parts. The first part includes original chapters that describe the roots and principles of andragogy, including a new chapter, which presents Knowles' program planning model. The second part examines the advancements in adult learning with each chapter updated, incorporating a major expansion of the chapter "Androgogy in Practice." The last part of the book contains an updated selection of topical readings that advance the theory and will include the Human Resource Development (HRD) style inventory developed by Knowles.
KEY WORDS: Androgogy; Knowles; Adult Education; Continuing Education; Human Resource Development.

La Belle, T. J. (2000). The changing nature of non-formal education in Latin America. Comparative Education, 36(1), 21-36.

Traces the history of nonformal education in Latin America since the 1920s, highlighting community-based programs, literacy education, vocational training, extension education, popular education, community schooling, and female-dominated social movements. Suggests citizenship education, the needs of indigenous populations, and urban youth unemployment as potential areas for nonformal education programming.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Community Education; Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Nonformal Education; Popular Education; Poverty; Latin America; Social Movements.

Langer, N. (2002). Enhancing adult learning in aging studies. Educational Gerontology, 28(10), 895-904.

Presents a rationale for shifting the focus of social work /gerontology education from training to a learner-centered approach that incorporates principles of adult learning. Suggests the use of adult experiences, storytelling, simulation, role playing, and a supportive learning environment.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Aging (Individuals); Educational Environment; Gerontology; Higher Education; Social Work Learner Centered Instruction.
Lavrnja, I., & Klapan, A. (2000). Methodological suspicions in the future study of adult education. Paper presented at the Salzburg Talking, Salzburg.
Science plays an extremely important role in predicting the future of social phenomena, including pedagogy and andragogy. Research in these areas must be based on an interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, systemic, and structural approach that is based on the assumption that upbringing and education are specific phenomena in which human praxis--conscious and creative human activity--plays a prominent role. Value-normative statements must be differentiated from cognitive statements of upbringing and education so as to differentiate between the methodological approach of "exploration of the future" and that of "creating and modeling the future." Future research in pedagogy and andragogy should be based on the fact that education can give to the Marxist- Socialist system and all its subsystems all that ensues from its authentic nature and functionality. Researchers could then use the methodological set of instruments and orientation that can foresee such development in the future. When dealing with the adult education concept of lifelong education, researchers should shift their focus from "education for the future" to "education and the future." Croatia's system and model of formal education must be broadened; nonformal and informal education must be promoted and better organized; and adult education must be enriched with modern methods, forms, and technology.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Andragogy; Change Strategies; Educational Change; Educational Finance; Educational Needs; Educational Philosophy; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Futures (of Society); Instruction; Interdisciplinary Approach; Lifelong Learning; Marxism; Needs Assessment; Position Papers; Prediction; Predictive Measurement; Predictive Validity; Predictor Variables; Research Design; Research Methodology; Socialism; Trend Analysis; Croatia; Praxis.

Myers, K., & de Broucker, P. (2006). Too many left behind: Canada's adult education and training system. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Policy Research Networks.

This report documents the availability of opportunities for adults to complete high-school, attend college or university, or engage in skills-upgrading programs in the community or the workplace. Five Canadian provinces are studied: Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. The authors conclude that adult learning systems are complex, difficult to navigate, and pose numerous barriers for less-educated adults who would like to improve their skills. Myers and de Broucker set forth a set of principles to guide the development of a more coherent and accessible adult learning programs.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Continuing Education; Barriers to Learning; Inequality; Training; Canada.

Nash, I., & Walshe, J. (1999). Overcoming exclusion through adult learning. Paris: OECD.

In this study, strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based learning initiatives. Special attention was paid to the following topics: concepts and dimensions of social exclusion and adult learning; national policy approaches and local initiatives designed to combat exclusion through adult learning; and costs and effectiveness. The following were among the main conclusions: (1) given sufficient energy, innovation, and support, innovative programs can help combat even severe disadvantage and exclusion; (2) small-scale but sustained investment can be more effective than less-targeted, "scatter-gun" funding of large-scale programs; (3) policies must be devised in a manner that does not constrain grassroots energy or cross conventional departmental and policy demarcations; (4) programs should be demand driven rather than supply driven; (5) leadership is the crucial determinant of programs' futures; and (6) programs should focus not only on developing vocational knowledge and skills but also on equipping adults for shifting working and labor market arrangements.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Community Education; Comparative Analysis; Context Effect; Conventional Instruction; Disadvantaged; Educational Environment; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Equal Education; Informal Education; Job Skills; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Nonformal Education; Participation; Public Policy; Research Needs.

Novak, M. (2001). The new older learner. Continuing Higher Education Review, 65, 98-105.

Current models of university continuing education resemble traditional higher education and do not meet the needs of people in or near retirement. Constraints on change include a mindset focused on formal education as career development, the need for programs to be self-sufficient, and a reward structure that does not support programs for older adults.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Adult Students; Continuing Education; Educational Change; Higher Education; Older Adults.

O'Donnell, V., & Tobbell, J. (2007). The transition of adult students to higher education: Legitimate peripheral participation in a community of practice? Adult Education Quarterly, 57(4), 312-328.

This article explores a program designed to enable adult students' transition to higher education (HE). Using Wenger's Communities of Practice theory, adults' transition to HE is studied in terms of learning, participation in practices, and identity. Students were interviewed, and qualitative data analysis revealed that although they perceived themselves to be peripheral participants in the community, university regulations, and academic procedures sometimes undermined their feelings of legitimacy. The students' experiences are discussed in terms of the power of practice to include or exclude, and the concomitant identity shifts which may lead to fuller participation.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; University; Access to Education; Higher Education.

Olson, M. (2007). Driven succeeding: The serpentine path of adult learning. A grounded action study in adult education. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 67(9), 3617.

The paper describes a grounded action (GA) study that investigated adults attempting to achieve high school-level competencies. The first part of the study collected and analyzed data using classic Glaserian grounded theory (GT) methodology. Data consisted of formal and incidental interviews conducted over a 16-month period with over 30 Adult Basic Education (ABE) and General Equivalency Diploma (GED) adult students, 7 teachers, 3 parents, 3 administrators, and several other adults. Students were interviewed and observed within the classroom and in small groups. This data and analysis led to the theory of driven succeeding. Driven succeeding emerged as a common concept that applies to adult students. Research suggested five stages that common to successful students: embarking, visioning, investing, clicking, and ripening. In the second part of this research, a grounded action intervention strategy was developed, based on the theory of driven succeeding.
KEY WORDS: Grounded Theory; Adult Learners; Adult Education; GED.

Pickerden, A. (2002). Muslim women in higher education: New sites of lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1), 37-43.

A British university sought to increase participation of Muslim women in higher education by working with community organizations, conducting focus groups, developing curricula desired by learners, and delivering them at community sites. Flexible entry points and supports for nontraditional students were recommended.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Learning; Community Organizations; Females; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Muslims; Outreach Programs; Research Universities; Women's Education; United Kingdom.

Poonwassie, D. H., & Poonwassie, A. (2001). Fundamentals of adult education: Issues and practices for lifelong learning. Toronto: Thompson Educational.

This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory Building in Adult Education: Questioning Our Grasp of the Obvious" (Donovan Plumb, Michael R. Welton); "Perspectives and Theories of Adult Learning" (Karen M. Magro); "Needs Assessment" (Thomas J. Sork); "Program Planning in Adult Education" (Atlanta Sloane-Seale); "University Continuing Education: Traditions and Transitions" (Anne Percival); "Facilitating Adult Education: A Practitioner's Perspective" (Anne Poonwassie); "Prior Learning Assessment: Looking Back, Looking Forward" (Angelina T. Wong); "Adult Education in the Community Colleges" (Anthony Bos); "A UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization] View of Adult Education and Civil Society" (Marshall Wm. Conley, Elisabeth Barot); "The Issue of Access in Adult Education: Privilege and Possibility") (Dianne L. Conrad); "Labour Education in Canada" (Bruce Spencer); "Technical-Vocational Education and Training" (David N. Wilson); "The Issue of Professionalization for Adult Educators in Quebec" (Paul Bouchard); "Women's Empowerment and Adult Education" (Margot Morrish, Nancy Buchanan); "Adult Education in First Nations Communities: Starting with the People" (Deo H. Poonwassie); "Distance Education for Adults" (Walter Archer); and "Lifelong Learning, Voluntary Action and Civil Society" (Alan M. Thomas). Most papers include substantial bibliographies.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Andragogy; Citizenship Education; Community Colleges; Educational Needs; Educational Opportunities; Educational Planning; Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Empowerment; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Indigenous Populations; Trend Analysis; Two Year Colleges; Universities; Vocational Education; Volunteers; Women's Education.

Stein, D. (2000). Teaching critical reflection. Myths and realities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).

Critical reflection blends learning through experience with theoretical and technical learning to form new knowledge constructions and new behaviors or insights. Through the process of critical reflection, adults come to interpret and create new knowledge and actions from their experiences. It is generally agreed that critical reflection consists of a process that can be taught to adults. Brookfield identified the following processes as being central to learning how to be critically reflective: assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation, and reflective skepticism. Some educators consider critical reflection a learning strategy that can be taught with tools such as diaries, action learning groups, autobiographical stories, and sketching. However, other educators question the usefulness of classroom teaching in helping adults learn to engage in critical reflection. Wellington identified the following five orientations for differentiating levels of reflection: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal. Although reflection should help learners make meaning out of content applied in a specific practice situation, critical reflection skills learned in the classroom may be different from the skills needed in the everyday world. However, critical reflection holds the promise of emancipatory learning that frees adults from the implicit assumptions constraining thought and action in the everyday world.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Classroom Techniques; Critical Thinking; Definitions; Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Experiential Learning; Learning Processes; Prior Learning; Reflective Teaching; Relevance (Education); Teacher Attitudes; Teaching Methods; Theory Practice Relationship.

Tangen, F. (2000). OECD thematic review on adult learning: Norway: Background report. Paris: OECD.

Adult learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in, providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long tradition in Norway and was originally in the hands of nongovernmental organizations; (2) today, adult education in Norway takes place in numerous arenas, including the public education system, resource centers, study associations, folk high schools, distance education institutions, private institutions, and enterprises; (3) of Norway's 4.48 million adults, approximately 1 million participate in adult education annually; (4) comprehensive reforms implemented in Norway's initial education and training system in the 1990s have allowed for the fact that education will increasingly be viewed in a lifelong learning perspective; and (5) the goals of the many public- and private-sector actors involved in developing learning arenas for adults and systems of lifelong learning include developing broad understanding of good teaching arenas and efficient systems for lifelong learning and building competence among special target groups.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Distance Education; Educational Change; Educational Counseling; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation; Popular Education; Postsecondary Education; Private Schools; Student Certification; Student Educational Objectives; Student Evaluation; Teaching Methods; Theory Practice Relationship; Vocational Education.

Thompson, J. E. (2000). Stretching the academy: The politics and practice of widening participation in higher education. Leicester, England: NIACE.

These 12 papers support the view that the current, general interest in widening participation in higher education in the United Kingdom may provide opportunities to radicalize policies and intervene strategically in institutional practices in ways that help to influence them. Papers include "Joining, Invading, Reconstructing" (Janice Malcolm), which uses the author's personal experience to clarify her concerns about the contemporary practice of widening participation. "Beyond Rhetoric" (Mary Stuart) highlights one methodology for participation in higher education that grew out of approaches used in third world development and philosophically linked to the ideal of a popular education. "Concepts of Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education" (Richard Taylor) insists the role of the radical educator is to encourage and support the democratic and progressive articulation of self-directed learning. "Social Capital" (Loraine Blaxter, Christina Hughes) considers this concept within a frame that extends critical thinking about issues of social inclusion. "Missionary and Other Positions" (Pat Whaley) describes a joint initiative between the University of Durham and the Cleveland Community Enterprise Network to develop an accredited undergraduate program in community development and enterprise. "Working with Contradictions in the Struggle for Access" (John Bamber et al.) suggests actions and strategies that can make a positive difference in institutional contradictions.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adults; Community Development; Community Education; Democracy; Educational Change; Educational Policy; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Feminism; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Independent Study; Participation; School Community Relationship; Social Isolation; Women's Education; Ireland; Radical Education; Self Direction; Social Capital; United Kingdom.

Tikkanen, T., Lahn, L. C., Withnall, A., Ward, P., & Lyng, K. (2002). Working life changes and training of older workers. Research report. Trondheim, Norway: VOX & European Commission.

WORKTOW was a multidisciplinary action research project carried out in 27 small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom, Finland, and Norway. The main focus was on the learning of workers aged 45 and older. In-depth case studies were conducted in all three countries involving a range of learning interventions. Results showed age was not related to how stimulating workplaces were experienced as learning environments nor to subjective assessment of learning attitudes, skills, or motivation. The job competence of older workers was generally highly valued but not systematically monitored or recorded. Changes in working life and workplaces stimulated learning and reduced opportunities for it for all age groups. Introduction of information technology was the greatest learning challenge to older employees. In terms of human resources development, older employees participated in informal and nonformal training in the same way as younger workers, but to a lesser extent in formal training. Case studies showed successful work-based learning and training interventions involving older workers had the potential to improve learning motivation, strengthen self confidence and organizational commitment, and improve the social climate in groups with mixed ages. Conclusions indicated the need to acknowledge workplaces as learning environments; develop more systematic measures for broad-based job competence assessment; and implement an integrative, intergenerational approach to learning.
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