Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Educational Needs; Severe Mental Retardation; Lifelong Learning.

Oels, M. (2003). Lifelong learning for active citizenship. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 8(1), 44-49.

To achieve its objectives, the European Union develops programs on learning for active citizenship and promotes lifelong learning policies that endeavor to move people from "local me" to "global me."
KEY WORDS: Adults; Citizen Participation; Citizenship Education; Foreign; Countries; Lifelong Learning; Policy Formation; European Union.

Olesen, H. S. (2002). Lifelong learning - A political agenda! Also a research agenda? Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM8). 28-30 June 2001. Johansen, L., & Wedege, T. (Eds.) Numeracy for empowerment and democracy?, Roskilde: Centre for Research in Learning Mathematics, Roskilde University. Retrieved December 28, 2006, from

Adult and continuing education are undergoing simultaneous processes of institutionalization (adding schools for adults) and deinstitutionalization (broadening the scope of interventions and focusing on learning processes inside and outside schools). Lifelong learning assumes that learning takes place in all spheres of life, including the workplace, everyday life, and cultural activities. The new political awareness of the need for learning and education has necessitated that learning be studied in all its contexts, including in various life spheres (work, family, leisure and cultural activities, citizenship) and knowledge and competence domains (professions, skills, arts) defined by societal division of labor. Researching the subjectivity of learning and social structural and historical dynamics requires an interdisciplinary research strategy. Themes for research include the following: gender and wage labor; the role of self-regulation and sustainability in work life; and the relationship of knowledge and democracy to professional learning and professional identity. Like literacy and numeracy, learning for active citizenship must be given the status of an indispensable cultural technique. The following competencies should be considered competencies for a general social literacy: competence to create cohesion; ecological competence; competence for balancing a threatened or broken identity; historical competence; sensibility to experience expropriation; and technological competence.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Change Strategies; Citizenship Education; Continuing Education; Educational Change; Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Principles; Educational Research; Educational Trends; Equal Education; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Numeracy; Policy Formation; Politics of Education; Research Needs; Role of Education; Social Integration.

Osborne, M. (2003). Policy and practice in widening participation: A six country comparative study of access as flexibility. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(1), 43-58.

In this paper, a comparison of policies and practices in six countries focused on the concept of access to education as flexibility: systematic structural arrangements such as accreditation of prior learning, open and distance learning, and information/communications technologies. Successful international experiences have implications for Scotland and other countries attempting to widen participation.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Comparative Analysis; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Outreach Programs; Participation; Prior Learning.

Parker, A. (2006). Lifelong learning to labour: Apprenticeship, masculinity and communities of practice. British Educational Research Journal. Special Issue: Gender, Class and 'Race' in Lifelong Learning, 32(5), 687-701.

This article presents an analysis of gender identity within the context of lifelong learning. The study is based on a re-analysis of data collected in the early 1990s to depict the way in which a group of young men were socialised into their new-found occupational culture. Considering apprenticeship as a holistic 'learning' experience, the article examines how the participation of trainees in an established community of practice facilitated their adaptation to and assimilation of various skills. The article uses qualitative research findings to determine the extent to which apprenticeship might facilitate the reproduction of stereotypical gender norms and values.
KEY WORDS: Apprenticeship; Gender Identity; Sex Differences; Learning; Masculinity; Human; Male; England; Lifelong Learning; Communities of Practice.

Parrott, A. (2002). Determining the value of lifelong learning. Adults Learning (England), 13(8), 24-26.

In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical.
KEY WORDS: Economics; Lifelong Learning; Moral Values; Values; Value Added.

Payne, J. (1999). Perspectives on lifelong learning. Adults Learning (England), 10(8), 9-11.

Explores the different meanings lifelong learning takes on when viewed from the following perspectives: training, personal development, unions, communities, institutions, and individuals.

KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Attitudes; Individual Development; Lifelong Learning; Training; Unions.

Pilkington, M., & Stuart, M. (2001). Science for active citizenship: The challenge for lifelong learning. Journal of Access and Credit Studies, 3(1), 4-16.

Debates over the social purpose model of adult education have largely ignored science. A social citizenship dimension is crucial for adults' understanding of scientific research and issues. The example of a British ecology project illustrates that forcing all adult education into a credit system will hinder the goal of education for active citizenship.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizen Participation; Educational Certificates; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Role of Education; Science Education; Social Change; United Kingdom.

Preston, J. (2003). "Enrolling alone?" Lifelong learning and social capital in England. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(3), 235-248.

Analysis of 120 biographical interviews of English adults established three types of relationships between education and civic participation that are influenced by class, gender, ethnicity, and institutional structures. For "atomists," learning resulted in paradoxically solitary engagement. "Networkers" were not formally engaged but formed networks through learning. "Altruists'" sense of efficacy was enhanced by learning.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Citizen Participation; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Motivation; Networks; Social Capital; England.

Robinson, C. (2000). New directions in Australia's skill formation: Lifelong learning is the key. Adelaide; South Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

The unparalleled changes in recent years mean that a continuing focus on the preparation of young people for entry to the work force as the keystone of post-compulsory education and training in Australia is no longer sufficient for two reasons. First, technological change and other changes stemming from globalization of economies are now having a profound impact on the nature of work, the way it is organized, and the skills it requires. Second, the work forces of most countries, including that of Australia, are aging. These developments have implications for changes in Australia's approach to skill formation. The historical focus on the young in post-compulsory education and training policy is inadequate. The more recent trends, both in Australia and overseas, that recognize that these policies now need also to embrace the concept of lifelong learning. Although about 77 percent of the "economically active" population aged 15-64 years undertake some kind of education or training, much of this education or training is unstructured, informal, spasmodic, and minor. Australia has a comparatively high level of investment in education and training, but it is not among the countries with the very highest levels of commitment. Future directions must focus on the development of new learning pathways and an increased national investment in skills and knowledge.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Aging (Individuals); Developed Nations; Educational Development; Educational Finance; Federal Aid; Foreign Countries; Job Training; Labor Needs; Labor Supply; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Role of Education; Skill Development; Technological Advancement; Australia.

Rogers, A. (2001). Lifeworlds and learning: Essays in the theory, philosophy and practice of lifelong learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 21(3), 288-289.

These 11 essays explore the promise of current models of lifelong learning. "The Sociology of Lifelong Learning" outlines the relevance of various movements to understanding learning in contemporary society. "Knowledge, Power, and Ignorance" contends that a new kind of society--the expert society--is emerging. "Knowing, Understanding, and Feeling" examines the view that understanding is best viewed as a social process nurtured most effectively through dialogue. "Lifeworlds and Learning" highlights the importance of the value people place on their own education and learning needs. "Class, Culture, and Adult Education" explores the ways in which personal attitudes, identities, and motives challenge and reflect the society in which they are nurtured from a historical perspective. "Education and Community Regeneration" expands on the view that the idea of community must be at the center of all political debate. "Institutions and Power: The Archaeology of Educational Organisations" concentrates on the problem of moving institutions to define a new future for themselves. "Learning and Creativity" explores the idea that we have an impoverished sense of the creative possibilities in every human life. "Moral Learning in the Moral Maze" outlines the moral contours of adulthood and examines how adults adjust to changes in life circumstances. "Personal Change in Adulthood" looks at the idea of lifelong learning as embracing self-knowledge. "Dialogue and Learning: Towards a New Model of Citizenship" contends that people learn through dialogue and in the process transform their understanding of themselves and their world.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Creativity; Dialogs (Language); Educational Philosophy; Educational Sociology; Empowerment; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Learning Theories; Life Events; Lifelong Learning; Moral Development; Social Psychology; Social Theories.

Rogers, A. (2006). Lifelong learning and the absence of gender. International Journal of Educational Development, 26(2), 189-208.

This paper identifies that (with very few exceptions) in most of current literature on lifelong learning, gender issues are ignored or overlooked. An extensive review of the literature demonstrates this neglect. Some reasons are given for this, including the fact that most analyses of lifelong learning tend to stress the individual learning against the social construct of learning; individual learning paths are sought rather than gendered patterns. But within the discourse of lifelong learning there are elements such as identity, the reflective practitioner and critical reflection which could open the door to a more socially transformative approach to lifelong learning. More research and debate are needed.
KEY WORDS: Gender Issues; Lifelong Learning; Literature Reviews; Reflective Teaching; Teacher Improvement.

Rollings-Magnusson, S. (2001). Legislation and lifelong learning in Canada: Inconsistencies in implementation. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 31(3), 23-47.

This review of Canadian government policy as expressed in legislation revealed inconsistencies between rhetorical and actual support for a lifelong learning agenda; the absence of the protection and sense of permanence that legislation provides to policy implementation means that any actions taken or programs created may be easily changed, ignored, or eliminated with little public scrutiny or debate.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Legislation; Lifelong Learning; Policy Analysis; Canada.

Rubenson, K. (2006). The Nordic model of lifelong learning. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 36(3), 327-341.

This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in comparison to other countries, low inequalities. This can be directly linked to a state that sets a very demanding equity standard and has developed an institutional framework to support this ambition. This model explicitly recognises market failures in contributing to a system of Lifelong Learning for "all". The findings support the growing awareness in the literature that those forecasting the end of the welfare state had misunderstood and/or undervalued the important impact of the specific institutions that constitute the welfare state itself.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Comparative Education; Equal Education; Models; Social Systems; Global Approach; Democracy; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland.

Schuetze, H. G. (2007). Individual learning accounts and other models of financing lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(1), 5-23.

This article distinguishes different models of lifelong learning and associated learning activities in relation to models of financing lifelong learning. The article analyzes the problems related to the implementation and practice of Individual Learning Accounts.
KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Financial Support; Learning Activities; Adults; Labor Market; Compulsory Education; Canada; Sweden; United Kingdom.

Schuller, T. (2002). Lifelong learning as the social construction of knowledge. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 7(1), 33-40.

Distinguishes between human capital and social capital. Examines the social construction of knowledge and various levels: families, organizations, and communities.
KEY WORDS: Constructivism (Learning); Development; Human Capital; Lifelong Learning; Social Capital.

Solomon, J. (2003). The passion to learn: An inquiry into autodidactism. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Beginning and ending with comprehensive and stimulating discussions of learning theories, this book includes fourteen case studies of autodidactism in informal learning situations. These diverse case studies reflect the inherent diversity of autodidactism, yet four common themes emerge: emotional/ cognitive balance; learning environment; life mission; and ownership of learning. The final chapter examines the implications of autodidactism for educational theory, research, philosophy and psychology.
KEY WORDS: Learning Thoery; Lifelong Learning; Informal Learning.

Strawn, C. L. (2003). Social capital influences on lifelong learning among adults who did not finish high school. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 64(4), 1428-A.

The primary goal of this study is to investigate how social capital influences the lifelong learning practices of adults. Data from the f wave of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning are analyzed. The study population is adults, age 18-44, who at the time of the interview had finish high school or received a GED, were proficient speakers of English and lived in a defined Portland metropolitan area. Lifelong learning for the study population is operationalized as Formal, participation in an Adult Basic Education or General Equivalency Degree preparation program, or Informal, involvement in informal learning strategies. The social capital of individual communities is measured by network structures, length of time known non-kin, social trust, civic participation and knowing someone that attended college. Networks are grouped as All-Family networks, Open networks, Dense networks, and Big networks compared to Small networks of less than two people. The study population was discovered to have a rich and diverse store of social capital. A logistic regression model was developed testing Social Position, Education Discourse and Social Capital indicators as predictors of participation in Formal education and involvement in Informal learning strategies. In both cases Social Capital predicts engagement over and above Social Position, Education Discourse, while controling for literacy proficiency, age and labor force attachment. The key finding is that participation in Formal education and engagement in Informal learning are influenced in nearly opposite ways by the available social capital. All network types predict at least twice the probability of engaging in Informal learning strategies as compared to Small networks.
KEY WORDS: Cultural Capital; Adult Education; Learning; Social Networks; Educational Attainment; Portland, Oregon; Lifelong Learning.

Summers, J. (2000). Squaring the circle: Lifelong learning partnerships for better or for worse. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 5(3), 168-171.

Partnerships work best when they are local, community based, understand adult learning, and are not dominated by external agendas. They require political understanding to translate national initiatives into local opportunities.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Community Development; Community Involvement; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Partnerships in Education; United Kingdom.

Thoman, E., & Jolls, T. (2004). Media literacy-A national priority for a changing world. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 18-29.

Media and technology convergences in a global culture is changing the way we learn about the world and challenging the very foundations of education. It's not enough to be able to read the printed word, rather, needed is the ability to critically interpret the powerful images of a multimedia culture. Media literacy education provides a framework & a pedagogy for the new literacy needed for living, working, and citizenship in today's world. It paves the way to mastering the skills required for lifelong learning in today's society. .
KEY WORDS: Information Technology; Mass Media; Literacy; Teaching; Globalization; Lifelong Learning.

Thomas, A. M. (1999). Wrestling with the iceberg. Plenary address to “wrestling with the iceberg of informal learning”. NALL Working Paper No. 02. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

(From Conclusion) ... we need a network of sources of information–perhaps in the multitudes of specialized magazines in existence we already have the beginnings of that network–which encourage different icebergs to exchange enthusiasms, aspirations and experiences with each other quite separate from formal Education. That seems to me to be an essential ingredient of a post-modern, civil society.
KEY WORDS: Informal Learning, Self-directed Learning; Post-modern Society, Civil Society.

Tough, A. (1999). Reflections on the study of adult learning. NALL Working Paper No. 8. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

A common pattern in all studies of adult learning is that informal learning seems to be a very normal, very natural human activity. A 30-year old study and the 1998 Livingstone study show parallel findings. One of the most important findings is that about 90 percent of people had done some sort of intentional learning in the last year. The 10 percent who had not are content with their situation. Other findings are that people are learning a whole range of things; about 20 percent of all major learning efforts are institutionally organized, while the other 80 percent are informal; and informal learning is a very social phenomenon. In the 1977 Penland survey, the four top reasons for preferring to learn on one's own are a desire to set one's own learning pace, to use one's own learning style, to keep the learning strategy flexible and easy to change, and to put one's own structure on the learning project. The three reasons cited least are dislike of a formal classroom situation with a teacher, lack of money, and transportation. Kinds of learning related to work that people do are learning to do a task, learning new ways of doing things, and sharing among co-workers. People frequently engage in learning to improve their performance of a task. Implications or next steps are: studying the need to over-control; assisting people to successfully learn about social and global issues; using the World Wide Web in adult education; and encouraging people to look at their own learning. (YLB)
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Cognitive Style; Cooperative Planning; Developed Nations; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Independent Study; Informal Education; Intentional Learning; Interpersonal Relationship; Job Training; Learning Motivation; Lifelong Learning; National Surveys; Performance; Personal Autonomy; Self Management; World Wide Web; Canada.

Tough, A. (2002). The iceberg of adult learning. NALL Working Paper No. 49. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

This paper discuss wide range individual learning activities. It also found that about 20% of all major learning efforts were institutionally organized, while the other 80% was found to be informal. When this informal part was examined, the study found that 73 percent of adult learning is planned by the learner, 3 percent was done with a friend, relative, neighbour or co-worker, while 4 percent was conducted within a peer group. One of the main points this study raises is that there may be more social interaction in informal learning than there is in classroom learning.
KEY WORDS: Learning efforts; Learning and Planning; Social Interaction; Informal Fearning; Formal Learning.

Tuschling, A., & Engemann, C. (2006). From education to lifelong learning: The emerging regime of learning in the European Union. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 38(4), 451-470.

This paper examines the role of the lifelong learning discourse in European Union. Along with the distinction between formal and informal learning it is demonstrated how lifelong learning attempts to change the field of learning from enclosed environments to a totality of learning events, while attempting to change the individuals into self-organizing learners. The paper shows that lifelong learning has a crucial role within the strategies of subjectivation, since its mandate is to provide individuals with the necessary skill-sets.
KEY WORDS: Education; European Union; Knowledge; Government programmes; Learning; European policy; Governability; Power; Values; Individuals; Europe.

UNESCO. (2002). Learning throughout life: Challenges for the twenty-first century. Paris: UNESCO.

This book reports on the main issues discussed at the follow-up conference on learning throughout life, organized in Lisbon in 1999 by UNESCO and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. First, the place of formal and non-formal education is still to be clearly defined. Second, there is an urgent need for the creation of educational structures with a global approach to lifelong education that take into consideration the multiple aspects influencing both teaching and learning within current economic and social context. This book is intended for educational planners and policy-makers concerned with ensuring the availability of formal and non-formal learning opportunities throughout life. It will also appeal to specialists in the social sciences who work in areas related to educational development in different socio-economic and cultural contexts.

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