Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Affective Behavior; Cognitive Processes; Cognitive Structures; Competence; Environmental Influences; Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Prior Learning; Social Environment.

Istance, D. E., Schuetze, H. G. E., & Schuller, T. E. (2002). International perspectives on lifelong learning: From recurrent education to the knowledge society. Berkshire: UK: Open University Press.

This book of 17 chapters by different authors, traces the progress in developing lifelong learning policies over the past 30 years. It is organized in 6 parts following an introductory chapter, "From Recurrent Education to the Knowledge Society: An Introduction (Schuller, Schuetze, Istance). Part 1 is Historical Reflections on Policy-making and comprises: "Education in 2000 and 2025: Looking Back to the Future" (Husen); "Lifelong Learning Revisited" (Kallen); and "Lifelong Learning and the Changing Policy Environment" (Papadopoulos). Part 2 revolves around Building Human and Social Capital and includes: "Effective Schooling for Lifelong Learning" (Hargreaves); "Too Old to Learn? Lifelong Learning in the Context of an Ageing Population" (Lynch); and "From Human Capital to Social Capital" (Healy). Part 3 focuses On Organizing Learning. It includes: "The Seventh Sector: Social Enterprise for Learning in the United States" (Stern); "Training Networks and the Changing Organization of Professional Learning" (Caspar);"Learning in Post-industrial Organizations: Experiences of a Reflective Practitioner in Australia" (Ford). Part 4 is Globalization and Higher Education and comprises: "Globalization, Development and the International Knowledge Economy" (Carnoy); "Globalization, Universities and 'Knowledge as Control': New Possibilities for New Colonialisms?" (Kim); and "Universities and the Knowledge Society" (Duke). Part 5, Internationalizing Literacies and Learning, includes: "Problems of Adult Literacy in the Knowledge Society: Lessons from International Surveys" (Tuijnman); "The Digital Divide and Literacy: Focusing on the Most Poor" (Wagner); and "Learning Cultures and the Pursuit of Global Learning Norms" (Hirsch). Part 6 is entitled A Swedish Cod and includes the concluding chapter: "Adult Education Policy in Sweden 1967-2001.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Adult Students; Communication (Thought Transfer); Competency Based Education; Context Effect; Cultural Pluralism; Developed Nations; Discourse Communities; Economically Disadvantaged; Educational Benefits; Educational Change; Educational History; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Government Role; Human Capital; International Educational Exchange; International Organizations; Job Skills; Labor Market; Learning Strategies; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Models; Networks; Older Adults; Older Workers; Outcomes of Education; Policy Formation; Political Attitudes; Professional Development; Public Policy.

Jarvis, P. E. (2001). The age of learning: Education and the knowledge society. Herndon, VA: Stylus Publishing.

This book's 18 chapters provide a multi-disciplinary analysis of lifelong learning and the learning society by doing the following: (1) examining the way that these phenomena have emerged; (2) analyzing the concepts; (3) discussing ways in which the learning society functions; (4) assessing the implications of the learning society for other sectors of the educational institution; and (5) reflecting on the age of learning. Many examples are taken from experiences in the United Kingdom. The following essays are included: "The Emerging Idea" (Linda Merricks); "Social, Economic, and Political Contexts" (Stephen McNair); "The Changing Educational Scene" (Peter Jarvis); "From Education Policy to Lifelong Learning Strategies" (Colin Griffin); "The Learning Society" (Colin Griffin and Bob Brownhill); "Lifelong Learning" (Bob Brownhill); "Paying for the Age of Learning" (Stephen McNair); "Work-Related Learning" (Paul Tosey and Stephen McNair); "Facilitating Access To Learning: Educational and Vocational Guidance" (Julia Preece); "Implications of the Learning Society for Education beyond School" (Linda Merricks); "The School in the Age of Learning" (John Holford and Gill Nicholls); "Corporations and Professions" (Peter Jarvis and Paul Tosey); "Implications for the Delivery of Learning Materials" (John Holford and Tom Black); "Implications for Including the Socially Excluded in the Learning Age" (Julia Preece); "The Public Recognition of Learning" (Peter Jarvis); "Questioning the Learning Society" (Peter Jarvis); "Civil Society and Citizenship in a Learning Age" (John Holford); and "Future Directions for the Learning Society" (Peter Jarvis and Julia Preece).
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Learning; Citizenship Education; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Educational Finance; Educational History; Educational Needs; Educational Philosophy; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Technology; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Policy Formation; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning.

Jenkins, A. (2006). Women, lifelong learning and transitions into employment. Work, Employment & Society, 20(2), 309-328.

Policy makers place increasing emphasis on the role of lifelong learning in enabling people to re-employ or get employment. Reviewing this research domain the study found little reliable evidence on the economic effects of formal learning. This article reports research on a cohort of British women who initially were not employed. Event history analysis examining influencing factors of transitions into employment found that lifelong learning, defined in terms of obtaining qualifications as an adult, substantially increases the likelihood that labour-market inactive women will make a transition to paid employment.
KEY WORDS: Labor Relations; Human Resource Management; Teamwork; Workplace.

Kahlert, M. (2000). Lifelong learning--A public library perspective. Paper presented at the ALIA 2000, Capitalising on knowledge the information profession in the 21st century, 24-26 October 2000, Canberra. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from

This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the issue of the public library as a lifelong learning institution, including the diversity of clientele, and Derbyshire (Australia) Learning and Technology Access services. The third section presents a lifelong learning project, titled "Lifelong Learning--The Key to Knowledge," that was organized by the City of Swan Public Libraries (Australia) for the International Year of Older Persons, including: anticipated outcomes; lecture series topics; and program evaluation, covering demographics, value of the program, awareness of aging and seniors, overall evaluation of the program, and effectiveness of promotional material and advertising. A program of events is appended.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Library Services; Lifelong Learning; National Surveys; Older Adults; Public Libraries; Users (Information); Australia.

Kearns, P. (1999). Lifelong learning: Implications for VET. A discussion paper. Kensington Park, SA: The National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

Lifelong learning should be seen as both an educational and a social practice in which learning occurs throughout individuals' lives and throughout society in a wide range of contexts (including the workplace), involves both formal and informal learning, and is facilitated by an extensive range of partnerships and networks. Vocational education and training (VET) must acquire a new humanism with a focus on people as a way of investing in human intellect, imagination, and creativity. Five key dimensions for achieving lifelong learning that can serve as a coherent and integrated template for thinking about how lifelong learning might be achieved are as follows: (1) establish the foundations for lifelong learning; (2) strengthen and develop pathways, bridges, and transitions; (3) foster learning organizations and institutions; (4) extend the role of information and learning technologies; and (5) develop lifelong learning communities. In Australia and elsewhere, a convergence of VET and general education would potentially address the needs of a knowledge-based economy, lead to a more integrated system with stronger linkages to other sectors, and build on current VET reforms.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Change Strategies; Educational Change; Educational Needs; Educational Objectives; Educational Technology; Educational Trends; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Needs Assessment; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education.

Kilpatrick, S., Field, J., & Falk, I. (2003). Social capital: An analytical tool for exploring lifelong learning and community development. British Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 417-433.

The possibility of using the concept of social capital as an analytical tool for exploring lifelong learning and community development was examined. The following were among the topics considered: (1) differences between definitions of the concept of social capital that are based on collective benefit and those that define social capital as a resource used for the benefit of those individuals with access to it; (2) community development and community division; (3) the role of the concept of social capital in theories of community development; (4) the role of the concept of social capital in research into community development education; and (5) social capital and social cohesion. A social capital framework for analyzing community development was proposed. The framework called for considering the following items when analyzing community development, including adult education: (1) the balance between internal and external networks; (2) the presence and diversity of brokers who are able to operationalize the bridging and linking of networks; (3) the levels of self-confidence and self-esteem of community members and skills in working together, including conflict resolution; (4) norms present in the community (especially norms of inclusion/exclusion and reciprocity); and (5) the extent to which the community of analysis has shared visions for its future.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Community Attitudes; Community Characteristics; Community Development; Community Education; Community Resources; Definitions; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Learning Theories; Lifelong Learning; Linking Agents; Models; Outcomes of Education; Postsecondary Education; Research Methodology; Social Capital; Social Integration; Social Networks; Social Support Groups; Social Values; Theory Practice Relationship; Australia; Europe.

Lechner, D. (2001). The dangerous right to human education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 20(3), 279-281.

Uses the theories of Michel Foucault to support the contention that the educational system normalizes and disciplines the individual rather than stimulates the development of personal potential. Argues that children should be allowed to co-author the contracts they have with their educators; in this way education can serve to empower the child.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Children's Rights; Educational Change; Educational Theories; Elementary Education; Institutional Environment; Institutional Role; Role of Education; Student Rights; Foucault (Michel).

Lindstrom, C. (2000). Lifelong learning at European level--The past, the present and the new Grundtvig action. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 5(1), 31-34.

A new wave of European Union programs on lifelong learning focuses on transnational cooperation and improved access. Aims are to increase adults' capacity to play active social roles, develop intercultural awareness, improve employability, and access formal education systems.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Educational Development; Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning.

Livingstone, D. W., Mirchandani, K., & Sawchuk, P. H. (Eds.). (2008). The Future of Lifelong Learning and Work: Critical Perspectives. Rotterdam, NL: Sense Publishers.

Concern with learning throughout life has become pervasive in market-driven societies. Will most workers need to become more continuous learners in a new knowledge-based economy or will much of their learning be ignored or devalued in relation to their work? These papers critically assess dominant views of learning and work. The book is unique in examining changing relations between learning and work in terms of unpaid work and informal learning as well as paid employment and formal education. The book is organized in terms of five basic themes. General perspectives assesses learning and work relations in the "new economy" in terms of different concepts of learning and work and contending theories of education-employment relations. Social justice looks at uneven dislocating effects of globalization on gender discrimination in information technology work, working conditions in the public sector, student transitions to work, and disability in work and learning. Precarious employment analyzes the general working conditions and learning constraints of temporary, part-time workers, with a particular focus on call centre and garment workers. Apprenticeships offers an international review of the nature and future trajectory of apprenticeship systems and a case study of the challenges of a high school trades preparation program. Multiple literacies identifies needed abilities including coping with diverse cultures, languages and environmental change, as well as use of information technologies.

The material in this volume emerges from the conference on "The Future of Lifelong Learning and Work" held at the University of Toronto in June, 2005. This conference was one of the cluminating efforts of the Work and Lifelong Learning international research network based in Canada. The contributions were produced by members of this network as well as associates of the Centre for the Study of Education and Work at OISE/UT, and are complemented by the work of selected, leading international voices in the field of learning and work.

KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Market-driven Societies; Workers; Continuous Learners; Knowledge-based Economy; Learning and Work Relations; Paid Employment; Unpaid Work; Informal Learning; Formal Education; Social Justice; Globalization; Precarious Employment; Apprenticeships.

Longworth, N. (2006). Learning cities, learning regions, learning communities: Lifelong learning and local government. New York: Routledge.

The author explores the mental and social landscape of the city of today and tomorrow; the way in which people think, interact, work together, learn and live with and among each other. Written to address the urgent need for a guide to the principles and practices of lifelong learning , the author examines: the idea of Learning Cities; policies and strategies for the Learning City, including examples form around the world; how to activate learning, involve stakeholders and encourage citizen participation in a Learning City or Region.
KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Government; Work.

Lundmark, C. (2002). Lifelong learning. Bioscience, 52(4), 325.

Argues that one essential resource for continued lifelong learning is the vast network of organizations and media that support the public's burgeoning demand for 'free choice' learning - learning that is often voluntary and guided by a person's needs and interests.
KEY WORDS: Cognitive Style; Distance Education; General Education; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Science Education; Secondary Education.

Martin, I. (2001). Lifelong learning--For earning, yawning, or yearning? Adults Learning (England), 13(2), 14-17.

Examined are 3 factors that contribute to the shifting the roles of adult educators from normative practitioners and agents of social change to enacters of the dominant discourse of lifelong learning: professionalization, technicist pedagogy, and policies of economic determinism.
KEY WORDS: Adult Educators; Lifelong Learning; Public Policy; Role of Education; Social Change; Professionalization.

Medel-Anonuevo, C., Ohsako, T., & Mauch, W. (2001). Revisiting lifelong learning for the 21st Century. Hamburg: Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

Although lifelong learning is being increasingly cited as one of the key principles in the fields of education and development, shared understanding of the term's usage at the global level is lacking. Lifelong learning is closely tied to the challenge of openness and the changes with which modern individuals must cope in their lifetimes. Lifelong learning encompasses both continuity (stability) and discontinuity (change) in learned capacities over time as a result of interactions with the manmade environment--in other words, culture. The following strategies may help facilitate lifelong learning, effective cultural exchange, and interactions: (1) starting from the formative years, expose learners to diverse cultural information and experiences; (2) combine foreign language learning programs with culture learning; (3) develop culture learning programs with culture relativity as a main theme; and (4) develop learning indicators for individual learners' cross-cultural competencies. Lifelong learning should appeal to the totality of a person--heart, body, and brain--and more importantly, to our existential values and emotions. Lifelong learning can also deal with the uncertainty and contradictions of life. Lifelong learning should aim to promote the art of human maturity, which is a prerequisite for becoming a good citizen who is actively involved in local, national, and international issues and problems.
KEY WORDS: Adult Students; Citizenship Education; Cross Cultural Training; Cultural Exchange; Cultural Interrelationships; Cultural Pluralism; Definitions; Educational Environment; Educational Objectives; Educational Principles; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Humanistic Education; Individual Differences; Intergroup Education; Learning Motivation; Learning Processes; Lifelong Learning; Position Papers; Role of Education; Second Language Instruction; Self Actualization; Social Change; Student Characteristics.

Medel-Anonuevo, C. E. (2002). Integrating lifelong learning perspectives. Hamburg: Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

This publication contains the major papers presented during the International Conference on Lifelong Learning: Global Perspectives on Education held in Beijing, China from July 1-3, 2001. Almost 200 participants from government agencies, academic institutions, research organizations, multilateral agencies and non-government organizations from 40 countries, shared their policies and practices on lifelong learning in their respective contexts. This compilation illustrates the range of perspectives and practices in different parts of the world. The organizers of this conference, the Beijing Academy of Educational Sciences, the Chinese National Commission of UNESCO, the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, the Socrates Program of the European Commission and the UNESCO Institute for Education looked forward to the unique opportunity of bringing together such a range of stakeholders, not only for exchanging experiences but more important, to collectively reflect and analyze the implications for policy and educational practices of such discourses and experiences.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Education; Adult Literacy; Citizenship; Citizenship Education; Cultural Awareness; Democracy; Distance Education; Economic Development; Equal Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Global Education; Illiteracy; Indigenous Populations; Intergenerational Programs; Lifelong Learning; Literacy Education; Multicultural Education; Nondiscriminatory Education; Partnerships in Education; Sex Fairness; Teacher Education; Women's Education.

Meijers, F., & Wesselingh, A. (1999). Career identity, education and new ways of learning. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 36(2), 229-251.

In postindustrial society, the importance of education for the life course of young people is still important but much more unclear & unspecific than before & therefore sometimes questioned. The school function of qualifying young people for work is shrinking as a result of the vanishing of traditional occupations in favor of more broadly defined functions & such rapid changes in the structure of occupations that the learning of extrafunctional qualifications is of growing importance. For students, all of this implies that the significance of learning mostly abstract school knowledge in an overwhelmingly reproductive manner is being questioned. Students are no longer able to construct a meaningful connection between their education, work, & life course. The educational paths offered by the traditional curriculum lack significance for their life plans & future directions. The need to equip young people with a career identity is shown here, but it is also suggested that the educational setting must be altered as well. Recent developments in Dutch educational policy are used as an illustration.
KEY WORDS: Educational Reform; Postindustrial Societies; Education Work Relationship; Occupational Structure; Life Plans; Youth; Educational Policy; Netherlands; Lifelong Learning.

Mojbab, S., & Gorman, R. (2003). Women and consciousness in the "learning organization": Emancipation or exploitation? Adult Education Quarterly, 53(4), 228-241.

This article attempts to uncover the contradictions inherent in the philosophy and practice of the learning organization. Through a Marxist-feminist analysis of current shifts in adult education and workplace structure, this study attempts to discover the function of the learning organization in the capitalist political economy, the location of workers in relation to the learning organization, and the role of learning rhetoric in maintaining the status quo. The authors argue that the learning organization model can be seen both as a mechanism for the removal of surplus value from workers and as a method of social control. The learning organization model is often related to progressive, even emancipatory, claims of inclusion and collaboration in the workplace. However, this study argues that the educational legacies of feminism, trade unionism, antiracism, and revolutionary struggle are superior spaces to seek the learning interests of the workers that make up the learning organization.
KEY WORDS: Learning Organization; Workplace Learning; Women and Learning; Marxism; Feminism.

Murphy, M. (2000). Adult education, lifelong learning and the end of political economy. Studies in the Education of Adults, 32(2), 166-180.

Uncritical acceptance of globalization and postindustrialism leads to acceptance of lifelong learning policy as a neutral reaction to inevitable technological transformation. A structural theory of power is needed in adult education in order to reclaim lifelong learning as a force for empowerment and social change.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Economic Change; Educational Policy; Lifelong Learning; Political Power; Technological Advancement; Globalization; Postindustrialism.

Nind, M. (2007). Supporting lifelong learning for people with profound and multiple learning difficulties. Support for Learning, 22(3), 111-115.

This article addresses the issue of supporting lifelong learning for individuals with profound and multiple learning difficulties. Lifelong learning is usually a more mainstream concept and is rarely applied to this marginalized group for whom learning "per se" is such a challenge. The paper debates whether the concept is a useful one, and what lifelong learning might actually look like for someone with such a profound intellectual impairment.
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