Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Educational Change; Change Strategies; School Effectiveness; School Culture; School Policy; Organization; Educational Policy; Motivation; Lifelong Learning.

Crowther, J., & Sutherland, P. (Eds.). (2005). Lifelong learning: Concepts and contexts. New York: Routledge.

Lifelong learning has developed enormously as a distinct area of study within education in recent years. This guide brings together new writing from some of the leading thinkers in the field to offer a broad ranging yet detailed snapshot of current developments in understanding adult learning and its social and personal context.

The book identifies four themes: Adult learning is distinctly different from learning in childhood; Learning is more than a cognitive activity in that it includes an affective dimension and contextual influences; Lifelong learning has implications for the purpose and processes of learning in educational institutions; There are subordinate discourses of lifelong learning that need to be aired.

KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Lifelong Learning.

Cruikshank, J. (2002). Lifelong learning or re-training for life: Scapegoating the worker. Studies in the Education of Adults, 34(2), 140-157.

This article explores the current focus of lifelong learning in Canada. It looks at the new economy, the increasing polarisation between the rich and the poor, the role lifelong learning plays in supporting this polarisation and describes why so many Canadians continue to believe the training-as-panacea rhetoric. The article highlights the need for research that will challenge current lifelong policies, explore new economy issues from alternative perspectives and view lifelong learning from a more holistic perspective. It also identifies a need for adult educators to lobby for more progressive lifelong learning policies that will improve the quality of life for all citizens.
KEY WORDS: Canada; Lifelong Learning; Policy; Adult Learners.

Dimitriadis, G., & Kamberelis, G. (2006). Theory for education. London: Routledge.

This book provides a concise and clear introduction to key contemporary theorists, including their lives, major works, and ideas. Written for the student in need of a quick introduction or for the scholar brushing up on details, this new book in the theory series presents major thinkers whose work and ideas have shaped critical thinking in our time. The authors underscore the particular relevance of these thinkers for the field of education -- their work on education, how others in education have used them, and possible future directions for teachers and researchers. The volume gives special attention to theorists of "the post" -- post-modernism, post-structuralism, and post-colonialism.
KEY WORDS: Education Theory; Poststructuralism; Research; Lifelong Learning.

Dyer, C. (2001). Nomads and education for all: Education for development or domestication? Comparative Education, 37(3), 315-327.

In Gujarat, India, illiterate Rabari nomads see formal education and literacy as irrelevant to pastoralism, but as providing possible alternatives if the pastoral life dies. Access and school culture present many difficulties. The hegemonic values of the international initiative Education for All and associated national policies ignore the importance of local knowledge and context.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Acculturation; Educational Attitudes; Educational Principles; Foreign Countries; Migrant Education; Minority Groups; Nomads; Public Policy; Relevance (Education); Social Bias; Values; Lifelong Learning.

Edwards, R. (2003). Ordering subjects: Actor-networks and intellectual technologies in lifelong learning. Studies in the Education of Adults, 35(1), 54-67.

Argues that discourses of lifelong learning act as intellectual technologies that construct individuals as subjects in a learning society. Discuses three discourses using actor-network theory: (1) economics/human capital (individuals as accumulators of skills for competitiveness); (2) humanistic psychology (individuals seeking fulfillment through participation in learning); and (3) social capital (collaborative learning within social relations and networks).
KEY WORDS: Behavior Modification; Cognitive Processes; Discourse Analysis; Lifelong Learning; Actor Network Theory; Self Regulation; Subjectivity.

Edwards, R., Armstrong, P., & Miller, N. (2001). Include me out: Critical readings of social exclusion, social inclusion and lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(5), 417-428.

Social inclusion appears to be an unconditional good. Examination of social policy studies and poststructuralist philosophy suggests that "inclusion" is positioned within a philosophy of identity that denies difference and is thus exclusionary. Promoting social inclusion heightens awareness of difference. The rights of those who choose not to be included must be protected.
KEY WORDS: Civil Rights; Cultural Pluralism; Democracy; Educational Policy; Equal Education; Lifelong Learning; Identity (Psychological).

Edwards, R., Gallacher, J., & Whittaker, S. (2006). Learning outside the academy: International research perspectives on lifelong learning. London: Routledge.

This work weaves together different strands of research in the area of Lifelong Learning that concentrates particularly on learning in alternative settings and ways, such experiential learning, informal and community learning. Drawing upon international research, the book looks at how these strands of research can contribute to each other.

The contributions to this volume are based on material presented at a conference at the Centre for Research in Lifelong Learning, UK, and they focus on research into key issues of policy and practice in Lifelong Learning. Establishing a wider framework for debate about the meaning and significance of lifelong learning, this timely and thought-provoking book will provide practitioners in the field with a relevant and current discussion on some very important ideas about non-formal education.

KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; UK; Non-Formal Learning; Community Learning.

Edwards, R., & Nicoll, K. (2001). Researching the rhetoric of lifelong learning. Journal of Education Policy, 16(2), 103-112.

In the analysis of polices for lifelong learning, the gap between the rhetoric and reality has become the focus for much debate and concern. Reality is compared with rhetoric and both are found wanting. In this payer, we argue that such critiques misconceive the significance of rhetoric and we outline the form a rhetorical analysis of lifelong learning policy could take. Using the UK government's 1998 Green Paper and 1999 White Paper on lifelong learning as illustrations, we suggest that rhetorical analysis helps to point to the politics of discourse that is at play in policy-making processes. This is a politics - often dismissed as spin-doctoring - with which we need to engage if our own attempts to develop lifelong learning are to be persuasive.
KEY WORDS: Policy; Lifelong Learning.

Edwards, R., & Usher, R. (2001). Lifelong learning: A postmodern condition of education? Adult Education Quarterly, 51(4), 273-287.

In recent years, there has been much discussion of the significance of postmodernism and postmodernity for the study and practice of adult education. At the same time, lifelong learning has emerged as a significant strand of policy around tile globe, reconfiguring the institutions and purposes of education. This article examines the complication of lifelong learning with some of the changes associated with the postmodern condition, in particular; the growth of performativity alongside a certain "unruliness" of knowledge. The article also suggests that lifelong learning signifies that the loss of mastery is associated with postmodern notions of ambivalence and incredulity. The article argues that given their interrelationship, lifelong learning can be constructed as a postmodern condition of education.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Lifelong Learning; Mastery Learning; Outcomes of Education; Postmodernism; Role of Education.
Elfert, M. E. (2002). Towards an open learning world: 50 years. Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.
An historical account of the creation and development of the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) is presented. Written in honor of the 50th anniversary of UIE, this institutional history begins with a series of seven prefaces and memoir essays about the organization written by UIE administrators, board members and researchers. Two chapters detail the founding and establishment of UIE, and present short portraits of these seven UIE pioneers: John West Robertson Thompson, Minna Specht, Paul Lengrand, Gottfried Hausmann, Paulo Freire, Bogdan Suchodolski, and Maria Montessori. Following these is a chapter, organized by decades, devoted entirely to the activities of UIE since its inception. The final chapter focuses on the present day activities of UIE and its current emphasis on lifelong learning and non-formal education. Publications of the UIE are next featured, including photographs of covers of the International Review of Education and other selected publications. Captioned photographs of both the founding and current staffs precede brief biographies of all UIE directors. Historical essays are included from these three UIE directors: Tetsuya Kobayashi, Ravindra Dave, and Paul BĂ©langer. Among the final lists and appended material are a list of governing board chairpersons; a list of governing board members from 1951-2002; a UIE chronology; a list of UIE conferences from 1952-2002; and an index of the 45 photographs included.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Adult Basic Education; Adult Education; Adult Learning; Chronicles; Culturally Relevant Education; Delivery Systems; Developing Nations; Educational Development; Educational Environment; Educational Facilities; Educational Finance; Literacy; Literacy Education; Nonformal Education; Open Education; Organizational Change; Partnerships in Education; Postsecondary Education; Program Development; Program Effectiveness; Freire (Paulo); Institutional History; Montessori (Maria); UNESCO; UNESCO Institute for Education; United Nations.

Field, J., & Leicester, M. (Eds.). (2000). Lifelong learning: Education across the lifespan. London: Falmer.

Lifelong learning is an increasingly relevant issue for educators across the world, as societies all over the world are concerned with developing a literate, skilled and flexible workforce to expand participation in education at all levels and for all age groups. This book covers all the key issues.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Informal Learning; Lifelong Learning; Work and Learning.

Given, L. (1999). The promise of "lifelong learning" and the Canadian Census: The marginalization of mature students' information behaviours. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science-Revue Canadienne Des Sciences De L'Information Et De Bibliotheconomie, 24(4), 46-46.

Examined is the rising popularity of "lifelong learning", as well as the effect on government and university initiatives, & the implications of these initiatives for academic information behaviours of mature students. Results of 1 part of a 2 phase study, involving both the manipulation of Canadian Census data and a series of in-depth, qualitative interviews with mature students. Results of the 1st-phase of the study, the author reports: First, the national demographic portrait of mature students that is captured by the Census. Second, limitations from a Census questionnaire for tracking demographic data for mature students. Third, the results from a series of logistic regression tests which used the Census data to explore the social stereotypes of the 'mature student'. Fourth, a discursive critique of Census-based Statistics Canada documents with implications for the promotion of 'lifelong learning'. Fifth, marginalization of mature students' experiences in Statistics Canada on student academic information behaviours.
KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Mature Students; Government; University Initiatives; Canadian Census Data.

Gorard, S., & Selwyn, N. (2005). What makes a lifelong learner? Teachers College Record, 107(6), 1193-1216.

This article uses the reports from 1,001 home-based interviews, with adults living in the United Kingdom, to describe their varying patterns of participation in lifelong, learning. It finds that 37% of all adults report no further education or training of any kind after reaching compulsory school-leaving age. This proportion declines in each age cohort but is largely replaced by a pattern of lengthening initial education and still reporting no further education or training of any kind after leaving. The actual patterns of participation are predictable to a large extent from regression analysis using a life order model of determining variables. The key variables are age, ethnicity, sex, family background, and initial schooling, all of which are set very early in life. This suggests that universal theories to describe participation, such as simple human capital theory, are incorrect in several respects. Where individuals create, for themselves and through their early experiences, a learner identity inimical to further study, then the prospect of learning can become a burden rather than an investment. This has implications for the notion of overcoming barriers to access, such as those involving technology.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Family Characteristics; Adult Education; Human Capital; Lifelong Learning; Interviews; Age; Ethnicity; Sex; Educational Technology; Educational Attainment.

Gough, S., Walker, K., & Scott, W. (2001). Lifelong learning: Towards a theory of practice for formal and non-formal environmental education and training. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 6, 178-196.

Contends that environmental learning is possible only if all absolute criteria for judging educational or environmental worth are regarded as problematic.
KEY WORDS: Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Environmental Education; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Science Curriculum; Theory Practice Relationship.

Grace, A. P. (2007). Envisioning a critical social pedagogy of learning and work in a contemporary culture of cyclical lifelong learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 29(1), 85-103.

This study provides a critical analysis of the current learning-and-work policy in Canada. Particular attention was devoted to the development of the individual learner and/or worker, taking into consideration the cyclical nature of lifelong learning. According to the author of this study, increasing numbers of young people who disengage from participation in lifelong learning indicates a need for re-engendering the social aspects of lifelong learning. The study pays particular attention to young people in Newfoundland and Labrador and their work and social experiences. The author advocates a critical social pedagogy of learning and work, based on Freire's vision of pedagogy.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Work Experience Programs; Social Psychology; Cognitive Development; Critical Theory; Policy Analysis; Education Work Relationship; Disadvantaged Youth; Canada.

Green, A. (2002). The many faces of lifelong learning: Recent education policy trends in Europe. Journal of Education Policy, 17(6), 611-626.

Examines the rise of discourse on lifelong learning across Europe, including the variety of national policy trends related thereto. Highlights convergent and divergent trends and comments on some of the implications of different policy models. Analyzes policy-as-discourse and policy-as-practice through illustrations.
KEY WORDS: Educational Policy; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; Postsecondary Education; Discourse; Europe.

Griffin, C. (1999). Lifelong learning and social democracy. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 18(5), 329-342.

"Education" is being displaced by "learning" and it is becoming increasingly difficult to isolate educational policy from socioeconomic policy. Analysis of progressive social democratic policies shows that lifelong learning may be another name for expansion of education and training systems.
KEY WORDS: Democracy; Educational Policy; Government Role; Lifelong Learning; Policy Formation; Public Policy; Social Change; Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development; UNESCO.

Griffin, C. (2006). Research and policy in lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 25(6), 561-574.

This article addresses the issues related to influence over national education policies, with particular reference to the research elements of policy. It is argued that the concept "policy-maker" is too ambiguous to be of either theoretical or practical use, especially since the focus has shifted over the years away from the "advocacy" of adult education to the "implementation" of lifelong learning. In addition, this study argues that the concepts of both "policy" and "research" are now outdated. According to this study, in order to be meaningful, the relation between research and the policy process needs to be reconceptualised beyond lifelong learning with much more focus on process than outcome. Only in this way could adult and lifelong educators expect to have any influence upon national policies.
KEY WORDS: Lifelong Learning; Research; Policy; Adult Education.

Gustavsson, B. (2002). What do we mean by lifelong learning and knowledge? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1), 13-23.

In the last 20 years, the concepts of lifelong learning and knowledge have been expressed in economic terms, losing their humanistic and democratic content. To broaden the concept beyond theoretical-scientific knowledge, phronesis (practical wisdom) is defined as the ability to meet concrete situations with sensitivity and imagination, a concept employing human abilities more fully.
KEY WORDS: Ethics; Humanistic Education; Lifelong Learning; Rhetoric; Knowledge; Phronesis; Technical Rationality.

Halimi, S., & Hristoskova, S. (2001). Lifelong learning for equity and social cohesion: A new challenge for higher education. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 7(1), 21-32.

The Council of Europe's lifelong learning project affirmed the role of higher education in promoting social cohesion and equal access to lifelong learning opportunities. The need to change formal structures to accommodate nontraditional methods was recognized. The impact of information/communications technologies on educational processes and access was investigated.
KEY WORDS: Access to Education; Communications; Equal Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Information Technology; Lifelong Learning; Nontraditional Education; Role of Education Council of Europe (France).

Halliday, J. (2003). Who wants to learn forever? Hyperbole and difficulty with lifelong learning. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 22(3-4), 195-210.

Discusses issues of how lifelong learning, globalization and capitalism are related within late modernity and how an increasingly homogeneous global economy requires a high level of cognitive skills in its workers. Argues that policymakers should encourage life long learning so that it can be easily combined into people's lives.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Capitalism; Community Colleges; Democracy; Economics; Experiential Learning; Globalization; Independent Study; Lifelong Learning; Social Systems; Two Year Colleges.

Hinchliffe, G. (2006). Re-thinking lifelong learning. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 25(1-2), 93-109.

According to this paper, the dominant concept of lifelong learning has arisen from the pressures of globalization, economic change and the needs of the 'knowledge economy'. The author argues that this concept places unrealistic demands on the individual without addressing their learning needs. The article suggests that this way of looking at lifelong learning misses the point that learning is only as good as the knowledge-in-use which the individual can deploy. To this end, the article draws attention, by way of an amalgam of ideas of Heidegger and Aristotle, to certain structural features of situations which need to be reflected in the curricula and emphasize both the social and ethical dimensions of lifelong learning.
KEY WORDS: Learning; Education; Pedagogy; Theory of Education.
Hodkinson, P. (2001). Researching the learning society: Review article. Work, Employment and Society, 15(2), 385-393.
A review article including four books edited by Frank Coffield: (1) Learning at Work; (2) Why's the Beer Always Stronger Up North?: Studies in Lifelong Learning in Europe; (3) Speaking Truth to Power: Research and Policy on Lifelong Learning; & (4) The Necessity of Informal Learning (all, Bristol: Policy, 1998, 1999, 1999, & 2000, respectively). All four books resulted from the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Research Program, "The Learning Society: Knowledge and Skills for Employment." Criteria for evaluation of these products include (1) the quality of the empirical findings, (2) the extent to which the program's 14 projects contribute to existing knowledge, & (3) the relevance of that knowledge to the intended beneficiaries. Consequently, it is argued that the third volume is the strongest because it uses research data to overturn certain overblown claims regarding the value of learning.

KEY WORDS: Learning; Employment; Social Science Research; Work Skills; Job; Training; Social Constructionism; Lifelong Learning.

Hughes, C. (2001). Developing conceptual literacy in lifelong learning research: A case of responsibility. British Educational Research Journal, 27(5), 601-614.

Contends the nature of lifelong learning research is marked by border crossings requiring researchers to be conceptually literate. Discusses aspects of conceptual literacy. Draws on fields of adult education, employment, and family as key domains of lifelong learning research. Explores literacy issues through a case study of feminist conceptualizations of responsibility.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Case Studies; Educational Research; Employment; Family (Sociological Unit); Foreign Countries; Lifelong Learning; England.

Hull, B. (2001). Libraries: Deliverers of lifelong learning. Adults Learning (England), 12(6), 20-22.

A survey of British adult students returning to education found they lacked basic as well as information literacy skills and have difficulty with information retrieval and use of learning resource centers. Partnerships between adult educators as facilitators and librarians as teachers are needed.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Foreign Countries; Information Literacy; Information Retrieval; Library Services; Lifelong Learning; Great Britain.

Hyslop-Margison, E. J. (2000). The employability skills discourse: A conceptual analysis of the career and personal planning curriculum. Journal of Educational Thought/Revue de la Pensee Educative, 34(1), 59-72.

States that British Columbia's Career and Personal Planning curriculum commits two fundamental mistakes in its classification of employability skills by: incorrectly conflating distinct categories of concepts under the general rubric of generic skills; and categorizing attitudes, values, and dispositions as skills. Reveals how these category mistakes may prevent students from achieving program objectives, and circumvents critical moral considerations.
KEY WORDS: Canadian Studies; Curriculum Evaluation; Educational Practices; Employment Potential; Job Skills; Job Training; Moral Issues; Student Needs; Vocational Education British Columbia; Lifelong Learning.

Illeris, K. (2003). Towards a contemporary and comprehensive theory of learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(4), 396-406.

In this paper, an overarching learning theory is presented, based on assumptions that all learning includes (1) external learner-environment interaction and internal acquisition and elaboration and (2) cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions. The framework depicts four types of learning: cumulative, assimilative, accommodative, and transformative.
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