Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Discretion; Class; Decision-Making; Occupation; Work; Service Workers; Changes in Paid Work; Employment Status.

Havlovic, S. J., Lau, D. C., & Pinfield, L. T. (2002). Repercussions of work schedule congruence among full-time, part-time, and contingent nurses. Health Care Management Review, 27(4), 30-41.

Previous studies on alternative work schedules have focused primarily on the main effects of compressed work weeks and shift work on individual outcomes. The combined effects of alternative and preferred work schedules on nurses' satisfaction with their work schedules, the perceived patient care quality, and interferences with their personal lives is explored. Results show substantial support for the notion of work schedule congruence. Generally, registered nurses who worked simultaneously on both their preferred shifts and preferred work weeks reported more positive work outcomes and less interference with their nonwork activities. Shift congruence yielded less interference with sleep and social activities and higher satisfaction with work arrangement. No benefits were observed for those with only work week congruence.
KEY WORDS: Studies; Regression Analysis; Employee Attitude; Nurses; Flexible Hours; Workforce Planning; Quality of Service; United States; Experimental/Theoretical; Health Care Industry; Human Resource Planning; US; Changes in Paid Work.

Hecker, D. E. (2001). Occupational employment projections to 2010. Monthly Labor Review, 124(11), 57-84.

Employment in professional and related occupations and service occupations will increase the fastest and add the most jobs from 2000 to 2010. Changes in technology or business operations will cause the largest declines in occupational demand. Occupations requiring a postsecondary award or academic degree will account for 42 percent of total job growth from 2000 to 2010.
KEY WORDS: Demand Occupations; Employment Projections; Employment Qualifications; Job Development; Postsecondary Education; Tables (Data); Changes in Paid Work.

Henley, A. (2004). Self-employment status: The role of state dependence and initial circumstances. Small Business Economics, 22(1), 67-82.

British longitudinal data is used to model self-employment status. Contrast to prior studies, the modelling approach accounts for state-dependence and unexplained heterogeneity effects. In conclusion, state dependence is an important influence on self-employment choice. Someone self-employed last year is, controlling for observable and unobservable influences, 30% points more likely to be self-employed this year than someone who was in paid employment one year ago. Results show that significant individual heterogeneity in the probability of self-employment, with significant explained influences operating through gender, educational attainment, occupation, spouse's self-employment, and parental and educational background. Significant, though quantitatively smaller influences come though initial financial circumstance and current house price movements. Local labour market shocks do not appear significantly to influence self-employment choice. The authors conclude that the autoregressive nature of self-employment time-series would appear to be a structural rather than a cyclical phenomenon.
KEY WORDS: British Longitudinal Data; Modelling Approach; State Dependence; Self-Employment Choice; Changes in Paid Work.

Hjalager, A.-M. (2003). Virtually working: Traditional and emerging institutional frameworks for the contingent workforce. International Journal of Manpower, 24(2), 187-206.

The authors focuses on virtual working and the ultramobile--contingent--workforce in a Nordic welfare economy. Institutional frameworks for virtual working are investigated and analysed. Danish legal frameworks and collective bargaining arrangements are shown to provide substantial opportunities for flexibility that benefits small and medium-sized enterprises in particular. From the early 1990s, temp and recruiting agency activity has somewhat widened in scope and scale, in accordance with a general deregulation of this labour market service. Restrictions that still exist in many European countries have been abolished in Denmark, but other forces counteract a rapid development of the agency sector. The new opportunities over internet for a flexibilisation of work by expanding geographical and organisational limits and lowering search and promotion costs. Results discussed are the new "meta" organisations. The aim is social protection of virtual workers in an increasingly competitive, globalised and individualised world.
KEY WORDS: Employment Determination; Job Creation; Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity; Formal Training Programs; On-the-Job Training; Technological Change; Welfare; Income Distribution; International Competitiveness; Case Studies; Denmark; Changes in Paid Work.

Hughes, K. D. (2003). Pushed or pulled? Women's entry into self-employment and small business ownership. Gender, Work & Organization, 10(4), 433-454.

The economies of Canada and many other industrialized countries have experienced significant restructuring within the past two decades. This restructuring has encouraged steadily rising levels of self-employment and small business ownership. Women have been at the forefront of this change. As more women enter self-employment, of interest are the factors fueling its growth. Some argue that women have been pulled into self-employment by the promise of independence, flexibility and the opportunity to escape barriers in paid employment. Others argue that women have been pushed into it as restructuring and downsizing has eroded the availability of once secure jobs in the public and private sector. Existing research on the 'push-pull' debate has not fully answered. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 61 self-employed women in Canada, this paper examines the push-pull debate in greater detail. Overall women's experiences shed further light on the expansion of women's self-employment in the 1990. The research suggests that push factors have been underestimated and challenges the current contours of the 'push-pull' debate.
KEY WORDS: Business; Economy; Entrepreneurship; Human Females; Self Employment; Changes in Paid Work.

ILO. (2004). World employment report 2004: Employment and poverty reduction. Geneva: International Labour Office.

This edition of the World Employment Report looks at the concept of labour productivity and the ways in which it is linked to poverty reduction and employment creation in countries at various stages of development around the world. The paper works from the premise that for most of the world’s labour force, it is not necessarily the absence of work that is the major challenge for improving living standards, but rather the absence of work that is sufficiently productive for earning a decent income. The paper looks closely at the interdependence of productivity, output and employment. It traces the main sources of productivity growth and pinpoints the principal influences affecting those sources such as technological change, organization and composition of the labour market. The paper provides a thorough definition of productivity and evaluates whether productivity growth alone is enough to eradicate poverty in the future. The implications for labour market policy around the world are also examined.
KEY WORDS: Labour Market; Labour Supply; Unemployment; Changes in Paid Work.

International Labour Office. (2003). Global employment trends 2002. Geneva: International Labour Office.

This report was released by the ILO in 2003 to fill the demand for a timely and comprehensive analysis of current labour market trends. It presents labour market trends and underlines the main employment challenges at the global level and in each of eight regions of the world. The report does not aim at presenting policy recommendations to overcome these challenges. Stress is laid on the growth of employment and unemployment, youth unemployment and the employment of women. Such developments are presented in the light of changes in output growth and in labour market policy.
KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Trends; Growth of Employment; Youth Unemployment; Employment of Women; Unemployment; Changes in Paid Work.

Jackson, A. (2005). Work and labour in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.

The thesis is change. Work and Labour in Canada examines changes in the labour market, and in workplaces, with a strong empirical component based upon recent Statistics Canada data. The chapters are tailored to an undergraduate audience. They are masterfully written from a labour perspective - that is, concerned with the impacts of changes on workers - but also written on the basis of empirical evidence with supporting summaries of the academic research literature.
KEY WORDS: Canada; Work; Global Economy; Academic; Changing Nature of Work; Changes in Paid Work.

Jordan, J. W. (2003). Sabotage or performed compliance: Rhetorics of resistance in temp worker discourse. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 89(1), 19-40.

Analyzed are the contemporary temporary employment texts and the competing rhetorical definitions that shape the meanings of employment and identity in the contingent economy. Arguing against resistance labor rhetoric that is ill-suited to present conditions of temporary work, the author advocates a rhetoric of "performativity" enabling temporary workers to carve their own definitional territory and seek advantage within an oppressive management culture. Rhetorical tactics of performativity enable resistant practices suited to contingent situations and show promise for new conceptions of identity.
KEY WORDS: Identity; Rhetoric; Workers; Discourse; Changes in Paid Work.

Kalleberg, A. L. (2003). Flexible firms and labor market segmentation: Effects of workplace restructuring on jobs and workers. Work and Occupations, 30(2), 154-175.

U.S. employers' use of numerical and functional flexibility has created a division between organizational insiders (core) and outsiders (periphery). The latter have nonstandard work arrangements, the consequences of which differ depending on workers' degree of control over skills, autonomy, and transferability.
KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Labor Relations; Organizational Change; Personal Autonomy; Temporary Employment; Work Environment; Working Hours; Changes in Paid Work.

Kalleberg, A. L., Reskin, B. F., & Hudson, K. (2000). Bad jobs in America: Standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States. American Sociological Review, 65(2), 256-278.

Nonstandard jobs are often perceived as bad. The study uses data from the 1995 Current Population Survey to examine the relationship between nonstandard employment (on-call work and day labor, temporary-help agency employment, employment with contract companies, independent contracting, other self-employment, and part-time employment in "conventional" jobs) and exposure to "bad" job characteristics. Of workers age 18+, 31% are in some type of nonstandard work arrangement. To assess the link between type of employment and bad jobs, we conceptualize "bad jobs" as those with low pay and without access to health insurance and pension benefits. About one in seven jobs in the US is considered bad on these three dimensions. Nonstandard employment strongly increases workers' contact to bad job characteristics, net of controls for workers' personal characteristics, family status, occupation, and industry.
KEY WORDS: Employment; United States of America; Labor Market; Work Attitudes; Job Characteristics; Nontraditional Occupations; Changes in Paid Work.

Kiger, P. J. (2002). Workers take their jobs on the road. Workforce, 81(10), 58-61.

Camping World's Multi-Location Crew member program is an HR four year initiative enabling employees to work part of the year at one of the organization's thirty stores, take off for traveling, and relocate to another location to resume work. Participants enjoy the freedom to roam and still retain security of a full-time position with health-care and other benefits. Contingent, mobile full-time workers has helped the company cope with what was once a chronic shortage of competent employees in stores during the seasons when the firm did the bulk of its business. The ability to deploy already-trained workers has enabled Camping World to improve productivity and revenues. Recognizing Camping World's astute approach to helping both its employees and its own bottom line, the company is this year's recipient of Workforce's Optimas Award for Quality of Life.
KEY WORDS: Corporate Profiles; Retailing Industry; Honors; Human Resource Management; Work Life Programs; United States; Company Specific; Retailing Industry; Human Resource Planning; United States; US; Camping World; Changes in Paid Work.

Kirschenbaum, A., & Weisberg, J. (2002). Employee's turnover intentions destination choices. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 109-125.

As part of the turnover process, employee's job destination choices reflect options for internal organizational or external labor market moves. A sample of 477 employees in 15 firms was used to consider how bio-demographic, job, plant, and labor market characteristics are related to five alternative job destinations. Multivariate logistic regression and odds-ratio analyses compared the five models confirming that different sets of variables influence each of the destination choices. Coworkers' intentions have a significant impact on all destination options. Findings have implications for present turnover models, career paths, and promotion progression in the firm.
KEY WORDS: Turnover; Empirical Research; Turnover Models; Career Paths; Promotion Progression; Changes in Paid Work.

Lanza, B., Maryn, M. R., & Elders, R. J. (2003). Legal status of contingent workers. Compensation and Benefits Review, 35(4), 47-60.

Contingent workers are a vital part of the workforce for many companies. A recent estimate in the United States, has placed the number of contingent workers at 3 million, with about half, or one and one half million, performing the same services for the same company for six months or longer. However, the vast majority of companies using contingent workers have not developed a clear plan for maximizing the benefit of the various categories of contingent workers or for avoiding legal pitfalls. Consequently, many companies never benefit from the significant cost savings and risk-management benefits provided by such a plan. This article raises the strategic, legal and financial issues companies need to think about in working with a contingent workforce. The potential drawbacks and possible solutions for managing the contingent workforce are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Regulatory Compliance; Human Resource Management; Risk Management; Outsourcing; Changes in Paid Work.

Lautsch, B. A. (2003). The influence of regular work systems on compensation for contingent workers. Industrial Relations, 42(4), 565-588.

Using data from a nationally representative survey of US business establishments, the authors explore features of regular work and the outcomes for contingent workers. Results show that firms combine regular and contingent work in varied ways: Contingent work may be designed to achieve performance objectives not possible with the regular workforce. In other cases, contingent jobs are created to reinforce the same goals as regular work. In the latter case, contingent workers are more likely to be integrated with regular workers and receive benefits. Benefit provision for contingent workers is also influenced by traditional internal labor market rules, and may be extended to contingent workers once offered to regular workers.
KEY WORDS: Temporary Employment; Benefits; Enterprises; United States of America; Changes in Paid Work; Contingent Work.

Loh, K. (2004). Socialization experiences of part-time faculty: A study of socialization programs and employment longevity. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65-04A, pp.1199.

Socialization experiences of part-time faculty at a four-year comprehensive university, a survey was administered to part-time faculty that gathered data on (1) their perceptions of their socialization experiences through its processes and outcomes, (2) the professional profile of these part-time faculty, and (3) the factors behind their employment longevity---referred to in the study as non-transient part-time faculty. Part-time faculty who participated in this study had positive perceptions about their socialization experiences and exhibited a strong sense of loyalty and commitment to their institution. However, they did not participate much in socialization programs provided by the institution, and individual socialization efforts were also minimal or limited to informal activities such as lunches or holiday parties. Non-transient part-time faculty at this institution had an average employment tenure of 4.75 years and attributed their employment longevity to intrinsic factors in the process of teaching and interaction with students, professional satisfaction in being associated with an institution of higher learning, and convenience in their flexible teaching schedule. The data did not support the somewhat negative perspectives on part-time faculty employment in the conventional literature. Part-time faculty here chose their employment status willingly and primarily to earn extra income. Many had no desire to seek full-time teaching positions, and a minority indicated that they were teaching part-time due to a lack of more favorable employment options. Highlighted is the importance of customizing and adapting socialization programs to the needs of the institution and the part-time faculty. Also the importance of studying part-time faculty from a human resource perspective, focusing on their deployment as contingent workforce---or contingent faculty with budgetary reductions.
KEY WORDS: Education; Administration; Education; Higher; Changes in Paid Work; Part-Time.

Luber, S., & Leicht, R. (2000). Growing self-employment in Western Europe: An effect of modernization? International Review of Sociology/Revue Internationale de Sociologie, 10(1), 101-123.

Trends embedded in economic and structural changes toward self-employment in Western European companies. Common explanations to growing self-employment cover cultural & sociodemographic issues, institutional & political arrangements, & structural changes. The 1983-1997 European Labor Force Survey data for Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, & the UK reveal differences between the North & South that indicate a concentration in trades, restaurants, & hotels in the latter, while the former tended toward professional, modern, & business related services. Changes in self-employment & growth rates are reviewed for each country, as are trends between industry & services. These countries are marked by discontinuity showing that heterogeneous self-employment trends in the European Community are not in alignment with the expected effects of modernization. New explanations are needed to explain the dissimilarities between countries.
KEY WORDS: Western Europe; Self Employment; Employment Changes; Economic Change; Economic Development; North and South; Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany; France; Italy; Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; United Kingdom; Regional Differences; Changes in Paid Work.

Luff, P., Hindmarsh, J., & Heath, C. (2000). Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and informing system design. Cambridge, UK, New York: Cambridge University Press.

This book discusses critical issues in the study of the workplace and outlines recent developments in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part I consists of a number of detailed case studies that provide an insight into the issues central to workplace studies including some of the problems involved in carrying out such research. Part II focuses on the interrelationship between workplace studies and the design of new technologies.
KEY WORDS: Technological Innovations; Employee Participation; Management; Communication In Design; Organizational Change; Communication And Technology; Work Environment; Work Design; Changes in Paid Work.

Malenfant, R., Larue, A., & Vézina, M. (2007). Intermittent work and well-being: One foot in the door, one foot out. Current Sociology, 55(6), 814-835.

The intermittent work patterns of 22 men and 30 women are studied to for their effects on life and perceived health. Intermittent work is defined by workers who consider themselves available for fulltime work, but have no continuous ties to an employer, and/or work off and on for six or more months in the preceding year. Almost one third of those studied have had experience with maintaining full time employment for several years, but currently find themselves in this precarious position. The paper illustrates that paid work, and the status that accompanies integration into the workplace on a full time basis affects social recognition and self-esteem. The paper also demonstrates two reactions to the intermittent work status. One such reaction is decreased motivation at work, and an increasing distance between the worker and the paid labour market. The second reaction involves the acceptance of the precarious position in order to achieve both stability and security in the labour market. This position increases the level of internal conflict as personal work values are contradicted, and individuals are limited in their ability to achieve self-fulfillment, and develop capacities and relationships.
KEY WORDS: Intermittent Work; Perceived Health; Precarious Job; Qualitative Research.

McGovern, P., Smeaton, D., & Hill, S. (2004). Bad jobs in Britain: Nonstandard employment and job quality. Work and Occupations, 31(2), 225-249.

The rapid growth in nonstandard forms of employment toward the end of the 20th century has fuelled claims about the spread of “bad jobs” within Anglo-American capitalism. Research from the United States indicates that such jobs have more bad characteristics than do permanent jobs after controlling for workers’ personal characteristics, family status, and occupation.We apply a version of the bad characteristics approach to British data and find that despite some institutional differences with the United States, (notably, in employer welfare provision), the British case also supports the hypothesis that nonstandard employment (part-time, temporary, and fixed term) increases workers’ exposure to bad job characteristics.
KEY WORDS: Job Qality; Nonstandard Employment; Britain; Changes in Paid Work.

McLagan, P. A. (2002). Change leadership today. T+D, 56(11), 26-31.

Summarizes current research on change leadership and the scope of change in the workplace. Addresses reasons for failure in anticipating and implementing change. (JOW)
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Change Agents; Leadership; Organizational Change; Organizational Climate; Training; Changes in Paid Work.

Miller, R., & Cangemi, J. (2000). North American employee attitudes in the 1990's: Changing attitudes for changing times. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 8(2), 104-110.

The study examines the effects of organizational change in the 1990s on attitudes of 9,495 hourly and salaried employees in 45 manufacturing facilities in the US and Canada. Interview data was also collected from 25 organizational leaders of Fortune 500 companies. Employee survey findings are discussed in categories of: communication, idea generation and usage, consistence/favoritism/fairness, shifting rewards, and absenteeism. Interviews with top management in organizations indicated that they felt young workers were: less disposed to working long hours and loyalty, less skilled, more demanding of free time, and less trusting of organizations as companies experience downsizing. These results support the argument that worker attitudes have paralleled organizational changes, wherein the traditional workplace has changed to a more streamlined, self-directed structure with less direct central control.

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