Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Postindustrial Societies; Social Networks; Information Technology; Technological Change; Sociological Theory; Change.

Cleaver, H. (2000). Reading capital politically. London: AK Press.

As social movements waned in the late 70s, the study of Marx seemed to take on a life of its own. Structuralist, post-structuralist, deconstructed Marxist bloomed in journals and seminar rooms across the US and Europe. These Marxes and their interpreters struggled to interpret the world, and sometimes to interpret Marx himself, losing sight at times of his dictum that the challenge is not to interpret the world but to change it. In 1979, Harry Cleaver tossed an incendiary device called Reading Capital Politically into those seminar rooms. Through a close reading of the first chapter, the author shows that Das Kapital was written for the workers, not for academics, and that we need to expand our idea of workers to include housewives, students, the unemployed, and other non-waged workers. Reading Capital Politically provides a theoretical and historical bridge between struggles in Europe in the 60s and 70s and, particularly, the Autonomia of Italy to the Zapatistas of the 90s. The introduction provides a brilliant and succinct overview of working class struggles in the century since Capital was published.
KEY WORDS: Marx; Work and Learning; Social Change.

Cornfield, D. B., & Hodson, R. (2002). Worlds of work: Building an international sociology of work. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

The advent of transnational economic production and market integration compels sociologists of work to look beyond traditional national boundaries and build an international sociology of work in order to effectively address the human, scientific, and practical challenges posed by global economic transnationalism. The purpose of this volume is to promote transnational dialogue about the sociology of work and help build a truly international discipline in this field.
KEY WORDS: Work Social Aspects Case Studies; Industrial Sociology Case Studies; Social Change.

Dastmalchian, A., & Blyton, P. (2001). Workplace flexibility and the changing nature of work: An introduction. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18(1), 1-4.

The dominant view of organizational survival and success depends posits that flexible organizations adapt to change better than their non-flexible counterparts. In recent times, flexibly has been emphasized further as industry deregulation and advances in new technologies heighten the competitive markets and the pace and volatility of change. However, the introduction and maintenance of this flexibly can be problematic.
KEY WORDS: Flexibility; Work Environment; Competition; Human Resources; Changes.
Dore, R. (2004). New forms and meanings of work in an increasingly globalized world. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
This work is based on the 6th ILO Social Policy Lectures, which are endowed with the ILO’s Nobel Peace Prize, held in Tokyo, Japan, in December 2003. In keeping with the topics covered in the lecture series, it focuses on the evolution of work and relations at work with special reference to industrial societies. The book draws attention to a perceived trend in industrial societies towards a rising tolerance of inequalities. Globalization has always been associated with the rise of “market individualism” and a polarization of the workforce. How this trend could be reversed through national economic and social policies is one of the main messages of this volume. Even in this era of globalized markets, each country can still initiate a range of independent policy choices, but as this book points out, the reach and effectiveness of these choices tend to be circumscribed by the economic and cultural hegemony of industrially advanced economies.
KEY WORDS: Globalization; New Economy; Economic Policies; Change Agents; Change.

Duguid, F. (2002). Emotion working learning: Findings, gaps, and suggestions. NALL Working Paper No. 50. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

This study found that, while the term "emotion work" was the dominant terminology used in much of the relevant literature, it was not broad enough (or narrow enough) to concretely define boundaries for a literature search. Therefore the author created categories to help manage and edit the information collected. These include: emotions in the workplace, emotion work relating to stress, job burnout, and emotionally exhausting workloads, managing emotions in the workplace, definitions and meanings of emotion work, and emotion work learning. For the purposes of this annotated bibliography the author has chosen to focus primarily on the final category, emotion work learning.
KEY WORDS: Emotion Work; Emotions in the Workplace, Stress, Job Burnout; Workloads; Emotion Work Learning.

England, P., Budig, M., & Folbre, N. (2002). Wages of virtue: The relative pay of care work. Social Problems, 49(4), 455-.473.

England, Budig and Folbre examine the pay in caring occupations such as child care, teaching, providing health services and counseling. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data covering workers from 17 to 35 years of age, they find that care work pays less than other occupations with similar characteristics, skill expectations and qualifications. Using statistical analysis they demonstrate that there is a negative effect of working in caring occupations where workers are expected to provide interactive service that supports health and development of the recipients. Both men and women pay the "wage penalty" however more women than men, do caring work. Wage penalties then, are more visible among women who dominate caregiving occupations.
KEY WORDS: Wage Level and Structure; Caregivers; Care Work; Emotional Labour.

England, P., & Folbre, N. (2002). Care, inequality and policy. In F. M. Cancian, D. Kurz, A. S. London, R. Reviere & M. C. Tuominen (Eds.), Rethinking carework for children and youth (pp. 133-144). New York, NY: Routledge.

This article examines three aspects of inequality related to care work and policy: inequality in people's access to care when they need it; the provision of care which has the impact of lowering income, increasing economic dependency and increasing long term disadvantage; and carers' vulnerability to discrimination in the labour market based on gender, race and ethnicity.

Other factors such as pre-existing distribution of resources, the characteristics of care work and economic and cultural processes, reproduce group differences. Market processes of supply and demand reflect the self-interest of individuals and profit-seeking of organizations. Markets intensify inequality related to care provision. Consideration of causes of care-related inequality can help inform policy discussion.

Increased and/or improved public provision may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for improvements in the care economy. The cultural constructions of altruism, care, gender, race and ethnicity have important independent impacts on the care economy.
KEY WORDS: Care Work; Caregivers; Gendered Inequality; Emotional Labour.

Epstein, C. F., & Kalleberg, A. L. (2001). Time and the sociology of work: Issues and implications. Work and Occupations, 28(1), 5-16.

Introduces the articles in this journal issue, which reevaluate the common assumptions about time and the ways in which time interacts with factors such as gender roles, autonomy, and technology. The contributors examine how the hours people work, when they work, how stressed they are, and how they integrate work with life's pleasures and responsibilities have a direct bearing on society's definition of justice, fairness, skills, gender roles, and the use of authority and power. These articles present a challenge to Schor's thesis and reconceptualize time as expanding and contracting, thereby generating a sense of either a well-balanced or a tense state of being. In addition, recent social science research on time and work is discussed, and how the articles in this issue fit in with these general subjects is briefly demonstrated.
KEY WORDS: Organization Theory; Business Hours; Human Resource Management; Corporate Culture; Community Relations; Time; Change.

European Trade Union Confederation. (2003). Benchmarking working Europe 2003. Brussels: European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC/ETUI).

Social benchmarking is a useful instrument with which to mould social processes and social policy. To ensure that the benefits of progress are shared more equitably, it is not enough merely to defend minimum standards: rising standards must be promoted through benchmarking. With the reports on Benchmarking Working Europe, the ETUC and the ETUI are seeking to make a genuine contribution to the practical implementation of a social benchmarking process. Succinct texts, accompanied on almost every page by data in graph and table form, give abundant information on seven areas of particular relevance to the world of work in Europe: employment, income distribution and social exclusion, working time, social protection and social infrastructure, lifelong learning and the knowledge society, working environment and occupational health and safety, worker participation, information and consultation, European social dialogue and implementation.
KEY WORDS: Social Policy; Europe; Work; Changing Nature of Work; Health and Safety; Benchmarks; Social Inequality; Change.

Ezzy, D. (2001). A simulacrum of workplace community: Individualism and engineered culture. Sociology, 35(3), 631-650.

This article outlines the cultural and social consequences of individualism and engineered culture in the workplace. Modern society is increasingly individualistic; it is changing from authoritarian to normative forms of control. Comprised of multiple roles, modern society provides little substantial basis for the self. Modern engineered corporate culture encourages a form of individualistic orientation that has minimal concern for others. Liberty, and more specifically good work, comes from an orientation where workers are not focused on serving corporate interests and their own self-gratification, but on the value of the voice and experience of others. Engineered workplace settings may generate more efficient production of goods, but their effects on workers and social relations are mixed.
KEY WORDS: Business Organizations; Employee Attitudes; Individuality; Sociocultural Factors; Working Conditions; Authoritarianism; Freedom; Social Norms; Organizational Change; Change.

Fenwick, T. (2006). Tidying the territory: Questioning terms and purposes in work-learning research. Journal of Workplace Learning, 18(5), 265-278.

This paper argues that foundational terms in work-learning research, specifically "learning", "work", and "workplace", are inherently complex and contested even as their scope has expanded in different fields. Researchers often use these terms without explanation, or as generic abstractions. The article suggests more precision is required to demonstrate conceptual intersections in work-learning research and build links across disciplinary languages and research traditions. The goal of the article is persuade researchers in learning and work to pause and reflect on the fundamental concepts and processes they seek to explore.

Fenwick's argument relies on a meta-review of work-learning studies published in ten journals in the period 1999-2004. Her findings were that often without clarification, the term "learning" in work is used to refer to learning as a "product", a process, and as a broader human experience. Work is used to refer to almost any activity, paid and unpaid. She finds that conceptual categories cannot always be distinguished from what is not learning. One outcome of blurred categories is that issues of power relations in work are not addressed which diminishes the contribution of work-learning research.

More precision of terms, conceptualizations and purposes in work-learning research may help make visible conflicting positions, absences and similarities in research and build towards more rigorous theory-building across the many disciplines studying learning and work.
KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Research, Workplace Learning; Methodology; Theory.

Forum, N. R. (2000). The changing nature of work. Leabrook, Australia: The National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

This publication contains materials from a forum on the changing nature of work (CNW) that brought together researchers and research users to hear how to use findings to improve vocational education and training (VET) in Australia. An overview of the program and biographical information on presenters and panel members follow. The next section reports these research findings on CNW: technology drives globalization which drives the CNW; having higher skill levels is becoming more important; meeting training needs of existing, older, outsourced, and casual workers is important; and the VET sector needs to do much more for casual and outsourced workers. Overviews of the research presented at this forum cover these four themes: (1) "The 'Big Picture': Globalization, International Trends, and the Nature of Work" (Simon Marginson); (2) "Changes in the Australian Labor Market: Impact on Training Arrangements" (Richard Hall), including "Making the Grade? Globalization and the Training Market in Australia" and "'It's Not My Problem': Growth of Non-Standard Work and Its Impact on VET in Australia"; (3) "Changes at the Workplace: New Management Practices and Enterprise Training" (Andy Smith); and (4) "Provider Perspective" (Peter Waterhouse). Each presentation consists of some or all of the following: background to research; key findings; implications for policy, providers, and teachers and trainers; key issues; and directions for further research.
KEY WORDS: Administration; Adult Education; Developed Nations; Dislocated Workers; Educational Change; Educational Research; Employment Patterns; Employment Practices; Foreign Countries; Global Approach; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Labor Market; Organizational Development; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Technological Advancement; Temporary Employment; Vocational Education; Change.

Freeman, R. B., & Rogers, J. (2006). What workers want. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

How would employees design an American workplace? Richard B. Freeman and Joel Rogers contend that such an organization would be jointly run by supervisors and employees. It would be an organization run jointly by employees and supervisors; disputes between labor and management would be resolved through independent arbitration. Based on the most extensive workplace survey in the last twenty years, their groundbreaking book provides a comprehensive account of employees' attitudes about participation, representation, and regulation at work. The authors find that workers want to be heard. They want a greater role at their place of work and they have strong ideas about how their involvement could improve everyone's fortunes. Many nonunion workers are in favor of the formation of unions, and virtually all union workers strongly support their union. Most employees want to see the creation of elected labor-management committees to run the organization and settle conflicts.
KEY WORDS: Job satisfaction; Employees; United States; Attitudes; Organizational Change; Employment Changes.

Frenkel, S. J. (2003). The embedded character of workplace relations. Work and Occupations, 30(2), 135-153.

This article describes an embedded framework for analyzing workplace relations. The author argues that the contemporary workplace is embedded to varying degrees in three force-fields: the macro field of globalization and new technology, the meso field of transnational production networks, and the micro field of local political and labor market institutions and organization structure and culture. The article explores the effect of these influences on management, particularly the way flexibility and cost reduction are prioritized, and the consequences of this for workplace structures and relations. This analysis provides a relevant and shared context for the issues explored in the following five articles. These are briefly introduced in the final section of this article.
KEY WORDS: Administrative Organization; Labor Market; Labor Relations; Manufacturing Industry; Networks; Organizational Change; Change.

Galarneau, D., Maynard, J.-P., & Lee, J. (2005). Wither the workweek? Perspectives on Labour and Income, 17(3), 5-17.

The average annual hours that people work has decreased by two weeks. The number of hours worked is influenced by a number of factors. These include population aging, industrial shifts, the business cycle, natural disasters, legislative changes and personal preferences. The survey methodology itself also affects the factors responsible for hours worked. The article also speculates on just how the various factors have contributed to the recent drop in hours of work.
KEY WORDS: Hours of Labor; Canada; Statistics; Employment; Canada; Employment Change.

Gallie, D., Felstead, A., & Green, F. (2004). Changing patterns of task discretion in Britain. Work, Employment and Society, 18(2), 243-266.

Task discretion has held a central place in theories of work organization and the employment relationship. However, there have been sharply differing views about both the factors that determine it and the principal trends over time. Using evidence from three national surveys, this article shows that there has been a decline in task discretion since the early 1990s. This contrasts with an increase in other forms of employee involvement such as direct participation and consultative involvement. Many of the arguments in the literature about the factors that favour higher task discretion are supported by our evidence – in particular those emphasizing the importance of skill levels and the broader organizational ethos with respect to employee involvement. However, such factors do not account for the decline in task discretion, implying that existing theories fail to address some of the crucial determinants. It is tentatively suggested that it may be necessary also to take account of macro factors such as competitive pressure, public sector reform programmes and the growth of accountability structures.
KEY WORDS: Employee Involvement; Job Control; New Technology; Participation; Quality of Working Life; Skill; Task Discretion; Trade Unions; Organizational Change.

Gershuny, J., Bittman, M., & Brice, J. (2005). Exit, voice, and suffering: Do couples adapt to changing employment patterns? Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(3), 656-665.

What is the long-term effect of the emerging predominance of the dual-earner family? This study uses data from 3 national household panel surveys-the British Household Panel Survey (N= 16,044), the German Socioeconomic Panel (N= 14,164), and the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N= 7,423)which provide, for the first time, clear and direct longitudinal evidence of change in the balance of domestic labor within couples: evidence that women make large adjustments in their domestic work time immediately upon entering full-time paid work and that men exhibit a less obvious pattern of lagged adaptation, showing larger increases in domestic work in successive years.
KEY WORDS: Employment Patterns; Working Hours; Educational Attainment; Change.

Gottschalk, P., & Moffitt, R. A. (2000). Job instability and insecurity for males and females in the 1980s and 1990s. In D. Neumark (Ed.), On the job: Is long-term employment a thing of the past? (pp. 142-195). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

This book chapter employs data from the Survey of Income & Program Participation to measure changes in job stability and job security during the 1980s & 1990s. Examination of one-year & monthly separation dates from 1983 to 1995 indicated a decline in monthly separation dates from the mid-1980s through the early 1990s. Results were also contrasted with those from the more widely used Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The comparison illustrated that neither data set offered evidence of an increase in yearly exit rates during the 1980s & 1990s, illustrating that earlier increases in instability did not continue. This conclusion was supported by similar yearly and monthly patterns. No evidence was found to support either an increase in job insecurity or a worsening of the consequences of job changes.
KEY WORDS: Dismissal; Job Change; Unemployment; Employment Changes; Labor Turnover; Unemployment Rates; Dislocated Workers; Males; Females; Organizational Change.

Harcourt, W. (1999). Women@Internet: Creating new cultures in cyberspace. London: Zed Books.

The first major analysis of this kind, it documents emerging cultural characteristics of women's activities on the Internet across the globe. Anthropologists, communications experts, development workers and media analysts and women's movement activists ask whether women caught in the net or weaving it themselves. The book traces the social, economic and political biases in which the culture of cyberspace is embedded and the revolutionary potential of women's knowledge of and access to the Internet across the world. It puts forward concrete proposals for increasing women's engagement with the new communication technologies and shows how the Internet can create new spaces for women working within radically different cultural environments. This view rethinks the very idea of culture by looking at the links and discontinuities between the local and the global.
KEY WORDS: Women; Internet; Culture of Cyberspace; Social Change.

Hayden, A. (1999). Sharing the work, sparing the planet : Work time, consumption, & ecology. London: Zed Books.

This book argues that making ecological sustainability our first economic priority can provide a practical strategy for job creation as well as the expansion of our leisure time. It is a study of the wide range of reduced work-time initiatives that have been implemented in industrialised nations during the last 10 years. Hayden moves beyond pitting the protection of the environment against the protection of jobs and argues the case for a green economic and social vision. Work time reduction is most commonly thought of in terms of a shorter working week, but Hayden covers a much wider range of possibilities including parental or educational leave, phased in or partial retirement, sabbaticals, longer holidays and any number of other ways of reducing work hours over the a human lifetime. These other options allow for flexibility for both employers and employees to work different schedules at different times in their lives. Work time reduction is seen as an ecologically sound response to the employment crisis. Hayden advocates less consumption and more thought about environmental and socially sustainable job creation. He argues that the solutions of frugality and individual life style changes, though needed, cannot be divorced from a larger political project to ensure an equitable sharing of wealth. Hayden also notes that the greatest obstacle to work time reduction is the dominance in industrialised nations, of a culture consumed by growth. This culture has produced a business sector resistance to shorter hours and a state sector focused on reducing welfare. Coupled with falling wage rates, these strategies mean families work longer hours to meet their daily needs.
KEY WORDS: Hours of Labor; Early Retirement; Parental Leave; Environmental Degradation; Consumption (Economics); Economic Change; Organizational Change.

Holman, D., Clegg, C., & Waterson, P. (2002). Navigating the territory of job design. Applied Ergonomics, 33(3), 197-205.

This paper reviews job design field from 3 paradigmatic perspectives; functionalism, interpretivism and critical theory. Central to job design theory, across all paradigms, is the concerned with the outcomes of job design, the role of key factors such as control, demand, and skill, and how jobs can be changed. In reference to how work is changing, it is argued that although job design still has much to offer (its traditional core concerns are still relevant), it must develop to have a wider appeal and more relevance. Finally, suggestions are presented on how job design can develop as a field. These suggestions are based on the belief that job design theory can progress most fully by drawing on multiple theories from across different paradigms and from grounded studies of the changing nature of work in diverse occupational contexts.
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