Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: India; Working Women; Sex Roles; Family-Work Relationship; Family Roles; Sexual Division of Labor; Housework; Opposite Sex Relations; Family Power.

Tapia, J. (2000). Schooling and learning in U.S.-Mexican families: A case study of households. The Urban Review, 32(1), 25-44.

This case study uses a household analysis to depict how students' schooling and academic achievement are influenced by the activities of household members' at home, in the community, and in the schools. Prior research suggests that learning and the academic performance of Mexican American students are influenced by the relationship between economic, cultural, linguistic, and educational aspects. Article shows that a household analysis can aid in understanding the relative weight of these aspects in shaping the school performance of students, and that it also accounts for the differences in academic achievement in any Mexican American community. This household analysis indicates that the strongest factors affecting students' learning & academic achievement are the level of family stability and the social and economic conditions of poor communities.
KEY WORDS: Mexican Americans; Academic Achievement; Home Environment; Households; Social Conditions; Economic Conditions; Arizona; Case Studies.

Theodosius, C. (2004). Developing the sociology of emotion and emotional labour: A case study of nurses. Dissertation Abstracts International, C: Worldwide, 65(2), 344-C.

This theoretically informed empirical study uses Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotional labour to explore emotion as observed amongst a group of nurses. This research contributes to the sociology of emotion in 5 areas. (1) It advances understanding about the relevance of emotional labour to nursing by introducing a typology of emotional labour, therapeutic, instrumental and collegial. (2) It provides a critique of Hochschild's theory of emotion and emotional labour thereby developing a more comprehensive, theoretical approach to emotion. The study advances the notion of emotional labour by analysing its interactive, relational character, both identifying its relationship with self identity and developing Hochschild's use of surface and deep acting. (3) It develops and provides a critique of Archer's (2000) theory of emotion as a tool in the analysis of empirical data. (4) It introduces the use of audio diaries as a useful and valuable tool in the empirical research of emotion. (5) Vignettes are used in a distinctive way--treating them as narratives--that encapsulate and project the experiences of the nurses' emotion within the text.
KEY WORDS: Nurses; Job Characteristics; Emotions; Psychoanalytic Interpretation; Case Studies.

van Jaarsveld, D. D. (2004). Collective representation among high-tech workers at Microsoft and beyond: Lessons from WashTech/CWA. Industrial Relations, 43(2), 364-385.

Industrial relations literature documents the obstacles that discourage organization among high-tech workers whereas discussions on the factors that help workers overcome these obstacles is minimal. Interviews and other evidence are used to analyze how high-tech workers formed the Washington Alliance of Technology Workers (WashTech/CWA). Findings show that WashTech/CWA improved working conditions of employees through attempts to engage in collective bargaining, mutual benefit activities, and political action. The WashTech/CWA's use of mutual benefits, such as information and training services, and political action strategies is being met with success. This is due in part to the obstacles workers encountered when trying to access collective bargaining.
KEY WORDS: Collective Bargaining; Professional Workers; High Technology Industries; Unions; Political Action; Case Studies.

Witzel, A., & Zinn, J. (1998). The role of vocational training in reproducing social inequality. The interaction of social structures and individual activities in the transition from school to work. Diskurs, 8(1), 28-39.

Based on questionnaire and qualitative (problem-oriented) interview data collected in a research project combining numerous methodological approaches, this work traces the mechanisms responsible for reproducing and timing social inequality to the school-work transition period. Besides educational attainment, origin, and gender which are traditional factors of inequality, the actual choice of vocation is an additional inequality factor over the course of one's career because most people stay in the same line of work, even if they do seek further training to gain promotion. This model is exemplified through the case studies of 2 bank employees and 2 retail employees. Through their working lives, people develop typical modes of action in their vocational biographies, here termed "vocation-biographic design modes." Varieties of coping with career chances and risks are characterized. Individual self-placement is adapted to the selection experiences made in the company on the one hand; and scopes of action are identified and used to fulfill individual interests and claims on the other.
KEY WORDS: Education Work Relationship; Vocational Education; Social Reproduction; Social Inequality; Educational Attainment; Sex; Retail Industry; Banking.

2. Work

Section 2.1 General Perspectives on
the Changing Nature of Work

Ackerman, F., Goodwin, R. N., Dougherty, L., & Gallagher, K. (Eds.). (1998). The changing nature of work. Washington, DC: Island Press.

The book examines the causes and effects of the rapid transformation of the world of work. It summarizes key writings on work and workplace issues, extending labor economics to include the social and psychological components of work. The book provides a brief history of the changing nature of work and situates current problems in the context of longer-term developments. There are eight significant sections that feature three- to five-page summaries for each of the ten to twelve most important articles or book chapters on a particular subject. The book provides a vast and diverse literature concerning labor issues, in addition to a quick overview of that rapidly changing field.
KEY WORDS: Labor Economics; Industrial Relations; Diversity In The Workplace; Women and Employment; Foreign Trade and Employment; Employees And The Effect of Technological Innovations on Work; Economic Change; Change.

Anker, C. (2004). The political economy of new slavery. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Looking at the role of globalization and the local factors in the rise of contemporary slavery and possible ways forward in legislation, policy-making, NGO campaigns and research, this book presents proposals for improvement of international and national law as well as victim support measures, perspectives on economic development and social change are examined for their use in combating slavery. Past reparations for slavery are reviewed as possible aids in bringing about awareness and increasing pressure on governments to take full responsibility for bringing an end to slavery.
KEY WORDS: Child slaves; Child labor; History; 21st century; Law and Legislation; Work and Learning.

Baldoz, R., Koeber, C., & Kraft, P. (2001). Making sense of work in the twenty-first century. In R. Baldoz, C. Koeber & P. Kraft (Eds.), The critical study of work: Labor, technology, and global production (pp. 3-17). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Two broad developments reshaped work at the end of the twentieth century. The first was the implosion of the Soviet Union and the worldwide triumph of market capitalism. The second was the increasing use of computer-based production technologies and management command-and-control systems. How do we make sense of these important developments? The editors have assembled a collection of provocative, original essays on work and workplaces throughout the world that challenge the current celebration of globalization and new technologies. Building on labor process analysis, individual case studies venture beyond factory and office to examine "virtual" workplaces, computer-era cottage work, and emotional and household labor. The settings range from Indian and Irish software factories to Brazilian supermarkets, Los Angeles sweatshops, and Taiwanese department stores. Other essays seek to make theoretical sense of increasingly de-centered production chains, fluid work relations, and uncertain employment. Individually and collectively the authors construct a new critical study of work, highlighting the connections between geography, technology, gender, race, and class. The authors offer an accessible and flexible approach to the study of workplace relations and production organization—and even the notion of work itself.
KEY WORDS: Labour; Knowledge; KBE; Software; Management; Information Technology; Change.

Barker, D. (2005). Beyond women and economics: Rereading "Women's Work". Signs, 30(4), 2189-2209.

According to Barker, feminist economics sets out to transform traditional economics in which masculine values are deeply engrained in both theoretical and empirical analysis. Using gender as an analytical category makes visible the masculinist economic theories and policies that invisible in conventional theorizing. Economic analysis outside of feminist frameworks does not consistently capture issues that affect women's lives such as the feminization of poverty, care penalties in the labour force or gender wage gaps. Importantly, traditional economic analysis may also sidestep the millenium issues of the feminization of globalized women's work, from manufacturing in free trade zones to commodified care work imported around the world. Feminist economics is related to women's economic well-being that is rooted in class as much as gender. Without a feminist framework, studies in traditional economics continue to rationalize and naturalize existing social hierarchies rooted in gender, race, class and nation.
KEY WORDS: Feminist Economics, Feminist Theory, Economic Analysis, Gendered Inequality.

BĂ©langer, J., & Edwards, P. (2007). The conditions promoting compromise in the workplace. British journal of industrial relations, 45(4), 713-734.

Building on previous work to develop a framework to understand workplace co-operation, this article elaborates the key structuring conditions (technology, product markets and institutional regulation) generating different patterns and illustrate from field research how these different workplace regimes develop. The authors conclude that conditions generating positive and sustainable outcomes for both capital and labour are feasible but rare. Stronger 'beneficial constraints' are needed if they are to be made more frequent.
KEY WORDS: Labour process; Management Theory; Social Relations of Production; Labour Relations; Industrial Relations; Technology.

Berberoglu, B. (2002). Labor and capital in the age of globalization : The labor process and the changing nature of work in the global economy. Lanham, MD; Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.

This book offers an analysis of work and labour processes and how they are rapidly changing under globalization. The contributors explore traditional sectors of the U.S. and world economies - from auto to steel to agriculture - as well as work under new production arrangements, such as third world export-processing zones. Many chapters analyze changing dynamics of gender, nationality, and class. The contributors explain why more intensified forms of control by capitalist interests and the state are emerging under globalization. They also emphasize new possibilities for labour, including new forms of organizing and struggle in a rapidly changing global economy.
KEY WORDS: Labor movement; United States; Working Class; Social conflict; Globalization; Economic aspects; Capitalism; Marxian Economics.

Berg, I., & Kalleberg, A. L. (2001). Sourcebook of labor markets: Evolving structures and processes. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

This volume in the Plenum Studies in Work and Industry series is an attempt to bring together sociological thought regarding American labor markets. Organized are four main sections: (1) evolving markets and institutional structures, (2) evolving employment relations and work structures, (3) evolving patterns of stratification in the US, and (4) evolving public policies.
KEY WORDS: Labor Market; Work Organization; Labor Relations; Labor Market Segmentation; Employment Changes; Social Stratification; Labor Policy; Organizational Change; Change.

Bittman, M., & Rice, J. M. (2002). The spectre of overwork: An analysis of trends between 1974 and 1997 using Australian time-use diaries. Labour & Industry, 12(3), 5-25.

This article uses four Australian time use surveys from 1974, 1987, 1992, & 1997 to examine three aspects of possible change in working hours: (1) average length of the working day; (2) distribution of working hours; & (3) amount of time spent at work during nonstandard hours. Analysis shows that the average number of hours Australians provide the labor market has not changed noticeably between 1974 & 1997. On the other hand, there has been a significant redistribution of paid work from men to women. This has created more dual earner households. There has also been a substantial collapse in standard working hours, while the amount of time workers spend at work during nonstandard hours has increased.
KEY WORDS: Australia; Working Hours; Employment Changes; Feminization; Dual Career Family; Change.

Blair, M. M., Kochan, T. A., & Blair, M. (Eds.). (2000). The new relationship: Human capital in the American corporation. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.

Human capital and organizational capital are increasingly important as a source of value in many firms. But even as this is happening, organizational forms and employment relationships appear to be changing in ways that reduce loyalty and commitment and encourage mobility on the part of employees. Are these changes consistent in ways that contradict traditional theory and wisdom, or is the corporate sector getting a temporary boost in earnings by restructuring and cutting payrolls, but failing to make necessary new investments in human capital? The essays in this book provide intriguing new evidence on these questions. The contributors quantify the degree to which job stability is declining, and the costs of job loss to long-term workers; provide historical perspective on today's workplace changes; explore the reasons why work is being reorganized and decision making tasks are being pushed downward; examine the rationale for and effect of equity-based compensation systems, both in old industries and in the newest high-tech sectors; and assess the "state of the art" of measuring and accounting for investments in human capital. This book is the result of a joint Brookings-MIT conference.
KEY WORDS: Personnel Management; Human Capital; Corporations; Employment Changes; Organizational Change; Change.

Blanpain, R. (2007). The global workplace: International and comparative employment law. Cases and materials. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

Against the backdrop of globalization, this casebook examines labor and employment law in the context of the national laws of nine countries important to the global economy (US, Canada, Mexico, UK, Germany, France, China, Japan and India). In each, the book considers international labor standards promulgated by the International Labor Organization as well as the rulings and standards that emerge from two very different regional trade arrangements - the labor side accord to NAFTA and the European Union. Across all these different sources of law, this book considers the law of individual employment, collective labor law dealing with unionization as well as the laws against discrimination, protecting privacy and the systems used to resolve labor and employment disputes.
KEY WORDS: Industrial Relations; Labour Laws; Free Trade; Globalization; Trade.

Blinder, A. S. (2006). Offshoring: The next industrial revolution? Foreign Affairs, 85(2), 113-128.

The author, a professor of economics and former senior economic advisor to the US government, predicts a 3rd industrial revolution where the only jobs that will not be outsourced are those of a "personal service" nature. The phenomenon of outsourcing and the ongoing development of communication technologies means that many service sector jobs can be performed elsewhere by lower paid workers. Blinder believes that government and society have not recognized the coming transition, which is sure to be a bumpy one. Rather than protectionist measures, he advocates that developed nations look to exploit their comparative advantage in high-end personal services, educating the young not for "impersonal service" jobs in radiology, computer programming, or accounting, but rather in health, education, and face-to-face sales. He also believes that nations must strengthen their job-transition system, including worker re-training, income assistance, health care, pensions, etc. One aspect that Blinder downplays is the drop in real wages that will surely result from the outsourcing of so many manufacturing and impersonal service jobs. He emphasizes that mass unemployment will not occur, but does not explain how the economy will perform and social safety net survive if the tax base drops rapidly.
KEY WORDS: Offshoring; Outsourcing; Globalization; Industrialism; Economics; Economic Change; Organizational Change; Change.

Blyton, P., & Bacon, N. (2001). Job insecurity: A review of measurement, consequences and implications. Human Relations, 54(9), 1223-1233.

This is a review essay on books by (1) Edmund Heery & John Salmon (Eds), The Insecure Workforce (London: Routledge, 2000); (2) Richard Sennett, The Corrosion of Character (New York: Norton, 1998); (3) Brendan Burchell, et al, Job Insecurity and Work Intensification (New York: Joseph Rowntree, 1999); and (4) Peter Capelli, The New Deal at Work (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999). Heery and Salmon present a collection of readings on job insecurity from different perspectives. Sennett examines the reality of increasing job insecurity and its impact on individuals and society. Burchell and others present the findings from 300+ interviews with employees in the UK. Cappelli identifies factors that are reshaping contemporary labor markets and their relationship to public policy.
KEY WORDS: Labor Turnover; Labor Market; Labor Policy; Employment Changes; Organizational Changes; Change.

Braverman, H. (1998). Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth century (25th anniversary ed.). New York: Monthly Review Press.

This book, first published in 1974, challenged the predominant ideologies of academic sociology and became the standard text for many basic areas of sociological inquiry, including the science of managerial control, the relationship of technological innovation to social class, and the eradication of skill from work under capitalism. This recent edition contains a forward by John Bellamy Foster that sets the work in a historical and theoretical context. Included are two rare articles by Braverman that contributes to the understanding of the book: "The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century" (1975) and "Two Comments" (1976).
KEY WORDS: Labor History 20th Century; Capitalism; Division of Labor; Machinery in The Workplace; Industrial Management; Working Class; Employment Changes; Change.

Burris, B. H. (1998). Computerization of the workplace. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 141-157.

This paper reviews sociological research on computerization and its impact on three analytically separate dimensions of the workplace: organizational restructuring, changes in worker skill, and power and authority relationships. Findings indicate that computerized work organizations typically have fewer hierarchical levels; a bifurcated workforce, frequently exhibit race and sex segregation; a less formal structure; and diminished use of internal labor markets and reliance instead on external credentialing. Also present were variable patterns of centralization and decentralization, and workplace power relationships interact with technological change to produce variable political outcomes. With regard to worker skills, recent evidence suggests aggregate upskilling with some deskilling and skill bifurcation. It is suggested that future research should closely analyze the process of technological design and implementation.
KEY WORDS: Office Automation; Organizational Change; Adoption of Innovations; Technological Innovations; Organizational Structure; Labor Relations; Computers; Organizational Changes; Changes.
Carmen, R., & Sobrado, M. (2000). A future for the excluded: Job creation and income generation by the poor: Clodomir Santos de Morais and the organization workshop. London: Zed Books.
This book, translated from Spanish, contains 20 chapters by various authors examining and expanding on the work of Clodomir Santos de Morais in educating and empowering the poor, mostly in Latin America, for entrepreneurship.
KEY WORDS: Job Creation; Poverty; Welfare Economics; Marginality; Social Economic Aspects; Work and Learning; Social Change; Change.

Carre, F. J., Ferber, M. A., Golden, L., & Herzenberg, S. A. (2000). Nonstandard work: The nature and challenges of changing employment arrangements. Champaign, IL; Ithaca, NY: Industrial Relations Research Association: Cornell University Press.

This book assembles a coherent portrait of what we know and do not know about nonstandard work, the challenges it presents, and institutional strategies that might address these challenges. The message is both reassuring and unsettling: no rapid retreat from New Deal employment relations but an unsteady drift toward increasingly diverse postindustrial arrangements. Most unsettling is that work arrangements are increasingly at odds with labor market institutions honed during the golden age of industrialism. The 16 assembled papers include scholarly contributions and field reports from innovative programs designed to meet the challenges of nonstandard work arrangements. All are neatly summarized in an editors' introduction that begins with a candid acknowledgment of decades of Industrial Relations Research Association (IRRA) preoccupation with "standard" employment relations and an equally candid acknowledgment of the challenges facing those who would try to identify the lines of demarcation separating "standard" work from "nonstandard" work. The proliferation of value-laden terms to describe these arrangements (e.g., flexible, contingent) is only one example of these challenges. The editors settle on nonstandard, defined simply as work arrangements outside of what was considered to be standard during the postwar era, to cast a wide net with minimal value connotations. This ground rule for nomenclature is adopted by all contributors and establishes a shared benchmark of full-time standard work for comparison.
KEY WORDS: Part-Time Employment; United States; Home Labor; Work; Nonstandard Work; Employment Changes.

Castells, M. (2000). Materials for an exploratory theory of the network society. The British Journal of Sociology, 51(1), 5-24.

This article advances a grounded theory of the network society. Characteristic of the Information Age, this social structure permeates most societies in the world in various cultural & institutional manifestations throughout most of the 20th century. These structures are organized around relationships of production/consumption, power, & experience. They are enacted, reproduced, & ultimately transformed by social actors who are part of these social structures. Yet they freely engage in conflictive social practices, with unpredictable outcomes. A key element of the Information Age is a reliance on networks. Although they are not a new form of social organization, networks are now able to cope with flexible decentralization & focused decision making. The relationship among networks and production/consumption, power, experience, & culture is examined.
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