Massive & Excellent Timeline of Russian/ Eurasian History (to 1825)

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Massive & Excellent Timeline

of Russian/ Eurasian History (to 1825)

650-850 Khazar Khaganate at its height

830 Appearance of Rus' Khaganate (probably on upper Volga)

860 Rus' attack on Constantinople (one of the earliest records of Rus')

862 Traditional date for arrival of Rurik of the Varangians (founder Rurikid dynasty)

882 Supposed date that Oleg moved Rus' "capital" from Novogorod to Kiev

907 & 911 Rus' raids on Constantinople leading to trade agreements

922 Conversion of Volga Bulghars to Islam

965 Sviatislav inflicts major defeat on Khazars

980 Vladimir (Sviatoslavovich) becomes grand prince of Kiev (rules until 1015)

988 Vladimir converts Rus' to Orthodox Christianity

1036 Mstislav dies; Iaroslav becomes sole ruler of Kievan Rus'

1054 Schism between Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Catholic) Churches

1055 Polovtsy (Cumans) appear in the steppe.

1072 Boris & Gleb are canonized

1096 Polovtsy attack Kiev, burn Pecherskii monastery

1097 Conference at Liubech to resolve succession issues

1113-25 Rule of Vladimir Monomakh in Kiev

1136 Civic uprising in Novgorod, rejects Kiev's right to appoint prince

1169 Prince Andrei Bogoliubskii sacks Kiev

1184 Grand prince Sviatoslav launches victorious campaign against Polovtsy

1185 Prince Igor defeated by Polovtsy (basis for "Tale of Igor's Campaign")

1202(?) Founding of city of Riga by the Livonian Order (Brothers of the Sword)

1206 Temuchin (Chingis Khan) manages to unite a number of Mongolian tribes

1219-63 Lithuanian ruler Mindaugus unifies Lithuanian tribes against Teutonic Knights

1223 Battle on Kalka river: Mongols defeat Russians & Polovtsy, then seem to disappear

1224 Germans (Livonian Order) capture Iur'ev from Novgorod

1227 Death of Chingis Khan (partition of empire among four sons)

1229 Mongols attack Volga Bulgars & Polovtsy

1232 Mongols attack Bulgars (again)

1237 Union of Teutonic Knights with Livonian Order

1237-41 Invasion and conquest of Rus' by Golden Horde (Batu Khan)

1238 Battle on Sit' river: Forces of Northeastern Rus' princes defeated by Mongols

1240 Mongols conquer Kiev

Prince Alexander Nevskii of Novgorod defeats Swedes on Neva

1242 Nevskii defeats Teutonic Knights at Lake Peipus

1299 Metropolitan of Kiev (Maksim the Greek) moved to Vladimir permanently

1303 Death of Moscow prince Daniel (who had never been Grand Prince)

New Metropolitanate set up in Galicia

1304 Death of Grand Prince Andrei; begins struggle between Tver' and Moscow.1

1313 (?) Conversion of Golden Horde to Islam

1326 / 28 Metropolitan Peter moves from Vladimir to Moscow.2

1344 Lithuania takes over Volhynia

1349 Lithuania takes over Galicia when dynasty there ends

1359 Beginning of substantial instability within Golden Horde

1362 Victory of Lithuanian army over Golden Horde in Battle of Blue Waters

Kiev & Pereiaslav brought under Lithuanian rule

1380 Battle of Kulikovo field: Dmitrii Donskoi defeats Mongols.3

1386 Marriage of Lithuanian Jagiello to Pole Jadwiga to create dynastic union

Also leads to Christianization of Lithuanians (under Catholicism)

1392 Moscow absorbs Suzdal & Nizhnii Novgorod

Lithuania gains territory all the way to Black Sea

1403 Lithuania takes over principality of Smolensk

1410 Vytautus successfully defeats Teutonic Knights at Grünwald.4

1420s Golden Horde begins fragmenting into separate Khanates (eventually four)

1425 Vasilii I dies, civil war begins with princes of Galich over succession

1425-62 Reign of Vasilii II, who begins to use title "sovereign" (gosudar' = despotes)

1439 Byzantine church tries to gain Rome's support against Turks at Council of Florence

1448 Russians select own Metropolitan (Jonah) without approval of Constantinople

1450s Ecclesiastical writers begin using titles "emperor/khan" & "autocrat"5

1455-62 First restrictions on peasant movements (St. George's Day)

1453 Turks conquer Constantinople: no more Byzantium

1458 Division of Orthodox Church (two Metropolitans, in Lithuania and Moscow)6

1462-1505 Reign of Ivan III; uses title tsar' more and ore frequently

1463 Moscow annexes lands of Yaroslavl'

1472 Ivan III marries Byzantine princess, Sofia Paleologue (niece of last Emperor)

1470 Abolition of Kievan principality by Lithuanians

1472-4 Moscow absorbs principalities of Perm and Rostov

1478 Moscow annexes Novogorod

1480 Stand on the Ugra (supposedly signals end of Mongol rule in Russia)

1485 Moscow conquers and annexes Tver'

1489 Moscow annexes Viatka

1493 Ivan III takes the title of Sovereign (Gosudar') of all Russia

1498 First coronation of a Grand Prince of Moscow [?]7

1510 Moscow annexes Pskov

1514 Muscovite forces take Smolensk (from Lithuanians)

1520-21 Muscovite annexation of Riazan'

1523/4 Filofei, a monk in Pskov, articulates idea of "Third Rome".8

1533-1547 Ivan IV's minority

1547 Ivan IV becomes first Muscovite Grand prince to be crowned "Tsar"

1552 Muscovite conquest of the Khanate of Kazan'

1553 Ivan's illness; some boyars won't pledge allegiance to his son

1546 Muscovite conquest of the Khanate of Astrakhan'

1558-83 Long, taxing, and unsuccessful Livonian War

1565 Ivan establishes the oprichnina

1569 Union of Lublin: Formal political union of Poland & Lithuania

1573 / 88 Enactment of complete serfdom in Poland (1573) & Lithuania (1588)

1580-81 First instances of "Forbidden Years": peasants not allowed to move

1581 Ivan IV kills his son in a domestic dispute

1582 Don Cossack army under Ataman Ermak conquers Siberian Khanate

1584 Ivan IV dies; his mentally unstable son Fedor becomes last Danilovich prince

1589 Metropolitan Job (Iova) becomes Patriarch

1590s Statute of Limitations on Recovery: 5 years to recover fugitive peasants

1596 Treaty of Brest creates Uniate church; Orthodoxy essentially outlawed in Poland

1598-1605 Boris Godunov:9 of undistinguished lineage, but prominent in oprichnina

1605 Fedor Godunov–Boris's son, took over after father died suddenly

1605-1606 First False Dmitrii, who deposes & murders the luckless Fedor

1606-1610 Vasilii Shuisky: a boyar who leads coup against False Dmitrii I

1606-7 Rebellion led by Ivan Bolotnikov

1610-1613 No Tsar: Shuisky deposed with appearance of False Dmitrii II.

7 Boyars offered crown to Pole Wladyslaw, but complications.

1613-1645 Mikhail Romanov, elected Tsar by Zemskii Sobor (Council of the Land)

1632 Orthodox hierarchy permitted to function again in Polish Ukraine (see 1596)

1632-34 Smolensk War: service gentry pushes especially hard for repeal on statute

1635-51 Muscovite construction and completion of Belgorod Line

1648 Uprising in Moscow: service gentry refrains from aiding its suppression

Cossack uprising in Ukraine, led by Bogdan Khmel'nitsky

1649 Zemskii Sobor convenes, produces Ulozhenie and complete enserfment

1652 Nikon becomes Patriarch

1654 Nikon initiates reform of liturgical texts and other aspects of ritual

Agreement of Pereiaslavl': Ukraine to east of Dniepr is joined to Muscovy

1658 Nikon removed from position as Patriarch

1666-7 Church Council ousts Nikon from power, but upholds his reforms

1668-76 Revolt of Solvetskii Monastery

1670-71 Rebellion led by Stepan Razin

1672 Birth of Peter Alexeevich in Moscow.10

Dramatic burning of the mestnichestvo books

1682 Avvakum finally burned at the stake

Another uprising in Moscow

Death of Tsar Fedor; coup makes Peter's half-sister (Sophia) regent

1689 Sophia overthrown (Peter & Ivan rule jointly)

1696 Ivan dies leaving Peter solely in charge

1696-8 Grand Embassy to Western Europe (Peter as Peter Mikhailov)

1698 Uprising of strel'tsy (musketeers) in Moscow, suppressed by Peter

1699 Introduction of new calendar (from birth of Christ)11

1700 Patriarch Adrian dies; Peter refuses to name successor

1700-1721 Acquisition of Baltic coast from Sweden in Great Northern War

1703 Peter founds St. Petersburg–the "Window on the West"

1707-8 Bulavin revolt

1709 Victory over Swedes at Poltava

1710 Acquisition of Baltic provinces (Estland & Livland)

1711 Creation of the Governing Senate

1712 Marriage of Peter to Catherine

1713 Tatar nobility compelled by Peter to convert or lose their privileges

1714 Decrees on education of nobility, primogeniture

1000 nobles forced to move to St. Petersburg

1715-1718 Revolt of Peter's son, Alexis

1718 Double tax imposed on Old Believers

Alexis (Peter's son) condemned to death and dies

Peter I issues decree calling for establishment of assemblies (evening parties)

1719 Decree on first new census [reviziia]: introduction of soul tax

1721 End of Great Northern War; Peter declares Russia an empire

1721 Creation of the Holy Synod

1722 Creation of Table of Ranks; alteration of succession rules

1723 Introduction of poll tax (lasts until 1887)

1725 Establishment of Russian Academy of Sciences

Peter I dies; wife succeeds him as Catherine I.

1726 Supreme Privy Council established to institutionalize Men'shikov's power

1727 Catherine dies; Peter's grandson Peter becomes Emperor

Repeal of decree granting serfs right to join military without landlords' permission

1730 Nobles gather in Moscow to see Peter get married, but he dies instead.12

Anne becomes Empress and rips up the "conditions."

1730-1758 Series of decrees that revoke rights of non-nobles to own serfs

1731 Peter's Law of single inheritance revoked

Creation of cadet school for gentry in St. Petersburg

1735 Founding of Orenburg

1736 Nobles' service obligation is limited to 25 years; one son can stay and manage estate

1740 Anne dies, replaced by Ivan VI

1741 Ivan VI overthrown, replaced by Elizabeth

1740s Mass conversions to Orthodoxy of non-Russian Volga peoples

1742 Expulsion of Jews from Russia by Empress Elizabeth

1755 Founding of Moscow University

1756-62 Seven Years' War

1760 Landlords get right to deport delinquent serfs to Siberia

1761 Death of Elizabeth, replaced by Peter III

1762 Nobles freed entirely from obligatory service.13

Peter murdered, replaced by his wife, Catherine II

1763 Hetmanate in Ukrainian finally abolished

1764 Secularization of church lands; state takes most of church's large estates.14

1765 Military service made mandatory for all able-bodied Cossacks

Establishment of Free Economic Society (later publishes journal Transactions)

1767 Peasants lose right to complain to authorities about landlords

1767-68 Meeting of the Legislative Commission (Moscow)

1768 Catherine organizes Society for the Translation of Foreign Books

1768-1774 Russo-Turkish War (one of many, to be more accurate)

1771 Tragic departure of Kalmyks from Russia to Jungaria (China)

1772 First partition of Poland

1773 Edict on Religious Toleration

1773-75 The great rebellion of Emelian Pugachev

1774 Treaty of Kuçuk Kanarci with the Ottoman Empire

1775 Guberniia (Provincial) Reform

1783 Major territorial acquisitions from Ottoman Empire in South (e.g. Crimea)

Prohibition on peasant movement in Ukraine (in essence: enserfment)

Catherine permits the establishment of private printing presses

1785 Charter to Nobility & Towns

1787-92 Russo-Turkish War (yet again)

1788 Establishment of Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly in Ufa

1789 French Revolution begins

1790 Publication of Radishchev's Journey From St. Petersburg to Moscow

1791 Catherine creates the "Pale of Settlement" for Jews

1792 Republic declared in France (former king & queen eventually beheaded)

Arrest of Nikolai Novikov

1793-95 Second & Third Partitions of Poland.15

1796 Death of Catherine II; ascension of Paul

1797 Paul introduces new succession law (primogeniture in the male line)16

Introduction of a ministry for crown peasants

Creation of Roman-Catholic College, with jurisdiction over empire's Catholics

1799 Napoleon comes to power in France (replacing the Directory)

1801 Murder of Paul by conspiracy; replaced by Alexander I

1802 Ministerial reform: Eight Ministries replace Petrine Colleges.17

1804 Establishment of Kazan University

1804-5 Formation of 3rd Coalition against Napoleon.18

1805 Major Russian defeat to French at Austerlitz

1806 Prussian armies destroyed by Napoleon at Jena & Auerstadt

1806-12 War between Russia and Turkey begins.19

1807 Russia & France sign Tilsit agreement; Russia joins Continental System

1809 M. M. Speranskii completes plan for constitutional reform

Russian acquisition of Grand Duchy of Finland (Treaty of Fridrikshamn)

1810 Speranskii oversees creation of State Council

Russia essentially withdraws from Continental System

1811 N. M. Karamzin completes Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia

1812 Exile of Speranskii to his estates in Nizhnii Novgorod (eventually Siberia)

French invasion of Russia, capture of Moscow

Establishment of Russian Bible Society

Acquisition of Bessarabia

1813 Coalition forces defeat Napoleon at Leipzig

1814-15 Final defeat of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna

Establishment of Holy Alliance with Austria & Prussia

Russian acquisition of Kingdom of Poland

1816-17 Landless emancipation of serfs in Baltic region (personal freedom, no land)

1817 Alexander ends practice of slitting nostrils as punishment

1817-24 Period of "Dual Ministry": Ministry of Religious Affairs & Education

1819 Establishment of St. Petersburg University

1825 Death of Alexander I; beginning of Decembrist revolt

1826 Official closing of Russian Bible Society

1861 Serfs are formally emancipated by Alexander II (but must pay indemnity)

1951-62 Major archaeological excavations at Novgorod.

1964 Ivan IV's body is exhumed and autopsied

1 That is, the rulers of both principalities sought to be recognized as Grand Prince. The princes of Tver' had the better claim based on seniority, but the Moscow princes were better at gaining the sanction of the Golden Horde–which ultimately proved more important.

2 The head of the Russian Orthodox Church remains in Moscow until Peter the Great abolishes the Patriarchate in 1721.

3 Riasanovsky makes a great deal out of this event. Undoubtedly it had some symbolic significance, especially in retrospect. But the victory was probably the result of deep instability within the Golden Horde. Moreover, the Horde thoroughly sacked Moscow in 1382, thus calling into question whether the Kulikovo battle really changed much.

4 From this point the Teutonic Knights are no longer a major political force. But the German barons remain the ruling class in what is now Latvia and Estonia into the twentieth century. They also manage to bring their Latvian and Estonian dependents over to Lutheranism in the 16th century. After the Baltic region was conquered for Russia by Peter the Great in the early 18th century, Baltic Germans went on to play a big role in the imperial Russian government.

5 In Russian: tsar' & samoderzhavets

6 There is much irony in this situation: Both Metropolitans called themselves "Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus'" (otherwise their titles differed slightly), even though neither of them resided in Kiev. The Muscovite Metropolitan resided in Moscow, the Lithuanian one in Navahrudak.

7 In this case Ivan III crowned his grandson, Dmitrii, as co-ruler and successor. In doing so, Ivan's idea was apparently to invest Dmitrii's claim to the succession with greater legitimacy, since Ivan was by-passing his son Vasilii. Ivan resorted to extravagant fanfare to achieve this goal. By 1499, Vasilii was once again in his father's graces, and it was he who became Grand Prince upon Ivan's death in 1505.

8 Both Poe and Gol'dberg offer this date. This is later than the 1510 date often offered.

9 Not related to Boris Badenov of the popular cartoon series Bullwinkle & Rocky.

10 Peter's mother was Tsar Alexei's second wife (Natalia Naryshkina). In contrast Fedor Alexeevich (ruled 1676-1682) and Ivan (reigning jointly with Peter, 1682-1696) were born of Alexei's first wife, Maria Miloslavskaia, and were therefore Peter's half-brothers. Sophia, regent from 1682-89, was also a child of the first marriage with Miloslavskaia.

11 New calendar takes effect on 1 January 1700.

12 Wow! Talk about ruining the party!

13 This emancipation was decreed by Peter III and in effect confirmed by Catherine later.

14 Secularization had been decreed by Peter III in 1762, but Catherine reintroduced secularization with somewhat different terms in 1764.

15 Now essentially all of White Russia & Ukraine, as well as eastern Poland, were under Russian rule.

16 Women could theoretically become ruler, but only after male heirs from all collateral lines in the imperial family had died off.

17 Ministries of Interior, Justice, Trade, Navy, War, Finance, Education, and Foreign Affairs.

18 Eventually includes Russia, Britain, Austria, Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden.

19 Out of this, yet another Russo-Turkish war, Russia gets Bessarabia.

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