Marc-Adélard Tremblay (1922 ) Anthropologue, retraité, Université Laval

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Marc-Adélard Tremblay (1922 - )

Anthropologue, retraité, Université Laval
The Acadians of Portsmouth:

A Study in Culture Change

Un document produit en version numérique par Mme Marcelle Bergeron, bénévole

Professeure à la retraite de l’École Dominique-Racine de Chicoutimi, Québec

et collaboratrice bénévole

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Dans le cadre de la collection : "Les classiques des sciences sociales"
dirigée et fondée par Jean-Marie Tremblay,
professeur de sociologie au Cégep de Chicoutimi
Site web :

Une collection développée en collaboration avec la Bibliothèque

Paul-Émile-Boulet de l'Université du Québec à Chicoutimi

Site web :

Un document produit en version numérique par Mme Marcelle Bergeron, bénévole,

professeure à la retraite de l’École Dominique-Racine de Chicoutimi, Québec,

courriel :
À partir de :
Marc-Adélard Tremblay (1922 - )
The Acadians of Portsmouth: A Study in Culture Change. A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. (Roneo)
M. Marc-Adélard Tremblay, anthropologue, retraité de l’enseignement de l’Université Laval, nous a accordé son autorisation de diffuser électroniquement toutes ses œuvres le 4 janvier, 2004.

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LETTRE (US letter), 8.5’’ x 11’’)

Édition complétée le 30 octobre, 2005 à Chicoutimi, Québec.

The Acadians of Portsmouth:

a study in culture change

A thesis

Presented to the faculty of the graduate school


Cornell University

for the degree of doctor of philosophy


Marc-Adélard tremblay

September 1954


Marc-Adélard Tremblay was born on April 24, 1922 at Les Éboulements Village, Charlevoix County, Quebec Province, Canada.
In 1936, he began the “cours classique” and received his Bachelor of Arts degree (Cum Laude) from Montreal University (Collège Sainte-Marie) in 1944.
In the fall of that year he enrolled at Oka Agricultural Institute (Affiliated to Montreal University and received his License in Agricultural Sciences in the spring of 1948.
Upon receiving a post-graduate fellowship (which he held during five years) from Quebec Agricultural Research Council, he enrolled for La Faculté de Sciences Sociales of Laval University and received the degree of Master of Arts (in Sociology) in June 1950.
In September 1950, he became a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Cornell University in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology.
Since July 1953, he has been Director of the Social Science Unit for the Stirling County Project of that Department.


For their help in the preparation of this thesis, I express my gratitude to the members of my Graduate Committee: Alexander H. Leighton, Chairman, Robert Polson and John P. Dean, and to Edward Suchman who served on my Committee during the first three years.
I am especially obliged to Quebec Agricultural Research Council, the Carnegie Corporation of New York and The Milbank Memorial Fund, whose financial contributions made possible the fieldwork and the completion of this dissertation.
To Professor Alexander H. Leighton, Coordinator of the Stirling County Studies I owe a special debt of gratitude for continuous guidance, training and professional assistance during the four years I worked under his direct supervision.
I wish to acknowledge the contribution of my associates on the Stirling Project at Cornell, namely: Charles Hugues, Allister Macmillan, Garnet McCreary, Robert Rapoport, Seymour Parker and Richard Schwartz. I am grateful also to Professor Émile Gosselin of Laval and Father Vincent Martin O.S.B. for stimulating discussions while carrying on fieldwork.
I express my indebtedness to Mary Collier who proofread most of this manuscript and made pertinent suggestions, and to my wife Jacqueline for her invaluable assistance in the field and her criticism at various stages of the work.
To my Saint-Malo and Portsmouth informants, many of whom are personal friends, my sincerest thanks for their understanding. Without their cooperation, this work would not have been possible.

Table of Contents


PART IThe Background
I. Introduction

1. Definition of the problem

2. The main findings

3. Portsmouth and the county

4. Acculturation and social disorganization
II. Patterns of Acadian Sentiments
III The Changing Acadian Society

1. The passing of the shipbuilding industry

2. Shift from subsistence to cash economy

3. Migration to industrial centers

4. Father Jean-Mandé Sigogne

5. The influences of St. Ann's college

6. The development of educational facilities

7. The birth of a class system

8. Emerging leadership patterns
IV. L'Anse des Lavallée: An Acadian Community in Saint-Malo Municipality

Part II: The mixed community of Portsmouth

V. Geography

1. Definition of the boundaries

2. Distribution of industries
VI Class and Social Structure

1. Introduction

2. The Anglo-Protestant class system

3. The catholic Acadian class system

4. The lower classes
VII. Leadership Patterns

1. Changes in patterns of leadership

2. Acadian leadership and Acadian factionalism
VIII. Associational Life

1. Attitude towards formal organization

2. Professional-business-occupational organizations

3. Social and recreational organizations

4. Political organizations
IX. Industrial Enterprises

1. Primary enterprises

2. Secondary and tertiary Industries

3. Some attitudes connected with the various forms of economic enterprises

X. Law and Social Control
XI. The Leisure Patterns

1. Patterns of constructive leisure and recreation

2. Leisure activities that are socially disruptive
XII. The Anglo-Protestant culture and the Protestant Churches

1. Heterogeneous ethnic background

2. Linguistic homogeneity

3. Religious heterogeneity

4. Nature of the sanction for inter-denominational marriages among the Protestants

5. Separation of the Sacred and the Secular

6. Concept of self dependent on economic success

7. Women's role in Anglo-Protestant culture

Part III: Acculturation Position of Portsmouth Acadians
XIII. A Framework for the Study of Acculturation
XIV. The Index of Acculturation

1. Introduction

2. The building of the index
XV. Acculturation Position: its Relations to some Variables


Part IV: Processes of Acculturation of the Portsmouth Acadians
XVI. The General Processes of Acculturation

1. Major changes in traditional patterns of Acadian sentiments

2. Socio-cultural factors promoting acculturation

3. Socio-cultural factors limiting acculturation

XVII. The Secularization Processes of Portsmouth Acadians

1. The structure of the Catholic Church

2. Conditions of secularization

3. Expressions of secularization

XVIII. The Process of Intermarriage

1. Introduction

2. Definition of terms

3. Definition of concepts

4. The process of intermarriage
XIX. The Mixed School

1. The Portsmouth school system

2. The function of the Portsmouth school

3. Events which promote inter-ethnic and inter-religious conflicts

4. Acculturation of schoolchildren and future outlook

Part V: Summary Conclusions

Appendix A: Methodology
Appendix B: References and Bibliography

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