|Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), the Long March, Chiang Kai-shek and the Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance
Mao Tse-tung was a young man in the summer of 1920, who thought that Communism was the greatest form of government. He and his fellow classmates met to debate the major ideas and form the Chinese Communist Party. Soldiers learned of their meeting, but arrived to late, the young men were already gone.
In the years that followed Mao was still devoted to Communism, but he felt that the peasants were one of the greatest assets to the Communist cause. Others disagreed with him. He was removed from his position in the group.
Mao moved to the mountains and steeps of northern China, he built a force of peasants and created the Red Army. The army was not allowed to take anything from the peasants and by 1930, the army was comprised of sixty thousand “regulars” and could count on the support of fifty million peasants.
Chaing Kai-shek was a young officer that had been one of Sun Yat-sen’s closest associates. He was born in the village of Chi-kou in 1887. his family was relatively wealthy, Academy, but after only one year he left to attend the Japanese Imperial Military Academy. After four years of study he joined Sun’s movement as one of the few trained army officers. Chaing rapidly gained a position of trust and influence, but his real career did not start until 1923 when Sun sent him to Moscow
to study and observe the Soviet Red Army.
Chaing Kai-shek was greatly influenced by much of the Soviets tactic, but he preferred to send political agitators ahead of military forces to convert or demoralize opposing troops. The Communists and the Nationalists fought together against the warlords, but Chiang Kai-shek did not trust the Communists.
He figured that after the warlords were defeated that the Soviets would take over China.
Chiang Kai-shek wanted to bring democracy and capitalism to China. He became the leader of the Nationalists after Sun Yat-sen’s death in 1925. He and the Nationalists ruled China for a while, but he was unable to deliver the freedoms that he had promised and so the peasant turned to Communism.
Soon there was a civil war.
1930-1935, Chiang Kai-shek led forces that were far superior to the Communist forces led by Mao Tse-Tung. The Communists won the first four of five battles against the Nationalists by following strict tactical slogans. Each attempt of the “Final Extermination Campaign” failed disastrously. On the fifth and final campaign, Chiang Kai-shek threw an additional one million men in to battle Mao’s forces. After some losses and great consideration Mao decided to retreat.
On October 16, 1934, with only the equipment and supplies that they could carry with them, the Red Army (Communists) abandoned the Kiangsi Province and started out on a long strategic retreat, which became known as The Long March.
Mao Tse-tung and nearly 100,000 Communists began to retreat from enemy forces. The crossed 18 mountain ranges, 24 rivers and 6,000 miles in a retreat that lasted nearly a year. Most of the people that started the retreat did not make it.
Only a few thousand survived, the others died of starvation, disease and attacks by Nationalist forces along the way. Those who did complete the march are seen as heroes in the Chinese struggle.
The march established Mao Tse-tung as the Communist party leader and the Communist base to northwest China closer to Russia’s border.
By 1950, China was in need of assistance from Russia. The Chinese and the Russians signed a pact on February 14, 1950. This pact was known as the 30-Year Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance. Within this pact came Russia’s pledge to give technical aid to China, supply Communist materials and extend credit for equipment and technical aid for industrial projects. Of course, Russia tried to use treaty to exert influence over China and to continue to be the leader of the Communist world.
Communists take Power: Questions
Directions: Read the following questions closely. After you have read the assigned pages answer the questions to the best of your ability. Be sure to use examples from the text and write in complete, organized sentences.
1) Explain what you think might cause a person to become as dedicated to a cause as Mao Tse-tung and Chiang Kai-shekwere dedicated to their causes.
2) Summarize what you read about Mao Tse-tung, the Long March, Chiang Kai-shek and the Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance.
3) Choose three ideas, event, or individuals that could become interesting topics for a research paper and explain why you might want to learn more about them.
4) Explain some of the issues that might keep China from becoming a democratic society.