Questions for “MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY”
1. Why, according to Marx, is the “bourgeoisie unfit any longer to be the ruling class in society”?
2. What is the difference between the proletarian revolution and previous revolutions in human history?
3. Marx accuses the critics of Communism of confounding the “individual” with the “middle-class owner of property.” What is his vision of the future of the “individual” in Communist society (as developed in “The German Ideology”), and how does that inform his rebuttal of the critics?
Questions for THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY
1. Marx states: “The various stages of development in the division of labor are just so many forms of ownership, i.e. the existing stage in the division of labor determines also the relations of individuals to one another with reference to the material, instruments and products of labor.”
What are the modes of production Marx considers in his argument? What are their defining characteristics, and how do they relate to one another historically? Using one particular transition (from one stage to another) as an example, explain how and why one stage necessarily gives way to another. What drives human history, according to Marx?
2. In what ways, according to Marx, has the bourgeoisie been an engine of progress?
3. Review the "Theses on Feuerbach." Now, enriched by your reading from this week (particularly the "German Ideology"), explain the role of the philosopher.