Making the World Over



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America: A Narrative History (Ninth Edition)

Tindall/Shi


Chapter 23 - "Making the World Over": The Progressive Era


  • I. Elements of reform

    • A. Diverse goals of progressivism

      • 1. An element of conservatism in progressivism

      • 2. Urban industrial ills required government responses

    • B. The varied sources of progressivism

    • C. The muckrakers

  • II. The main features of progressivism

    • A. Greater democracy

      • 1. Direct primaries

      • 2. The initiative, referendum, and recall

      • 3. Popular election of senators

    • B. The “gospel of efficiency“

      • 1. Frederick W. Taylor and The Principles of Scientific Management

      • 2. Shorter ballots

      • 3. New ideas for municipal government—commission system and the city-manager plan

      • 4. Robert La Follette and the “Wisconsin idea“

    • C. Corporate regulation

      • 1. Alternative solutions to the problems of big business

      • 2. The trend toward regulation

    • D. Social justice

      • 1. Labor laws

        • a. Child labor

        • b. The Supreme Court and state labor laws

      • 2. Prohibition

    • E. Public service functions of government

    • F. Progressivism and religion

  • III. Roosevelt’s progressivism—first term

    • A. Trusts

      • 1. Roosevelt thought effective regulation better than attempts to restore competition

      • 2. Decision in United States v. E. C. Knight and Company (1895) held manufacturing to be intrastate activity

      • 3. Supreme Court ordered the Northern Securities Company dissolved

    • B. Coal strike of 1902

      • 1. Workers struck for more pay and fewer hours

      • 2. Mine owners closed mines

      • 3. Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines

    • C. More trust cases

      • 1. Overall, brought about 25 anti-trust suits

      • 2. Swift and Company v. United States (1905)

    • D. Anti-trust and regulatory legislation of 1903

      • 1. Creation of the Bureau of Corporations

      • 2. The Elkins Act

  • IV. Roosevelt’s progressivism—second term

    • A. The election of 1904

    • B. The Hepburn Act of 1906

    • C. Food and drug regulations

      • 1. Campaign against patent medicines

      • 2. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle and meat packers

      • 3. The Meat Inspection Act (1906)

      • 4. The Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

    • D. Conservation

      • 1. Origins tied to the sportsman-naturalist

        • a. Roosevelt a model

      • 2. Effect of state conservation laws

      • 3. Gifford Pinchot

      • 4. Reclamation Act

    • E. The election of 1908




  • V. Taft’s progressivism

    • A. Taft’s early career

    • B. Tariff reform

    • C. Ballinger-Pinchot controversy

      • 1. Chief of Forestry Pinchot went public with accusations against Secretary of the Interior Ballinger

      • 2. Pinchot fired by Taft for insubordination

      • 3. Taft’s image as progressive tarnished

    • D. The Taft-Roosevelt break

      • 1. United States Steel suit

      • 2. Review of accomplishments of Taft’s administration

      • 3. In Republican primary for 1912, Taft controlled party machinery

      • 4. Roosevelt and the Progressive party

  • VI. The election of 1912

    • A. The rise of Woodrow Wilson

    • B. Campaign

      • 1. Roosevelt shot

      • 2. Taft had no chance

      • 3. Roosevelt’s New Nationalism

      • 4. Wilson’s New Freedom

        • a. Influence of Louis Brandeis

        • b. Restoration of an economy of small-scale competitive units

    • C. Election figures—victory for Wilson

    • D. Significance of the election of 1912

      • 1. A high-water mark for progressivism

      • 2. Brought Democrats back into effective national power

      • 3. Brought southerners back into national and international affairs

      • 4. Altered the character of the Republican party

  • VII. Wilsonian reform

    • A. Relied more on party politics than popular support to pass reforms

    • B. Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913)

    • C. The Federal Reserve Act (1913)

      • 1. Allowed reserves to be pooled

      • 2. Made currency and bank credit more elastic

      • 3. Lessened concentration of reserves in New York

    • D. Wilson and trusts

      • 1. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914

        • a. Outlawed price discrimination, “tying“ agreements, interlocking directorates in large corporations

        • b. Prevented corporations from buying up stock of competitors to gain control of the market

        • c. Exempted farm labor organizations

      • 2. Federal Trade Commission

    • E. Wilson and social justice

      • 1. Little legislation before 1916

    • F. Progressivism for whites only

      • 1. Wilson’s racial attitudes

      • 2. Spread of uncompromising racists in Wilson’s government

    • G. A resurgence of progressivism

      • 1. Wilson added to his progressive record to form broad base of support for 1916 election

      • 2. Farm reforms (credit and education)

      • 3. Federal Highways Act (1916) subsidized state highway departments

      • 4. Labor reform

        • a. Keating-Owen Act (1916) excluded from interstate commerce goods manufactured by children under fourteen

        • b. Adamson Act (1916) provided for eight-hour day for railroad workers

    • H. Under Wilson, progressivism became a movement for positive government

  • VIII. The limits of progressivism

    • A. Disenfranchisement of blacks

    • B. Decisions made more by faceless policy makers

    • C. Decline in voter participation


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