|Major Debates in International Development - Spring 2012
Course number: 34:970:643
Instructor: Dr. Gabriella Y. Carolini
Meeting times and location: Tuesday 9:50 am-12:30 pm,
Civic Square Building Room 253
Office hours: Tuesdays 2-4pm, Civic Square Building, Room 353
Within the professional practice of international development, substantive debates and manners of practice are sometimes highly contested and sometimes entirely ignored. Navigating the study of international development and its multi- and inter-disciplinary dimensions can thus be an especially challenging endeavor in graduate education. Several concerns paint the landscape of international development in the global South, though often the same concerns – albeit at different scales and in different capacities – exist in the North. Physical development crises revolve around water, sanitation, waste management, urban design and land-use, housing, healthcare delivery, transportation, energy, and natural resource management, to name a few. Non-(or less obviously) physical development challenges are equally robust if not always tangible. They include building democratic governing systems, institutionalizing gender equality, fostering fiscal and social responsibility, mobilizing finance, and creating administrative systems that anticipate rather than only respond to various types of social and physical disasters/crises. How we conceive of development and its myriad challenges clearly shapes our fields of study and practice. This seminar therefore begins by providing students with an introduction to a few of the major enduring debates and scholars that have and are shaping global discussions on international development. Early readings focus on understanding the importance of perspective in the design of development “interventions”. Later readings aim to provide students with a portfolio of experiences to reference in formulating their own opinions about what strategies, tools, and processes work best in improving living conditions for the most vulnerable populations in low- and middle-income countries.
The first half of the semester grounds students with a background discussion of the importance of how “development” has been framed, strategized, and financed historically and at present. The guiding pedagogical approach to the first three modules of the course (lasting seven weeks) is debate. Each week a Debate Statement is proffered in the weekly outline below. A formal debate around this statement will be conducted by three student leaders before a wider class discussion takes place.
The second half of the course will focus on building students’ practical experience in responding to recent or current Requests for Proposals chosen from a variety of international development agencies/donors and focusing on different sectors/themes of development. The RFPs identified for each year reflect topical trends in international development work that students will likely encounter after completing graduate work, as well as familiarizing students with the language, approaches, and procedures of work in the international development industry. From a substantive standpoint, RFPs have and can address issues relating to land & housing, health, public administration and budgeting, participatory processes, water & sanitation, natural resource management, food security, and environmental vulnerabilities in the context of climate change.
Course Objectives and Rationale - 2012:
There are three major objectives of this course:
To provide students with both a solid grounding and foundation of debates on what “development” means in theory and in practice, as well as an introduction to a few of the enduring questions that shape approaches to development in the global South.
To develop the professional communication and argumentation capacity of students on complex questions and issues.
To expose and provide students with an opportunity to gain practice and familiarity with typical research and implementation projects encountered in some international development work.
The course attempts to use examples from regions across the globe both in the readings and RFPs assigned. Different methods of assessment are also utilized to allow for a variety of learning styles. By the end of the course, students should be knowledgeable about the following:
Major perspectives on defining, strategizing, and funding “development”;
Debates about the development industry, including the effectiveness of aid, large- and small-scale development strategies; the role and limitations of different development institutions, experts, and stakeholders in general;
Different visions of who is responsible for planning and funding development;
The challenges of organizing, designing, researching, and writing responses to calls for proposals from international development agencies.
General Course Expectations:
I give deep consideration to what readings are assigned – their purpose as well as their length. As such, I expect you to have completed all the readings assigned. Do not expect, for example, that you can complete the readings assigned in one night. The readings can be dense and take time to get through. PREPARE ENOUGH TIME TO READ THEM TWICE before we meet.
This is an advanced graduate seminar - i.e., class participation is not an option, but a major requirement. If you are not someone who typically speaks in class, get ready for a change. Clearly this also means attendance is critical – if you miss more than two classes, your grade will suffer. Participation also means being respectful of your colleagues’ comments and taking care to share the platform.
There will be no time extensions granted for assignments.
Plagiarism or cheating in any manner is not tolerated and will result in a grade of 0 (zero) for the assignment in question. Please see the updated Academic Integrity document up on the web - http://academicintegrity.rutgers.edu/integrity.shtml#I Please familiarize yourselves with this document, as ANY violations of this code will be handled as per University policy.
Assignments and Grading:
20 % Debates presentation (Speaking points) and weekly participation
There are SIX debate weeks for which you can sign up to formally present a position responding to the Debate Statement. Each week, three students will be responsible for organizing two opposing and one moderate position, preparing the class for discussion in the second half of our meeting. Each student will prepare written Speaking Points* for a ten-minute presentation of their position on the Debate (15% of Assessment). Students are free to use as many or as little visual aids as they wish, as long as they actually prepare ten minutes of speaking points (ie, you may use short videos, presentations, etc – which may add to your allotted speaking time no longer than an additional ten minutes). I encourage students to take up positions that they do not necessarily personally support. The point of this exercise is not only to substantively expand your knowledge base, but to learn how to a) anticipate and respond to counter-arguments and b) foster your capacity to absorb and quickly utilize new information to refine arguments “live”. You should upload your Speaking Points under your assignment folder on Sakai (for me). The form of debate will generally follow that used by the Oxford Union (A reference guide is posted on Sakai). During weeks for which you are not presenting a debate, you will still be assessed as per your participation in the general wider class discussion following the formal debate presentation (5% of Assessment).
*Speaking points are just that – this is not a paper assignment, so your speaking points may resemble an annotated argument outline with talking points (ie, something of the sort you might prepare when giving any powerpoint presentation or lecture).
30% Debate position paper
6-8 single-spaced pages, 12pt Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins
Write a short analytical paper on a debate position from the first seven weeks of readings covered. You may or may not write this paper on the same debate issue you present on; however, you have the opportunity to choose from any of the weeks in the semester. This is your chance to take the foundation of course materials and reflect upon the strengths or weaknesses presented therein. It is also your chance to reflect upon how these readings might relate to *your* specific interests, passions, and professional path – ie, you may – in addition to assigned readings - reference outside readings (newspaper articles or academic texts) that provide specific empirical evidence that call to question or support the readings from one of the first seven weeks of the class. Note, however, that this is a short paper and you will have limited space (and time) to engage in thoughtful writing. Edit appropriately.
Paper due: Friday March 9th – uploaded to sakai by 6pm.
50% RFP Project:
10% Weekly “Process” Reports for weeks 10-14 (GROUP)
40% Concept note/Response to RFPs:
25% - personal substantive contribution (INDIVIDUAL)
10% - project management and report cohesion (GROUP)
5% - final presentation (GROUP)
There are three group assessments and one individual assessment for the RFP project as follows:
Every week, each group will present to me in class a written document detailing:
Cite the reference and provide a brief synopsis (a few sentences) on the readings completed. If you have assigned different members of your group to complete different reading, indicate here who is responsible for what.
Websites or databases consulted, including brief description of data/site or pages therein reviewed.
Group meetings (if any) held (virtual or in-situ)
Project management and report cohesion: What it sounds like…i.e. how well does your group organize itself and tasks, how well does your completed report hold together? (e.g. does it seem like separate parts strung together or is there coherence in its final format?)
Final presentation: How well do you communicate (and pitch) your response to the RFP “live”?
You will be responsible for individually researching and writing a substantive part of the Concept Note/Response to the RFP. This assessment allows for individual credit within the frame of group work – so as to negate free-rider temptations. Though the individual work will be presented and included as part of the whole completed group report, your RFP will list in ANNEX who was responsible for what section in a “Project Management Page”.
You are not required to purchase any books, but I typically recommend a few to keep in your personal library. These are also available in the Rutgers Library.
Amartya Sen’s Development as Freedom
Douglass North’s Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance
Ha-Joon Chang’s Kicking Away the Ladder
2. All readings will be made available on Sakai. In addition, I may occasionally add a news or current event article to the list below. During the RFP half of class, I may add additional references I feel would be useful to you in your group work.
3. There are a few readings for which I indicate which pages in particular you are assigned to read. However, otherwise, you are expected to complete the entire reading listed.
4. At the end of this syllabus is an appendix of SUPPLEMENTAL readings. I list these here to help you further formulate and ground arguments for class debates each week, and to encourage you to explore potential areas of interest to you. You should tap into these outstanding references to best inform your work.
PART I - DEBATES
MODULE 1: What Constitutes ‘Development’?
Week 1 – Framing Development Matters
Introduction to course and debates; How is development defined and framed? What are the philosophical and ideological origins of the term and its multiple meanings? What is your own answer?
Sen, A. (1999) Chapters 1 through 4 in Development as Freedom, Oxford: Oxford University Press. READ PAGES 3-145
Hasan, A. (2001) Interviews on the Beach. Mimeo, unpublished.
Week 2 - Institutions and Change
DEBATE: Once behind, always behind.
North, D. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. READ BOOK – it is short.
Acemoglu, D., Robinson, J., and Johnson, S. (2001) “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review, December, Volume 91, pp. 1369–1401.
Week 3 – Historical Narratives, Myths, and Ways of Seeing ‘Development’
DEBATE: Lower-income countries should have the right to develop as they wish through whatever means necessary.
Ha-Joon Chang (2002) Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective, Chapters 1, 2, and 3.
Connell, R. (2007). The Northern Theory of Globalization. Sociological Theory, 25(4), 368–385
Eduardo Galeano (1973) “The Invisible Sources of Power”, Chapter 3 in Open Veins of Latin America.
Week 4 – Examining the Development Industry and the Role of the ‘Expert’
DEBATE: The UN System of technical assistance in international development is overestimated and overpaid.
Roy, A., Giovanni, F. and Satterthwaite, D. (2008) Interface (A discussion on planning, the UN, and local organizations in meeting the Millennium Development Goals), Planning Theory and Practice *This is actually a series of three short articles.
Escobar, A. (1997) “Chapter 8 – The Making and Unmaking of the Third World Through Development”, in The Post-Development Reader, eds. M. Rahnema & V. Bawtree, London: Zed Books, pp.85-93.
Frank, L. (1997) “Chapter 26 – The Development Game”, in The Post-Development Reader, eds. M. Rahnema & V. Bawtree, London: Zed Books, pp. 263-273.
MODULE 2 – How is ‘Development’ Planned/Strategized and Implemented?
Week 5 – Interests, Standards, and Governance
DEBATE: Aid serves the interest of donor countries and organizations first and foremost.
Sachs, J. et al (2004) Ending Africa’s Poverty Trap, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity No. 2: 117-216, August 2004. READ PAGES 117-151; 167-187
Easterly, W. (2002) The Elusive Quest for Growth, Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Burnside, C. and Dollar, D. (2004) Aid, Policies, and Growth: Revisiting the Evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3251, March 2004.
GPOBA (2005) Output-based Aid: Supporting Infrastructure Delivery Through Explicit and Performance-based Subsidies, World Bank – GPOBA Working Paper Series No. 4.
Week 6 – Participation, Planning, and Service-Delivery
DEBATE: Participation is the closest thing to a development “silver bullet”.
Pritchett, L. and Woolcock, M. (2004) "Solutions When the Solution is the Problem: Arraying the Disarray in Development," World Development 32, no. 2: 191-212.
Sneddon, C. and C. Fox (2007) “Power, development and institutional change: Participatory governance in the Lower Mekong basin”, World Development 35(12):2161-2181.
Carolini, G. (forthcoming) “Professionalizing Participation: Challenges for Participatory Budgeting in Maputo, Mozambique”. To be distributed before class.
Parfitt, T. (2004) “The ambiguity of participation: a qualified defence of participatory development”, Third World Quarterly, Vol 25, No 3, pp 537–556.
MODULE 3 – Funding ‘Development’
Week 7: Distribution, accountability, and responsibility
DEBATE: Private sector financial mobilization could never fund the service needs of the poorest members of society.
Parry, I. and Strand, J. (2010) International Fuel Tax Assessment: An Application to Chile, Resources for the Future (RFF) Discussion Paper, RFF DP 10-07. http://www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-10-07.pdf
Hasan, A. and Raza, M. (2011) “The Evolution of the microcredit programme of the OPP’s Orangi Charitable Trust, Karachi” in Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 23, No.2, pp: 517-538.
Peterson, G. (2009) Unlocking land values to finance urban infrastructure. Washington, D.C: World Bank and Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility. http://www.ppiaf.org/ppiaf/sites/ppiaf.org/files/publication/Trends%20Policy%20Options-7-Unlocking%20Land%20Values%20-GPeterson.pdf
SACN (2011) The Financing of City Services in Southern Africa, Report of the Southern African Cities Network. http://www.ppiaf.org/ppiaf/sites/ppiaf.org/files/publication/Municipal_Finances_in_Southern_Africa_2011.pdf
PART II – RESPONDING to REQUESTS FOR PROPOSALS (RFPs)
Week 8 – Review RFPs and Strategize
You are responsible for reading all three of the following RFPs. Please rank which RFP you would like to respond to in order of your interest and email me this list before class meets. We will discuss the RFPs, form working groups, and establish a work plan for using the remaining month of the semester to respond to the RFPs. Please note that I have not assigned specific readings for the remaining weeks, as I will expect you will have *plenty* of reading to do in order to effectively write a response to your chosen RFP. However, to ensure that you effectively using your time, I expect a weekly “process” report from each group listing readings completed, websites consulted, meetings held. We will use class time during these weeks to also discuss bottlenecks, challenges, progress, etc.
DFID: On the Impact of Transparency and Accountability Interventions
EU: Non-State Actors in Development in Lesotho
USAID: Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IUWASH) Project
Week 9 – Spring Recess
Weeks 10-11: Workshop on RFPs in class
Week 12: Individual group meetings with me (to be scheduled)
Weeks 13-14: Workshop on RFPs in class
Week 15: GROUP PRESENTATIONS and EVALUATIONS
Each group will lead a presentation (and hand-in a hard copy to me) of their RFP Response Paper.
Some useful research resources and internet sites for your research and RFP
UN Development Group (UNDG.org): How to Prepare a UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF): http://www.undg.org/?P=232
Part 1: http://www.undg.org/?P=232
Development Gateway (http://www.developmentgateway.com/index.do)
Eldis (http://www.eldis.org) and (http://community.eldis.org/indexhome.html)
Zunia – Knowledge Exchange (http://zunia.org/)
International Institute for Environment and Development (www.iied.org)
African Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
Dark Roast working paper series, Isandla Institute, Cape Town, South Africa
Water and Sanitation Program (WSP.org)
Other particular websites:
Journals of interest
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research;
International Planning Studies;
Environment and Urbanization;
Development and Change
Community Development Journal
Environment and Planning A (spatial reorganization/restructuring)
Environment and Planning B (planning and design)
Environment and Planning C (government and policy)
Environment and Planning D (society and space)
Economy and Society
And countless more, especially journals or institutions that are regionally or sector specific…ask me and I’ll be happy to provide you with further recommendations.
APPENDIX – Some supplemental readings of interest:
Paulo Freire. 1970. The Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Steven Lukes. 1974. Power: A Radical View
Thomas Kuhn. 1961. Structure of Scientific Revolutions
David Sappington and Joseph Stiglitz. 1988. Privatization, Information, and Incentives. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=227393
Edward Said. 1978. Orientalism
James Ferguson. 1994. The Anti-Politics Machine.
_____________.1985. The Bovine Mystique: Power, Property, and Livestock in Rural Lesotho, in Man, New Series, Vol. 20, No. 4. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2802755
Alice H. Amsden. 2001. The Rise of the “The Rest”: Chalelnge to the West from Late-Industrializing Countries.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Faletto Enzo. 1979. Dependency and Development in Latin America.
Robert Wade. 1990. Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization.
Meredith Woo-Cummings. 1999. The Developmental State. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
LENSES ON DEVELOPMENT (e.g. GENDER, URBAN BIAS, URBAN POOR LITERATURE)
Michael Lipton. 1977. Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development.
Montgomery, M. and P. Hewett (2005) “Urban poverty and health in developing countries: Household and neighborhood effects”, in Demography, 42(3): 397–425.
Caroline Moser. 1993. “Practical and Strategic Gender Needs and the Role of the State.”
Gender Planning and Development
Martha C. Nussbaum. 2000. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach.
Perlman, J. (2005) The Myth of Marginality Revisited, Unpublished paper, following up on original work: Perlman, J. (1976). The Myth of Marginality: Urban Poverty and Politics in Rio de Janeiro. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
Ananya Roy. 2002. City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and the Politics of Poverty.
Corbridge, S. and Jones, G. (2005) The continuing debate about urban bias: the thesis, its critics, its influence, and implications for poverty reduction. Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. E-resource: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/12590/
Mora, L. (2008) Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality in Urban Settings: New Vulnerabilities and Opportunities, in The New Global Frontier, London: Earthscan.
Crewe, E. and Harrison, E. (1998)Whose Development? An Ethnography of Aid. London: Zed Books.
Alesina, Alberto and Dollar, David. 2000. Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why? Journal of Economic Growth 5:33-63.
Dambisa Moyo. 2009. Dead Aid.
Steven Radelet. “From Pushing Reforms to Pulling Reforms: The Role of Challenge Programs in Foreign Aid Policy.” Working Paper 53, Center for Global Development, 2005, http://www.cgdev.org/Publications/?PubID=196
Read generally: Craig Burnside, David Dollar, Paul Collier, Jeffery Sachs, William Easterly.
Daron Acemoglu and Simon Johnson. 2005. Unbundling Institutions. Journal of Political Economy.
Acemoglu, James A. Robinson and Simon Johnson. December. 2001. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation. American Economic Review, volume 91, pp. 1369–1401.
Mancur Olson. 1965. Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups.
Dani Rodrik, “Getting Institutions Right” (April 2004) http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~drodrik/ifo-institutions%20article%20_April%202004_.pdf
James C. Scott. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed.
And all of Elinor Ostrom’s work
Sub-field: CIVIL SOCIETY/CULTURE
Benedict Anderson. 1983. Imagined Communities.
Robert Putnam. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy.
____________. 1995. Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital.
Clifford Geertz. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures.
____________. 1983. Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology.
Pfaffenberger, B. 1992. “Social Anthropology of Technology”, in Annual Review of
Anthropology, Vol. 21: 491-516.
Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson. 2003. “Disease and Development in Historical Perspective”.Journal of the European Economic Association
Paul Farmer. 1999. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues.
_________2003. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor.
Laurie Garrett. 1995. The Coming Plague
Marmot, M. (2006) Harveian Oration: Health in an unequal world, in The Lancet, Vol. 368: 2081-2094.
WHO (2005) A Billion Voices: Listening and Responding to the Health Needs of Slum Dwellers and Informal Settlers in New Urban Settings. WHO Kobe Center, Japan.
Lorenz, N. et al (2004) Health in the Urban Environment: Experience from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in New York Academy of Sciences Annals, No.1023. pp.159-163.
Tomlinson, R. (2001) Housing Policy in a Context of HIV/AIDS and Globalization, in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol.25, No. 3.
WATER AND SANITATION
Birdsall, Nancy, and John Nellis. "Winners and Losers: Assessing the Distributional Impact of Privatization." World Development 31, no. 10 (2003): 1617-1633.
Budds, Jessica, and Gordon McGranahan. "Are the Debates on Water Privatization Missing the Point? Experiences from Africa, Asia and Latin America." Environment and Urbanization 15, no. 2 (2003): 87-113.
Cairncross, Sandy, and Richard Feachem. Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics: An Introductory Text.
Connors, Genevieve. "When Utilities Muddle Through: Pro-poor Governance in Bangalore's Public Water Sector." Environment and Urbanization 17, no. 1 (2005): 201-218.
Davis, J., et al. "Local Government: Kerala, India." In Good Governance in the Water and Sanitation Sector: Experience from South Asia. New Delhi, India: Water and Sanitation Program. 2001.
Davis, J. "Corruption in Public Services: Experience from South Asia's Water and Sanitation Sector." World Development 32, no. 1 (2004): 53-71.
Heller, Leo. "Who Really Benefits from Environmental Sanitation Services in the Cities? An Intra-Urban Analysis in Betim, Brazil." Environment and Urbanization 11, no. 1 (1999): 133-144.
Mara, Duncan. 1996. Low Cost Urban Sanitation
Andrew Cotton et al (1995) On-plot sanitation in low-income urban communities
Whittington, D., J. Davis, H. Miarsono, and R. Pollard (1999) “Designing a “neighborhood deal” for urban sewers: A case study of Semarang, Indonesia” Journal of Planning Education and Research 19 (3): 297-308.
Solo, Tova Maria (1999) "Small-Scale Entrepreneurs in the Urban Water and Sanitation Market." Environment and Urbanization Vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 117-131.
Davis, J. (2002) “Assessing community preferences for development initiatives: Are willingness-to-pay studies robust to mode effects?” World Development 32(4): 655-672 (2002).
Ahmed, N. and Sohail, M. (2003) “Alternate water supply arrangements in peri-urban localities: awami (people’s) tanks in Orangi township, Karachi” in Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 15, No.2.
Doe, S. and Sohail Khan, M. (2004) “The boundaries and limits of community management: Lessons from the water sector in Ghana”, in Community Development Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4.
UN HABITAT (2003) Excerpt of “Chapter 5 – Changing Perspectives and Roles in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision: Privatization and Beyond” in Water and Sanitation in the World’s Cities: Local Action for Global Goals. London: Earthscan. READ pp.167 – 172.
WSP (2009) Guidance notes on Services for the Urban Poor.
Kellett,M. and Casseres, L. (2009) Financing water infrastructure – A water infrastructure bank and other innovations.* This reading is a proposal for new US water financing mechanisms but will be a useful reference.
J R Mcneill. 2001. Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the
Gordon McGranahan et al. 2001. The Citizens at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities
George Martine, Gordon McGranahan, Mark Montgomery, and Rogelio Fernández-Castilla (eds) . 2008. The New Global Frontier: Urbanization, Poverty and Environment in the 21st Century.
W. Neil Adger, Jouni Paavola, Saleemul Huq, and M. J. Mace (eds). 2006. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change.
Mark Montgomery et al (eds). 2003.Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World
Humphreys, M. and Sandbu, M. (2007) "The Political Economy of Natural Resource Funds", Chapter 8 in Escaping the Resource Curse, Humphreys, Sachs, Stiglitz (eds.).
Magdoff, F. (2010) “Ecological Civilization”, in Monthly Review
David Wheeler et al (2002) “Paradoxes and Dilemmas for Stakeholder Responsive Firms in the Extractive Sector: Lessons from the Case of Shell and the Ogoni”, in Journal of Business Ethics
Sarah Bracking (2009) Hiding Conflict over Industry Returns: A Stakeholder Analysis of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
Baer, P. (2006) “Adaptation: Who Pays Whom?” in Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change, eds. W.N. Adger, J. Paavola, S. Huq, M.J. Mace. Cambridge, Massachussets: The MIT Press.
De Sherbinin, A. et al (2007) “The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards”, in Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 19, No. 1.
McGranahan, G. et al (2001) “Urban Affluence and Shifting Environmental Burdens” Chapter 2 in The Citizens at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities. London: Earthscan.
Nordhaus, T. and Shellenberger, M. (2007) “The Pollution Paradigm” in Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Larson, A. (2004) Democratic Decentralisation in the Forestry Sector: Lessons Learned from Africa, Asia and Latin America
Bennett, CPA (2002) “Responsibility, Accountability, and National Unity in Village Governance”, Chapter 3 in Which way forward?: people, forests, and policymaking in Indonesia by Carol J. Pierce Colfer, Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo
John F.C. Turner. 2000. Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments
Jorge Hardoy and David Satterthwaite. 1989. Squatter Citizen.
David Satterthwaite and Diana Mitlin (eds.) 2004. Empowering Squatter Citizen.
Schlomo Angel.2000. Housing Policy Matters: A Global Analysis
Robert Buckley. 1997. Housing Finance in Development Countries
Peter Ward. 1982. Self-help Housing: A Critique
Geoffrey Payne. 2002. Land, Rights and Innovation: Improving Tenure Security for the Urban Poor.
Alain Durand-Lasserve and Lauren Royston. 2002. (eds) Holding Their Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries.
Turner, J. (1972) “Chapter 6 – The Reeducation of a Professional”, in Freedom to Build, eds. J. Turner and R. Fichter, New York: The MacMillan Company.
Burgess, R. (1992) “Helping Some to Help Themselves: Third World Housing Policies and Development Strategies” in Beyond Self-Help Housing, ed. K. Mathéy. London: Mansell Publishing Limited, A Cassell Imprint.
De Soto, H. (2000) “Chapter Three - The Mystery of Capital” in The Mystery of Capital, Krueckeberg, D. (2004) “The Lessons of John Locke or Hernando de Soto: What if Your Dreams Come True?” Housing Policy Debate 15, no.1: 1-2
Marcuse, P. (2004) “Comment on Donald A. Krueckeberg’s ‘The Lessons of John Locke or Hernando de Soto: What if Your Dreams Come True?’, Housing Policy Debate 15, no.1: 39-48.
Holt-Gimenez, E. and Patel, R. (2009) Food Rebellions Sen, A. (1999) “Population, Food, and Freedom – Chapter 9” in Development as Freedom, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Roger Thurow and Scott Kilman (2010) Enough – Why the World’s Poorest Starve in an Age of Plenty